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Chronicle of Alfonso X

Chronicle of Alfonso X

Shelby Thacker
José Escobar
With an Introduction by Joseph F. O’Callaghan
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 280
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  • Book Info
    Chronicle of Alfonso X
    Book Description:

    Alfonso X (1221--1284) reigned as king of Castile and León from 1252 until his death. Known to history as El Sabio, the Wise, or the Learned, his appreciation for science and the arts led him to sponsor a number of books on the history of Spain since its Roman settlement. Among them were theCantigas de Santa Maria, a collection of over four hundred poems exalting his favorite patron saint, Mary, and chronicles of all the kings of Castile and León, Navarre, Aragón, and Portugal.

    Alfonso X died before his own life could be written. His was a reign fraught with political intrigue and double crosses, almost constant war and equally constant diplomacy, royal largesse and economic instability -- all of which led to open revolt and efforts by Alfonso's own son to depose the king. It would be another sixty-some years before King Alfonso XI would commission Fernán Sánchez de Valladolid to writeCronica de Alfonso Xto memorialize his great-grandfather. As Alfonso XI's trusted counselor, ambassador, diplomat, and legist, Fernán was an understandable choice, but in the centuries since, his convoluted prose has proven extremely difficult extremely difficult for scholars.

    Chronicle of Alfonso Xis the first and only translation of the king's history. The original "clumsy Castilian" of Fernán Sánchez has now been transformed into literate and engaging English.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-5888-4
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-ix)
    John Esten Keller
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. x-x)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-22)

    Chronicle of Alfonso Xconcerns one of the great monarchs of medieval Europe, namely, Alfonso X, King of Castile-León (1252–1284), known to history asEl Sabio,the Wise, or the Learned.¹ A brief sketch of the king’s reign will help the reader to understand theChronicle.Alfonso X ascended the throne at the age of thirty-one, just a few years after his father, Fernando III (1230–1252), had conquered the great cities of Andalusia: Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246), and Seville (1248). Islamic Spain had been reduced to the kingdoms of Granada and Murcia, whose rulers acknowledged Fernando III as...

  6. Chronicle of Alfonso X

    • Prologue
      (pp. 25-26)

      By many ways and means, the sages who lived in times past desired that things that were discovered and events that took place be made known. Thus, by their own nobility, serving as an example by them-selves to future generations, they had them written down, understanding that in this fashion those who came after them might be able to understand better and that these deeds would be protected and preserved for the ages. This is how knowledge of the art of astrology and the other sciences were discovered. Likewise, men learned how the patriarchs and prophets came, and of the...

    • Chapter 1 How King Alfonso Ruled, and of the Currency That Circulated at This Time
      (pp. 27-29)

      History tells that after King Fernando died, his son Alfonso was made king of Castile and León in the very noble city of Seville. Don Alfonso began to rule on the twenty-ninth day of the month of May.¹ In the era of Adam, it was the year five thousand twenty-one. In the era of the Hebrews, it was four thousand three hundred and fifty-three Roman years since the Deluge, with one hundred and five more days. In the era of Nebuchadnezzar, it was one thousand nine hundred and ninety-eight years, with ninety more Roman days. In the era of Philip...

    • Chapter 2 How King Alfonso Took Tejada and Other Moorish Towns and Made Them Outposts of Seville
      (pp. 30-31)

      The first year of Alfonso’s reign, Era 1291, was the year A.D. 1253. Likewise, before his father’s death this King Alfonso married doña Violante, daughter of King Jaime of Aragón and sister of King Pedro. He had no son by her, and he became very unhappy; seeing that this was due to a lack on her part, he therefore sent his envoys to the King of Norway to entreat the king to send his daughter in marriage.¹

      Since very little time had passed since King Fernando had won Seville, and it was newly conquered territory, many neighboring Moors lived near...

    • Chapter 3 How the King of Granada Came to Toledo to Make Peace with King Alfonso, and of the Things That Happened
      (pp. 32-34)

      In the second year of King Alfonso’s reign, 1292 Era, A.D. 1254, the King of Granada, in order to increase Alfonso’s good will and friend-ship, came to him in Toledo.¹ Alfonso was very pleased with this visit and did him much honor. The King of Granada stayed at King Alfonso’s estate near Toledo, and they renewed treaties and agreements they had formerly held. While the two kings were doing this, the messengers Alfonso had sent to the King of Norway returned, bringing his daughter, named doña Cristina,² for marriage to King Alfonso. But when the messengers arrived in Castile with...

    • Chapter 4 How King Alfonso Took Jerez, and Arcos, and Lebrija, and of Other Things That Happened During This Year
      (pp. 35-36)

      In the third year of his reign (1293 Era, A.D. 1255), King Alfonso, wishing to serve God by doing harm to the Moors, thought it well to seize their lands, especially those near the city of Seville. Since Aben Mafot,¹ King of Niebla and of the Algarbe, and another Moor named Aben Abit, who was Lord of Jerez, were very close to this city, the king held council concerning which of these conquests should come first. Having decided it best to go first and capture the town of Jerez, he led forth his hosts and held it under siege for...

