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The Voice of the Frontier

The Voice of the Frontier: John Bradford's Notes on Kentucky

Thomas D. Clark Editor
Copyright Date: 1993
https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt130hx89
Pages: 424
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt130hx89
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  • Book Info
    The Voice of the Frontier
    Book Description:

    From 1826 to 1829, John Bradford, founder of Kentucky's first newspaper, theKentucky Gazette, reprinted in its pages sixty-six excerpts that he considered important documents on the settlement of the West. Now for the first time all of Bradford'sNotes on Kentucky-- the primary historical source for Kentucky's early years -- are made available in a single volume, edited by the state's most distinguished historian.

    TheKentucky Gazettewas established in 1787 to support Kentucky's separation from Virginia and the formation of a new state. Bradford'sNotesdeal at length with that protracted debate and the other major issues confronting Bradford and his pioneering neighbors. The early white settlers were obsessed with Indian raids, which continued for more than a decade and caused profound anxiety. A second vexing concern was overlapping land claims, as swarms of settlers flowed into the region. And as quickly as the land was settled, newly opened fields began to yield mountains of produce in need of outside markets. Spanish control of the lower Mississippi and rumors of Spain's plan to close the river for twenty-five years were far more threatening to the new economy than the continuing Indian raids.

    Equally disturbing was the British occupation of the northwest posts from which it was believed the northern Indianraids emanated. Not until Anthony Wayne's sweeping campaign against the Miami villages and the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1794 was tension from that quarter relieved. Finally, the Jay Treaty with Britain and the Pinckney Treaty with Spain diplomatically cleared the Kentucky frontier for free expansion of the white populace.

    John Bradford'sNotes on Kentucky, now published together for the first time, deal with all of these pertinent issues. No other source portrays so intimately or so graphically the travail of western settlement.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-5758-0
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Introduction
    (pp. xv-1)

    John Bradford, a native of Prince William County, Virginia,¹ was frontier Kentucky’s man for all seasons. There was scarcely an incident or activity that occurred in the area from 1775 through 1830 in which he was neither a participant nor an observer. In 1826, near the end of his life, he published the first series of newspaper columns that reflected both a personal and a general regional awareness that the Commonwealth of Kentucky had at last passed through its chrysalis stage of pioneering and had entered upon more advanced phases of economic, social and cultural, and political development.

    As editor...

  2. SECTION 1 Opening the Way West [August 25, 1826]
    (pp. 3-3)

    This country was well known to the Indian traders many years before its settlement. They gave a description of it to Lewis Evans, who published his first map of it as early as 1752.

    In the year 1750,*Dr. Thomas Walker, Colby Chew, Ambrose Powell and several others from the counties of Orange and Culpepper, in the state of Virginia, set out on an excursion to the Western Waters; they travelled down the Holstein river, and crossed over the Mountains into Powell’s valley, thence across the Cumberland mountain at the gap where the road now crosses, proceeded on across what...

  3. SECTION 2 The Long Hunters [September 1, 1826]
    (pp. 4-8)

    The report made by Columbus of his discovery of America, did not produce greater excitement in the Court of Spain, than that made by Finlay did in the people of Carolina, in the vicinity of his residence, of the discoveries he had made in the valley of the Ohio.

    In consequence of the information given by Finlay, Col. Daniel Boone, in company with John Finlay, John Stewart, Joseph Holden, Jas. Monay and William Cool, set out from his residence on the Yadkin river, in North Carolina, on the 1st day of May 1769, under the direction of Finlay as their...

  4. SECTION 3 The Beckoning Land [September 8, 1826]
    (pp. 8-11)

    In the month of September 1773, Col. Daniel Boone with his family, accompanied by five other families set out from North Carolina, with the purpose of making a permanent settlement in Kentucky. In Powel’s Valley they were joined by forty men. On the tenth of October this party were attacked by a large party of Indians; and notwithstanding the Indians were finally repulsed, Boone’s party lost six men killed and had one wounded, among the slain was the eldest son of Col. Boone.

    This encounter discouraged Boone and his party from prosecuting their intended journey, and they retreated forty miles...

  5. SECTION 4 Opening the Great Western Road [September 15, 1826]
    (pp. 11-15)

    About the 1st of March 1775, Col. Boone with forty choice woodsmen from Powell’s valley, together with Col. Richard Henderson, Capt. N. Hart, John Lutrel and Maj. Wm. B. Smith, again attempted to brave the terrors of a savage wilderness, with the view of making a permanent settlement in the fertile regions of Kentucky. They prosecuted their journey until within 15 miles of where Boonsborough now stands, unmolested, when [on the 20th of March, a little before daybreak] they were attacked by a party of Indians, who fired into their tents, and wounded a Capt. Twitty through both knees, and...

  6. SECTION 5 A Wilderness Ordeal [September 22, 1826]
    (pp. 16-20)

    On the 6th day of March 1777 a large party of Indians fell in with three men, about four miles from Harrodsburgh, on their march to that place; one of the men William Ray was killed at Shawonee spring and Thomas Shores taken prisoner, and the third (James Ray, since Gen. Ray) escaped, and apprised the people at the fort of their danger. On the next day (the 7th) the fort was completealy invested, in the unusual form of an Indian siege. Many shot were exchanged during the day between the besiegers and the besieged, and some execution done on...

  7. SECTION 6 Clark of the Ohio [September 29, 1826]
    (pp. 21-25)

    It has been noticed (Sec. 4) that General Clarke had procured a supply of amunition, from Virginia, and that some arrangements with the executive of that state had been made for an expedition against the enemy on the waters of the Mississippi, the ensuing spring. To effect this object, a regiment of state troops were at the succeeding session ordered to be raised, and the command given to Gen. Clarke, who descended the Ohio river in the spring of the year 1778 with about 150 men, all that he had been able to enlist; and early in June sent expresses...

  8. SECTION 7 Raiding the Chillicothe Villages [October 6, 1826]
    (pp. 26-29)

    In the month of May 1779 Col. John Bowman, with 160 men marched against the Indian town called Chillicothe, situated about 60 miles from the mouth of Little Miami, and near the head of that river. The party rendezvoused at the mouth of Licking, and on the second night got in sight of the town undiscovered. It was determined to wait until day light in the morning before they would make the attack; but by the imprudence of some of the men whose curiosity exceeded their judgment, the party were discovered by the Indians, before the officers and men had...

  9. SECTION 8 Claiming the Land, Safeguarding the Frontier [October 13, 1826]
    (pp. 30-34)

    The law providing for the appropriating the vacant lands in the state of Va. passed at the May session of the Legislature of that state in the year 1779.—By this law no land office treasury warrant was to be issued by the Register until the 15th day of October 1779; and the manner in which entries were to be made on the warrants when issued, was provided for as follows,—“If several persons shall apply with their warrants at the office of any surveyor at the same time to make entries, they shall be preferred according to the priority...

  10. SECTION 9 The Horrors at Ruddle’s and Hinkston’s Forts [October 20, 1826]
    (pp. 35-38)

    It has already been noticed, that the summer 1780 was exceedingly wet, and that all the water-courses were full. This circumstance induced Colonel Byrd to change his original purpose of attacking Louisville first. He therefore decided to ascend Licking river into the heart of the country, by which means he would be enabled to take with him his artillery to Ruddle’s Station, and would easily take it by land from Ruddle’s to Martin’s and Bryans Station’s, and Lexington, the ground being level, and the roads easily made passible. Col. Byrd landed his artillery, stores and baggage on the point of...

  11. SECTION 10 Clark’s Raid against the Piqua Towns [October 27, 1826]
    (pp. 39-42)

    On the 2d day of August 1780, Gen. Clarke took up the line of march from where Cincinnati now stands, for the Indian towns. The army consisted of 970 men, and were formed in two divisions. The line of march was as follows: the first division, commanded by Gen. Clarke, took the front position; the center was occupied by the artillery, military stores and baggage; the second, commanded by Col. Logan, was placed in the rear. The men were ordered to march in four lines, at about 40 yards distance from each other, and a line of flankers on each...

  12. SECTION 11 Bravery under Siege [November 3, 1826]
    (pp. 42-46)

    In consequence of the destruction of the corn at the Chillicothe and Piqua towns, the Indians were reduced almost to a state of famine, and the warriors were not only obliged to attend to the immediate wants of their women and children, but to provide for them habitations for the approaching winter—hence all their time was so occupied, that Kentucky enjoyed considerable repose until the ensuing spring.89

    Many of the disaffected to the cause of the American Revolution, had removed to Kentucky from North Carolina, as well as from other parts of the United States, to avoid being compelled...

  13. SECTION 12 Death on the Elkhorn [November 10, 1826]
    (pp. 46-48)

    The first permanent settlement made at Bryan’s station was in 1779, principally by emigrants from North Carolina, the most conspicuous of whom were the family of Bryans, from whom the place took its name. There were four brothers viz: Morgan, James, William and Joseph, all respectable men in easy circumstances, with large families of children, and mostly grown. William, though not the eldest brother, was the most active and considered their leader. His wife was a sister of Col. Daniel Boone, as was also the wife of Mr. William Grant who likewise settled in Bryan’s station in 1779.99

    In the...

  14. SECTION 13 Bryan’s Station [November 17, 1826]
    (pp. 49-54)

    Early in August 1782, large detachments of Indian warriors from the Cherokee, Wyandots, Tawas and Pottowatomies, as well as from several other tribes bordering on the lakes, assembled in grand council at Chillicothe, where they were met by Simon Girty and M’Kee, two renegado white men, unprincipled in disposition, and stained with the blood of innocent women and children, their lives were assimilated to the customs and habits of the Indians, from which, and their general knowledge of the white people, they had acquired the confidence of the Indians, were faithful to their interests, and assisted at and were conspicuous...

  15. SECTION 14 Tragedy at the Blue Licks [November 24, 1826]
    (pp. 54-58)

    The Blue Licks, remarkable for the sanguinary battle fought in its vicinity, is situated about 40 miles from Lexington, and about 35 from Bryan’s Station. The Licking river at this place is about 300 feet wide, at common water, and forms a semi elipsis, which embraces on its N E side, towards Limestone, a great ridge of rocks which had been made bare by the stamping of buffaloe and other game, drawn together from time immemorial, to drink the water and lick the clay.—Two deep ravines, heading in this ridge near each other, and extending in opposite directions, formed...