    • Chapter 5 How King Alfonso Ordered a Fixed Price Set on All Merchandise
      (pp. 37-37)

      In the fourth year of the reign of this King Alfonso (1294 Era, A.D. 1256), many complaints came before him from all over his realms to the effect that prices had increased so much that people could not afford anything. Because of this, the king instituted thecotos,which set a price on all things, what amount each one should cost.¹ If people had trouble affording goods before this, they had it much worse afterward, since the merchants and other people who had things to sell hoarded them and refused to display them for sale. Therefore, everyone was in dire...

    • Chapter 6 How King Alfonso Besieged Niebla and Won It by Following the Advice of Two Friars, and How He Took the Algarbe
      (pp. 38-40)

      In the fifth year of the reign of this King Alfonso (1295 Era, and the year 1257 after the birth of Jesus Christ), after he had pacified some troubles of which theHistoryhas told, the king sought a way to exercise himself in God’s service and to exalt the Catholic Faith by broadening his realms. Because all of the Algarbe was contained by the Moors, and the capital was Niebla, of which a Moor named Aben Mafot was then lord, Alfonso had the men of his kingdom mustered, along with all of the nobles and councilmen. And he gathered...

    • Chapter 7 How the King of Portugal was Disinherited and of How the King of Castile Kept Him Honorably in His Realm
      (pp. 41-42)

      In the sixth year of this reign of King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1296, and the year 1258 after the birth of Jesus Christ, he left Seville and came to Toledo. He found out that the King of Portugal, named Sancho Capiello, had arrived and was there. Sancho told Alfonso how his brother Afonso had rebelled against his rule and that some of the people had taken Afonso as their king; Sancho asked King Alfonso to help him so that he might regain his kingdom.¹ King Afonso, upon learning of this discussion, sent to request that King...

    • Chapter 8 How King Alfonso Tried to Imprison Don Enrique, and of the Things That Happened to This Prince Enrique
      (pp. 43-45)

      In the seventh year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1297, and the year 1259 after the birth of Jesus Christ, King Alfonso was in Seville and Prince Enrique was in Lebrija, and the king was told that Prince Enrique had been conspiring with some noblemen and knights of the realm to his disservice. On this account, the king ordered don Nuño to go and arrest the prince.¹

      So don Nuño left Seville, and as he was approaching Lebrija, don Enrique learned that don Nuño was going to seize him and sallied forth....

    • Chapter 9 How King Alfonso Made the Legal Code, and of the Messengers Who Came to Him from Egypt
      (pp. 46-48)

      In the eighth year of his reign, which was in the Era of 1298 and the year 1260 after the birth of Jesus Christ, this King Alfonso ordered everything translated from Latin to Castilian Spanish so that he might have knowledge of all writings. He ordered the legal statutes to be composed in this tongue, wherein he summarized very briefly many laws governing rights and privileges. He gave it as a legal code to the city of Burgos and to other cities and towns of the kingdom of Castile, since in the kingdom of León they had theFuero Juzgo,...

    • Chapter 10 How This King Alfonso, While a Prince, Took Murcia and Its Lands, and How After He Became King, the Moors Living in Those Regions Rose up Against Him, and What Came of It
      (pp. 49-51)

      In the ninth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1299, and it was the year 1261 after the birth of Jesus Christ, among the things that happened in the time of King Fernando theHistorystates that King Alfonso, while still a prince, conquered the kingdom of Murcia. They say that at that time Aben Huxel ruled in Murcia, and this should be placed among the feats of this King Alfonso. And because it is found written in other places that Aben Huxel was not ruling in Murcia, what the historian found...

    • Chapter 11 How King Alfonso Built Villa Real and Settled It While on His Way to the Frontier
      (pp. 52-53)

      In the tenth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1300, and the year 1262 after the birth of Jesus Christ, news reached him in Segovia of how the King of Granada had broken the truce that he had with him. He learned as well that in the kingdom of Murcia, his vassal King Alboaquez had also risen against him and, moreover, that the Moors of Jerez had taken thealcázarand imprisonedGarcí GómezCarrillo and had besieged don Alimán, who held the tower of Utrera, and other castellans he had left...

    • Chapter 12 How King Alfonso Laid Waste to the Vega of Granada and Its Lands, and of the Gifts and Freedoms He Gave to Those in Andalusia
      (pp. 54-55)

      In the eleventh year of his reign, which was in the Era of 1301, and the year 1263 after the birth of Jesus Christ, this King Alfonso, being hard-pressed so much in the war with the Moors, was encouraged by all of the princes, great nobles, knights, and advisors that he had sent for to go immediately and lay waste to the land of the King of Granada and to do the greatest possible damage that he could. King Alfonso thereupon sallied forth from Seville with all his forces and went to Córdoba. From there he entered the land of...