  16. SECTION 15 Retaliation and a Step toward Statehood [December 1, 1826]
    (pp. 58-62)

    The Kentuckians were not long in making preparations to revenge their loss at the Blue Licks. All seemed to breathe the same spirit of revenge, and determination of carrying ruin and devastation into the Indian settlements. Gen. Clarke was vested with the chief command, and Col. Logan was chosen the second of the forces about to be raised, and who were to rendezvous at the mouth of Licking, on the Ohio river.119

    About the last of September, 1782, Gen. Clarke with about 1000 men, took up his line of march from the Ohio opposite the mouth of Licking, for the...

  17. SECTION 16 The Resolution to Achieve Statehood [December 8, 1826]
    (pp. 62-67)

    “The petition of a convention of the inhabitants of the District of Kentucky, begun and held at Danville, in Lincoln county, on Monday the twenty-third day of May, 1785:

    “Humbly Sheweth,

    ‘That your petitioners having been deputed by the people, pursuant to the recommendation of a late convention, to take into consideration the propriety and expediency of making application to the legislature for having this district established into a separate state, to be taken into union with the United States; (as also the several grievances stated by that convention; and to adopt such measure, thereon, and whatever else might come...

  18. SECTION 17 “To the Honorable General Assembly of Virginia” [December 15, 1826]
    (pp. 68-71)

    The Convention which met on the 8th day of Aug. 1785, recommended to the officers of the militia, to meet in their respective counties, and concert such plans as they should deem expedient for the defence of the country. They also drafted a memorial to the Legislature of Virginia, on the state of the country, and another to the inhabitants of the District of Kentucky, of which the following are copies:

    “Gentlemen—The subscribers resident in the county of Jefferson, Fayette, Lincoln and Nelson, composing the district of Kentucky, being chosen at free elections held in these counties respectively by...

  19. SECTION 18 Resisting a Persistent Enemy [December 22, 1826]
    (pp. 72-73)

    The convention that met on the 8th of August 1785, recommended it to the officers of the militia to meet in their respective counties and adopt such plans as should be deemed most expedient for the protection and defence of the country. To effect this end, an expedition was set on foot against the Wabash Indians, who was at that time considered the most troublesome, and the command given to Gen. Clarke.

    About one thousand men were soon raised, who rendezvoused at the Falls of Ohio, and from thence marched towards the Indian towns. In consequence of the delay in...

  20. SECTION 19 Converting the District to Statehood [December 29, 1826]
    (pp. 74-78)

    “Whereas it is represented to be the desire of the people inhabiting the district known by the name of the Kentucky District, that the same should be separated from this commonwealth whereof it is a part, and be formed into an independent member of the American confederacy, and it is judged by the General Assembly that such a partition of the Commonwealth is rendered expedient by the remoteness of the more fertile, which must be the more populous part of the said district, and by the interjacent impediments to a convenient and regular communication therewith.143

    Be it enacted by the,...

  21. SECTION 20 “The Obstinate Inattention of Congress” [January 19, 1827]
    (pp. 78-81)

    In the spring of the year 1786, the Indians on the north side of the Ohio became very troublesome to the people of Kentucky. Representations were made on the subject to the executive of Virginia, and an answer to the following effect was received from Gov. Henry, viz: That he had addressed Congress on the business, and urged the adoption of such measures as might ensure protection to the district. This was hispublicanswer. But he informed the county lieutenant of Lincoln, Col. Benjamin Logan, in aprivateletter, that congress had paid no attention to his representation. In...

  22. SECTION 21 The Downing Caper [January 26, 1827]
    (pp. 81-85)

    In the month of August 1786, Mr Francis Downing*then a lad, lived in a fort, where soon afterwards an Ironworks was erected by Mr Jacob Myers, which is now known by the Slate creek works, and owned by Col. Thos. Dye Owings.154

    One morning, a young man by the name of Yates, together with Mr Downing, went out in search of a horse that had strayed away from the fort. After travelling six or eight miles in search of the horse, Downing began to be alarmed at the idea of danger from Indians, and observed to Yates, (who was...

  23. SECTION 22 The “Infamous Jay Treaty” [February 9, 1827]
    (pp. 86-90)

    Sometime in the month of April, in the year 1786, Col. William Christian with a party of men, pursued some Indians (who had stolen horses from Bear Grass) across the Ohio river, and overtook them about twenty miles from the river, and totally defeated them. Col. Christian and one of his men were killed in this rencountre.160

    In the same year, Simon Kenton, with thirty-six men, surprised and defeated a party of Indians on Bullskin, on the North side of the Ohio river.

    In the month of October, 1786, a number of families known by the name of M’Nitt’s company,...

  24. SECTION 23 Robert Patterson’s Memoir [February 16, 1827]
    (pp. 91-97)

    [To theOhio State Journal] “SIR—It is well known that Mr Bradford, the editor of the “Kentucky Gazette,” has been for some time engaged in collecting and publishing, “Notes and Anecdotes” relating to the first settlement of Kentucky.170To me Mr Bradford’s Notes have a peculiar interest, by recalling to my recollection, incidents, that the unsparing hand of time had obliterated, and by awakening emotions which none can feel who have not known Kentucky as I have. I emigrated to that state in 1775, and resided there until 1804, when I moved to my present residence in this county...

  25. SECTION 24 Founding of the Kentucky Gazette [March 2, 1827]
    (pp. 97-101)

    To ensure unanimity in the opinions of the people, respecting the propriety of separating the District of Kentucky from the State of Virginia, and forming a separate government, by exhibiting to public view, the situation in which the country was placed, both as it regarded its then perilous condition, as well as its future prospects. To give general publicity to the proceedings of the Convention &c. it was deemed essential to the interests of the country, that it should be furnished with a printing press. To accomplish this end, the Convention in their session of 1785, appointed Gen. James Wilkinson,...

  26. SECTION 25 “A Melancholy Experience at Statemaking” [March 9, 1827]
    (pp. 102-105)

    The conduct of the United States and of the Executive of Virginia, added to the large stock of melancholy experience which the people of Kentucky had already acquired, was sufficient to confirm them in the belief that all their hopes of happiness or safety, if not of existence itself, must depend on a separation from the parent state. They therefore proceeded under the second act of separation, to elect members of a convention, once more to decide on the propriety of a separation.187

    A majority of the members so elected, met at the time [September 17, 1787] and place appointed,...

  27. SECTION 26 The Enemy at the Door [March 16, 1827]
    (pp. 105-109)

    During these political struggles and difficulties, the Indians continued their depredations on the defenceless inhabitants of Kentucky.

    On the 11th of April, in the year 1787, a party of 15 Indians attacked a family by the name ofShanks, on Coope’s Run, Bourbon county. The family consisted of an old lady, her two sons from 18 to 22 years of age, a widow daughter, with a small child in her arms, who occupied one end of a double cabin—while two other single, grown daughters, and a third of about 10 yeats of age, occupied the other end.192

    A little...

  28. SECTION 27 Horse Stealing [March 23, 1827]
    (pp. 109-112)

    In the Spring of 1787, the Indians took the horses from a waggon on the road near the Blue Lick, and a man by the name of Scott. Simon Kenton with a party immediately pursued them across the Ohio river about 30 miles, overtook them and retook Scott, and the horses.195

    About the same time the Indians killed a man on Fishing creek Lincoln county, by the name of Lutrell. Col. John Logan with a party of men pursued them across Cumberland river, overtook and routed them, killed three and took all their plunder.196

    On the 3d of December 1787,...

  29. SECTION 28 “Sinister Political Design” at Work? [March 30, 1827]
    (pp. 112-115)

    The conduct of congress on the application of the district for a separation, evinced the existence of somesinister political design.—Two months after the address had been referred to a committee of the whole, had nearly elapsed, before any further notice was taken of it, and one more month occupied with the pretence of draughting a bill, but without effecting anything, when the committee at their own solicitation were discharged, and the business in effectthrown out of the house.208

    What the design alluded to was, and the motives which produced it, had been explained in the debates in...

  30. SECTION 29 A Quest in New Orleans [April 6, 1827]
    (pp. 116-120)

    As a further inducement to adopt the foregoing resolution, it was stated that there was a prospect of obtaining from Spain permission to export the produce of the country by the way of the Mississippi; and in consequence of information which Gen. Wilkinson had given to some friends on that subject, the General was requested, from the chair, to state to the convention his opinion on this matter. In compliance with this request, the General informed the house, that he had descended the Mississippi in the summer 1787, with a view of obtaining commercial advantages for himself, and with a...

  31. SECTION 30 The Lurking Enemy [April 13, 1827]
    (pp. 121-124)

    On the night of the 3d of Sept. 1787, a Mr. Schooler, at Harrison’s Station on Licking, hearing something in his garden which he supposed to be horses, went out to see, when an Indian fired at him, but fortunately missed him—he instantly ran at the Indian and seized his gun, which the Indian let go and made his escape, leaving the gun in the hands of Schooler.223

    In the latter part of March 1788, three boats descending the Ohio river, were captured by a party of Indians near the mouth of the Big Miami. Among the passengers on...

  32. SECTION 31 The Fine Hand of James Wilkinson [April 20, 1827]
    (pp. 125-128)

    On the 10th day of November 1788, in the Convention, Gen. Wilkinson from the committee, appointed to draught an address to the people of this district, reported that the committee had taken the matter into consideration, and prepared an address, which he read in his place, and ordered to be referred to a committee of the whole convention.228

    The Convention, according to the order of the day, resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into consideration the state of the district.

    Mr Innis was elected to the chair. After some time spent therein, the President resumed the...

  33. SECTION 32 The Bloody Ordeal of the Kentucky Frontier [April 27, 1827]
    (pp. 128-132)

    During these political operations the Indians continued to harrass the frontier settlements.

    On the 14th of March 1789, three Indians killed a man and wounded another, on the road from Lexington to Limestone, near May’s Lick, and the same day they took a prisoner and a number of horses, near Limestone. They were pursued by about forty men, overtaken at the Ohio river, and the whole killed in attempting to cross.

    On the 29th of May 1789, two boys were killed on the N. W. side of the Ohio, about three miles above Limestone; and about the same time a...

  34. SECTION 33 Governor Randolph’s Message [May 4, 1827]
    (pp. 132-135)

    The increased population, and consequent expansion of the settlements, and the diffusion of the settlers, increased the calamities arising from Indian depredations. This had been foreseen and expressed in the November session of 1788. In these two years a greater number of persons were murdered, and more horses stolen, than in any two preceding years. Yet at this time, the Governor of the territory North West of the Ohio, was by some means, induced to complain to the executive of Virginia, that the inhabitants of Kentucky had made incursions into the territories of the Indian nations, who were in amity...

  35. SECTION 34 The Stalking Enemy along Road and River [May 11, 1827]
    (pp. 136-139)

    About the 1st of March 1790, the Indians killed a man at Kennedy’s bottom on the Ohio river, and tied a handkerchief around his head.

    On the 21st, three boats descending the Ohio river, were attacked by a party of Indians about three miles above the mouth of the Scioto. The Indians were in possession of a boat which they had taken the day before, which they manned with about fifteen men, together with a large canoe, which they also manned and gave chase to the three boats. Those in the boats finding that they would be overtaken, abandoned two...

  36. SECTION 35 The Hubble Expedition [May 18, 1827]
    (pp. 139-144)

    About the last of January 1791, a large party of Indians attacked Dunlap’s Fort on the Big Miami. They continued the siege for 25 hours, without injuring a single person, when they judged it prudent to retire. They left eight of their party dead on the ground, and it was supposed as many more who were killed were taken privately off. The Indians killed or drove off all the stock they could come at, and burnt and destroyed all the corn not within the fort. On their approach towards the fort before the siege, the Indians fell in with four...

  37. SECTION 36 Setting the Date for Statehood [May 25, 1827]
    (pp. 145-148)

    The application of the Convention held at Danville on the 26th of July 1790, to Congress to become an independent state, met the approbation of Congress, and on the 4th of Febr. 1791 they passed the following act:

    “AN ACT declaring the consent of Congress, that a new state be formed within the jurisdiction of the commonwealth of Virginia, and admitted into this union, by the name of the state of Kentucky; passed and approved February 4th 1791.

    “Sec. 2.Be it further enacted and declared, That upon the aforesaid first day of June, one thousand seven hundred and ninety...

  38. SECTION 37 The Western Defense Council [June 1, 1827]
    (pp. 149-152)

    By virtue of the authority from the President of the United States vested in Charles Scott, John Brown, Harry Innis, Benjamin Logan, and Isaac Shelby, they held a meeting in Danville on the 8th day of April 1791, at which the following proceedings were had:

    “Whereas the President of the United States by instruction, bearing date the 9th day of March 1791, hath authorised Chas. Scott, John Brown, Harry Innis, Benjamin Logan and Isaac Shelby, or a majority of them, to call into service a corps of volunteers from the District of Kentucky, to march on an expedition against the...

  39. SECTION 38 Wilkinson’s Drive against the “Oubache” [June 23, 1827]
    (pp. 153-156)

    In the month of July 1791, another successful expedition marched against the Ouabache Indians, commanded by Brig. Gen. Wilkinson, the particulars of which have been mislaid.*The following copy of a letter from the Secretary at War, respecting that expedition, will give some idea of the result:

    “War Department, 29th Sept. 1791

    “SIR—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the copy of your report of the 29th ult. to Maj. Gen. St. Clair, which I have submitted to the President of the United States:

    “I have by this day’s post instructed Maj. Gen. St. Clair, if he...

  40. SECTION 39 St. Clair’s Dreary March to Defeat [June 29, 1827]
    (pp. 156-163)

    The official account of the expedition carried against the Indians, by Gen. St. Clair, in his letters to the Secretary at war.

    “Fort Washington, Oct. 6, 1791.

    “SIR—I have now the satisfaction to inform you, that the army moved from Fort Hamilton, the name I have given the fort on the Miami, on the 4th at eight in the morning, under the command of Gen. Butler.

    “The order of march and encampment I had regulated before, and on the third returned to this place, to get the militia. They marched yesterday, and consist of about 300 men, as you...

  41. SECTION 40 A New State, a New Governor, a New Beginning [October 12, 1827]
    (pp. 163-168)

    [The letter that follows continues St. Clair’s report to Knox (Section 39)]

    “Philadelphia, January 29, 1792.

    Sir:—To the letter of the 9th of November, which I had the honor to address to you from Fort Washington, a postscript was added, relating to information communicated by Capt. Slough to Gen. Butler, and not imparted by him to me, and that did not come to my knowledge till after the army got back to that fort. As the nature of the information was not mentioned the postscript must have appeared mysterious and it is proper that I should explain it.

    “Captain...

  42. SECTION 41 To “Gentlemen of the Senate and House” [October 19, 1827]
    (pp. 169-176)

    The Speaker laid before the house a copy of the address delivered by the Governor yesterday to both houses of the Legislature in the Senate Chamber, which is in the following words:

    “As the prosperity of our country will depend greatly on the manner in which its government shall be put in motion, it will be particularly incumbent on you, to adopt such measures as will be most likely to produce that desirable end.

    “Amongst the means which ought to be used for that purpose, none will be found more efficacious, than the establishing public and private credit on the...

  43. SECTION 42 H.H. Brackenridge on the Indian Problem [October 26, 1827]
    (pp. 177-181)

    “Being occasionally in this city, I feel myself impelled to give my sentiments on this subject, and I give my name, in order to obtain confidence: because it is to be presumed, that a man will not lightly avow what he has not weighed, and in which he has not confidence himself.

    “I am struck, seeing in the Gazettes, extracts of letters that were never written, and paragraphs penned from ignorance or mistake of facts. Having resided some years in the western country, and being interested, I have thought much on the subject—and though I may not know more...

  44. SECTION 43 Defense of the Western Attitude [November 2, 1827]
    (pp. 181-185)

    “I can easily excuse those, who, from motives of humanity, call in question the justness of our cause in the war against the Indians. But should I make my observations theirs, with respect to the ruthful disposition of a savage, that is not soothed continually by good offices, or kept down by fear; could I give my knowledge, recollection and impression of the accumulated instances of homicide, committed by the tribes with whom we are at war; the humane would be more humane, for their feelings would be more awake, not in favor of these people, but of the persons...

  45. SECTION 44 A Sounding Horn and Hallooing Indians [November 9, 1827]
    (pp. 186-190)

    About the 16th of June 1792, the Indians killed a man near the Slate Creek Iron Works. On the 28th they tomahawked three women who were pulling flax at Long Lick, Nelson county. On the preceding day, 19 men who were cutting grass at Fort Jefferson, were fired on by the Indians, 4 of whom were killed and 8 taken prisoners; 4 of the prisoners were burnt shortly after they were taken.

    About the 1st July, two Perogues with several men and a family on board, were descending the Kentucky river, and near Drennon’s Lick, discovered an Indian ahead on...

  46. SECTION 45 Horse Thieves, Raiders, and the Infernal Excise Duty [November 16, 1827]
    (pp. 190-196)

    About the 5th of January 1793, a party of Indians stole horses from Logan county; they were pursued across Cumberland river, overtaken, all the horses recovered, one of the Indians killed and one of the pursuers wounded.

    On the 17th of January, three men were killed at the Bear Wallow, on the road from Kentucky to Tennessee.

    February 25th, the Indians stole a number of horses from Bear Grass.

    March 8th, the Indians fired on two men on Brashear’s creek, wounded both their horses, and took one of the men prisoner.

    About the same time, a company on their way...

  47. SECTION 46 The Democratic Society [November 23, 1827]
    (pp. 197-202)

    On the 22d day of August 1793, a meeting of a number of citizens of the town of Lexington, was held at the house of Robert M’Gowan, for the purpose of taking under consideration, the propriety of establishing a Democratic society, when the following proceedings were had.

    “On motion,Resolved, that the citizens here present, form themselves into aDemocratic Society, embracing the laudable objects of the Philadelphia Democratic Society.

    Resolved, That citizens William Murray, John Bradford, James Brown, Thomas Irwin, Robert M’Gowan and Thomas Todd, or any three of them be a committee for the purpose of drawing articles...

  48. SECTION 47 The Last Stand of the Ohio Tribes [November 30, 1827]
    (pp. 202-208)

    About the first of September 1793, the Indians fired on 4 men, a woman and three children in a canoe on the Ohio river, near the mouth of Guiandot; two of the men were killed, and one wounded through the fleshy part of the thigh. The Indians attempted to board the canoe, but were kept off with poles and paddles, until the canoe floated beyond their reach, by which means, those on board escaped falling into their enemy’s hands.

    On the 7th, the Indians took two young men prisoners at Clarksville, opposite the Falls of Ohio.314

    After the failure of...

  49. SECTION 48 Harassed Kentuckians [December 14, 1827]
    (pp. 208-213)

    In the address of the Democratic Society to the western people, it was stated, that a vile and disgraceful attempt had been made under the former confederation to barter away to the Spaniards, our right to the navigation of the Mississippi. It cannot be strange that a people harrassed as the Kentuckians were, by the Indians, and not only no relief afforded them, but forbidden by the general government to cross the Ohio river in a hostile manner, except in the immediate pursuit of Indians, who had made depredations on the inhabitants, by killing, taking prisoners or stealing horses, should...

  50. SECTION 49 “To the Inhabitants of Western America” [December 21 and 28, 1827]
    (pp. 213-220)

    On the 15th November 1793, two men were killed by the Indians near Massie’s Station on the Ohio.

    On the same day, two Indians fired on a man within a mile of Frankfort, on his way to George Town; he received no other injury but the loss of his hat.

    About the same time, twenty-five volunteers fell in with a party of Indians about 14 miles from Nashville; and an engagement instantly ensued, in which the volunteers had three men killed and four wounded; they killed four Indians, took two prisoners with the whole of their baggage.325

    The following address...

  51. SECTION 50 Resolving the Western Problems [January 4, 1828]
    (pp. 220-224)

    The distresses experienced from the depredations of the Indians, added to those occasioned from the want of money to discharge the excise on the distillation of whisky, which was now pressed on them, without the possibility of disposing of the product of the soil, added to the neglect shown to every application made to the general government to procure for them the navigation of the Mississippi river, or the delivery of the posts occupied by the British within the limits of the United States, from which the Indians received supplies that enable them to continue their hostilities, presented a gloomy...

  52. SECTION 51 The Grand French Design [January 11, 1828]
    (pp. 224-229)

    The dissatisfaction so strongly evinced by the citizens of Kentucky, at the detention of the military posts by the British, within the limits of the United States, as well as at the withholding from them the free navigation of the river Mississippi by Spain, encouraged the French government to plan an expedition against Louisiana, and attempt to raise forces in Kentucky to accomplish that project. The following gentlemen, viz.Augustus La Chaise, Charles Delpeau,—Mathurinand—Ligneux, were authorized to engage officers and men, and were furnished with commissions in blank, to be filled with such names as they could...

  53. SECTION 52 The Founding of Transylvania University [January 18, 1828]
    (pp. 230-234)

    At the May session of the Virginia Legislature 1780, a law passed entitled “An act to vest certain escheated lands in the county of Kentucky, in Trustees for a public school.” In which law it was “enacted, that eight thousand acres of the land within the said county of Kentucky late the property of Robert M’Kenzie, Henry Collins and Alexander M’Kee, be, and the same are hereby vested in William Fleming, William Christian, John Todd, Stephen Trigg, Benjamin Logan, John Floyd, John May, Levi Todd, John Cowan, George Meriwether, John Cobb, George Thompson and Edmund Taylor. Trustees, as a free...

  54. SECTION 53A The Seeds of Controversy [January 25, 1828]
    (pp. 235-239)

    On the 22d December 1798, “an act for the union of the Transylvania Seminary and the Kentucky Academy,” passed, to take effect from and after the 1st day of June following; and James Garrard,Samuel M’Dowell,*Cornelius Beatty, Frederick Ridgely,Robert Marshall, George Nicholas,James Crawford, Joseph Crockett, Bartlett Collins, Andrew M’Calla, William Morton,Robert Steele, John M’Dowell, Alexander Parker,Caleb Wallace, James Trotter, Levi Todd,James Blythe, Thomas Lewis, John Bradford and Buckner Thruston, were appointed trustees, to hold their first session at the seat of Transylvania Seminary in the town of Lexington, on the second Tuesday in January...

  55. SECTION 53B Transylvania Tends to Business [February 1, 1828]
    (pp. 240-244)

    On the 15th of June 1815, the board of Trustees acceded to a proposition made them by Richard Higgins and Co. which was a gratuity of four acres of ground and the sale of four acres more.

    On the 6th of October 1815, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted by the board of Trustees of Transylvania University, viz:

    “Feeling gratified at the return of the Hon. Henry Clay to his country, and desirous of giving a testimony of their regard, and expressing the opinion they entertain of his conduct whilst acting as one of our Ministers in the...

  56. SECTION 54 The Holley Years at Transylvania [February 22, 1828]
    (pp. 245-250)

    The flourishing state to which Transylvania had risen in 1824, excited both envy and jealousy in the breasts of some who had formerly participated in its management, whilst in a languid state. It was evident to all, that the change was principally to be attributed to the judicious choice of a President. It was therefore natural that some who were in office at the time when the last election was made, and who were not re-elected, should feel dissatisfied, and more especially at the flattering prospects of success under the management of a new Board of Trustees.

    The brilliant talents...

  57. SECTION 55A The Age of the Bigots [March 7, 1828]
    (pp. 250-255)

    Agreeably to the direction of the Board of Trustees of Transylvania, their Chairman addressed the Ministers of the several congregations in Lexington, in the following words.

    “LEXINGTON, April 13, 1824.

    “Reverend Sir.—

    “I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of the preamble and resolutions which have been recently adopted by the Trustees of Transylvania University, on the subject of Religious instruction and Worship in the Chapel. Agreeably to the authority thus vested in me, I respectfully invite you to take your turn, with the pastors of the other churches in town, in performing this valuable service for...

  58. SECTION 55B The Holley Legacy [March 14, 1828]
    (pp. 256-262)

    At a meeting of the board of Trustees of Transylvania University, on the 24th of March, 1827, Mr. Holley read a report of the present situation of the University, which was received, and entered of record.

    “To the Honourable Board of Trustees of Transylvania University.

    “Gentlemen—My term of office as President of Transylvania University being ended, by your acceptance of my resignation, and a committee of your respectable body, having examined the condition of the institution, I beg leave to offer to you my final report, and in form, to surrender into your hands, the highly important trust, with...

  59. SECTION 56 “A Numerous Meeting of Respectable People” [November 7, 1828]
    (pp. 262-266)

    The feelings and disposition of the people of Kentucky in the month of May 1794, respecting the navigation of the Mississippi and the occupying of military posts by the British, within the boundary of the United States, from which the Indians were furnished with arms and ammunition to enable them to murder our citizens, are plainly developed in the following proceedings.

    “On Saturday the 24th May 1794, a numerous meeting of respectable citizens from different parts of this state assembled in Lexington; and after taking into consideration the degraded and deserted situation of this country, both as to its commerce...

  60. SECTION 57 British Encroachment in the Northwest [November 14, 1828]
    (pp. 267-273)

    On the 6th June, 1794, the Indians killed a man at Mann’s lick—On the 7th, they killed another within 4 miles of the same place.—On the 8th, they stole eight horses from the force of Salt River; and about the same time, killed two men and wounded another on Brashear’s creek.408

    The following is the notice taken by the President and Congress of the United States, of the speech delivered to the Indian deputies from the Miami’s, at the Castle of St. Lewis in the city of Quebec, and which was published in these notes, Section 51.

    United....

  61. SECTION 58 The French Conspiracy [November 28, 1828]
    (pp. 273-281)

    On the morning of the 30th of June 1794, an escort under the command of Maj. M’Mahan, were attacked by the Indians under the walls of Fort Recovery; their number were from ten to fifteen hundred; they assailed the fort in every direction, but were repulsed with great slaughter; they renewed the attack, but at a more respectful distance, keeping up a constant and very heavy fire the whole of the day, and at intervals during the night and following morning, but were compelled to retire between the hours of 12 and 2 o’clock, with loss and disgrace, from the...

  62. SECTION 59 The Wayne–Campbell Exchanges [December 4, 1828]
    (pp. 281-287)

    The following information was given by a citizen of Western Pennsylvania, who arrived in Lexington on the 14th of June 1794, on his way home from Illinois, which place he left on the 22d May.

    “The Delaware and Shawanese Indians living on the other side of the Mississippi, in the Spanish territory, who had been sent last Spring by the Spanish government, under the conduct of a French trader to invade the territory of the United States, and watch on the Ohio and Cumberland rivers; after having committed several violations upon the same territory, they lately retired contrary to the...

  63. SECTION 60 Whitley, Blount, and the Southern Tribes [December 12, 1828]
    (pp. 288-297)

    The following is the account given by John E. King who acted as adjutant under Col. William Whitley,*on an expedition carried on by him from Kentucky, with 100 men, joined by Major Orre from Holstien with sixty men, and governor Blount of Tennessee, with 440 against the Southern Indians, in the month of August 1794.

    “On the 30th of August, Col. William Whitley, arrived at Nashville with 100 well equiped volunteers from Kentucky. Major Orre from Holstien added to that number sixty men, and the Territory of Cumberland 440, making in the whole six hundred. At the general rendezvous,...

  64. SECTION 61 Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Chickasaw [December 26, 1828]
    (pp. 297-302)

    “Upon being informed by Mr. M’Kee, that you were here, and wished to see me about the affairs of the nation, I hastened to meet you. I am happy in this interview, because your evidence of the wish of the lower towns for peace, whose principal chief I have ever considered you, and in Scolacutta I behold the true head of your whole nation.—Having opened the conference, I shall sit down, and first expect the talk of Col. Watts.”

    Colonel Watts. “This meeting appears to be ordered by the Great Spirit, and affords me great pleasure. Here is Scolacutta,...

  65. SECTION 62 A Young Nation Asserts Its Rights [January 2 and 9, 1829]
    (pp. 302-318)

    Official correspondence between the special commissioner from the United States, and the Governor of Kentucky, on the subject of the navigation of the Mississippi.

    Frankfort, January16th, 1795

    “SIR,—I have the honour to enclose to you a letter from the Secretary of State, which will fully disclose the object of my mission to this country.

    “Of the Presidents intention, to give full effect to the resolution of the Senate of the United States (herewith enclosed No. 1) by adopting the measure, of sending a special commissioner to detail the faithful history of the negotiations pending between the United States...

  66. SECTION 63 Ending Kentucky’s Indian Menace [January 16, 1829]
    (pp. 318-324)

    Preparatory to the treaty proposed to be held with several tribes of the Indians, at Greenville, on the 15th day of June, General Wayne issued the following Proclamation:

    By His Excellency Anthony Wayne, Esquire, Major General and commander in chief of the Legion, and commissioner Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, for establishing a permanent peace with all the Indian tribes and nations North West of the Ohio.

    L.S.

    “Whereas I the said Plenipotentiary, by virtue of the power and authority in me vested, have entered into certain preliminary articles with the following tribes and nations of Indians, viz:...

  67. SECTION 64 The Treaty of Greenville [January 23, 1829]
    (pp. 325-331)

    Anthony Wayne, Major General and commander in chief of the army of the United States, and sole commissioner for the good purposes above mentioned, and the said tribes of Indians, by their Sachems, Chiefs and Warriors, met together at Greenville, the head quarters of the said army, have agreed on the following articles; which when ratified by the President, with the advise and consent of the Senate of the United State, shall be binding on them and the said Indian Tribes:

    “Art. I. Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby established, and shall be perpetual; and a friendly intercourse...

  68. SECTION 65 Reactions to the Jay and Pinckney Treaties [February 7, 1829]
    (pp. 331-339)

    It will be seen in the following extract from the speech of Isaac Shelby, Esq. Governor of Kentucky, at the opening of the session of the legislature 1795, as well as from the answer from the House of Representatives, what was the opinion of the people generally in Kentucky, relative to the communication made by James Innis, Esq. respecting the proceedings, had with the court of Spain, relative to the navigation of the Mississippi river, as well as the Treaty made with Great Britain. In relation to the navigation of the Mississippi, the Governor says,

    “The communications made by him...

  69. SECTION 66 Open the Great Mississippi [February 23, 1829]
    (pp. 340-348)

    On the 17th of May 1797, the following interesting information respecting the conduct of Spain relative to the Mississippi, was received in Kentucky by a gentleman who left Natches on the 20th April. The gentleman, in whom the utmost confidence was placed, states, “That the Governor of Natches (Gayoso) had issued his proclamation, informing the inhabitants of that district, that the Spanish posts on the Mississippi, (claimed by the United States,) will not be delivered into the possession of the United States. That Mr. Ellicott will not be permitted to run the line between the United States and the Spanish...