    • Chapter 13 How the Moors Came Over the Sea to Assist the King of Granada, and of the Feats That Were Done Concerning This
      (pp. 56-57)

      The King of Granada, seeing the great fierceness of the war he was in, sent to beseech Aben Yuzaf to send some troops in his aid.¹ Yuzaf sent the king a thousand knights, and as their leader came a Moor who was blind in one eye, said to be among the most powerful men there were beyond the sea. According to what was written, they relate that these were the first mounted knights to come over after Miramamolin was defeated.² Although at the beginning, the arrival of these knights from overseas was a great advantage to the Moors, and even...

    • Chapter 14 How King Alfonso Retook Jerez and Other Towns That Had Risen Against Him, and What Came of That
      (pp. 58-59)

      In the twelfth year of his reign, which was in the Era of 1302, and the year 1264 after the birth of Jesus Christ, 1 while King Alfonso was at war in Andalusia and had about him all the men of his kingdom and of his menage, thinking on how the Moors of Jerez in his own realm rebelled and captured thealcázar,he sallied forth from Seville with his army and went to besiege the town of Jerez. As soon as he arrived, he ordered many siege engines raised around the city, engines which bombarded the towers and the...

    • Chapter 15 How King Don Alfonso Sued the King of Granada and Recovered Murcia and the Land That Had Rebelled Against Him
      (pp. 60-62)

      In the thirteenth year of his reign, which was in the Era of 1303, and the year 1265 after the birth of Jesus Christ, King Alfonso, desiring to carry out with vigor the war under way with the Moors, had all his vassals summoned by letter as soon as the month of February had come. Before they arrived, messengers came from the chiefs of Málaga and Guadix, who were very powerful. The messengers asked the king, by his grace, to help and protect their leaders and said that they had towers and castles and many knights with which their chiefs...

    • Chapter 16 How King Alfonso Made an Agreement with the Chiefs of Málaga and Guadix, and How Some Knights of Castile Established a Friendship with the King of Granada
      (pp. 63-64)

      In the fourteenth year of his reign, which was in the Era of 1304, and the year 1266 after the birth of Jesus Christ, after King Alfonso had gotten the lands of the kingdom of Murcia, he remained in this kingdom the entire year, having the towns and castles very well and strongly fortified. He settled the land with as many Christians as possible, making especially great efforts to people the city of Murcia, the town of Orihuela, and the town of Lorca with Christians. Because he could not have enough subjects from his own lands to populate them, many...

    • Chapter 17 How King Alfonso Asked the King of France to Give His Daughter as the Wife of His Son Don Fernando, and of How the Empress of Constantinople Came to the King’s Court to Petition King Alfonso to Free Her Husband, the Emperor, Who Was Captive
      (pp. 65-67)

      In the fifteenth year of his reign, which was in the Era of 1305, and the year 1267 after the birth of Jesus Christ, this King Alfonso, seeing that Prince Fernando, his son and heir, was of age for having a wife, while in Toledo sent messengers to Saint Louis, King of France, asking him to give him the hand of his daughter doña Blanca so that she might marry his son Prince Fernando.¹ This doña Blanca was the daughter of Saint Louis and sister of don Felipe, and in the year here cited, Saint Louis was yet alive, as...

    • Chapter 18 How the King of France, Saint Louis, Sent His Daughter to the King’s Son Prince Fernando to be Married, and How Messengers from the German Empire Came to the King
      (pp. 68-70)

      In the sixteenth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1306, and the year 1268 after the birth of Jesus Christ, the King of France sent doña Blanca, his daughter, to Castile in order to wed Prince Fernando, the king’s first-born son and heir. With her came don Felipe, her brother, who later was King of France and was father of Felipe el Bel.¹ Likewise with her came prelates and counts and nobles from the kingdom of France. King Alfonso, who was in Burgos, left as soon as he learned of the arrival...

    • Chapter 19 How King Alfonso Gained Cáliz, and of How He Removed the Tribute That Portugal Gave to Castile, and of What Grew Out of This
      (pp. 71-75)

      In the seventeenth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1307, and the year 1269 after the birth of Jesus Christ, while the king was in Seville, he found out that in the town of Cáliz,¹ which is a harbor on the other side of the sea, the people were so confident that they never guarded the town’s gates during the day, nor did they close them at night. The king was told that if he sent the fleet with his men, they would capture that town of Cáliz. So the king had...

    • Chapter 20 How Prince Felipe Began to Have Meetings and Agreements with the Noblemen Against the King, and of What They Sent to Tell the King
      (pp. 76-81)

      In the eighteenth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1308, and the year 1270 after the birth of Jesus Christ, since King Alfonso had gone to the kingdom of Murcia, Prince Felipe and don Nuño, and many noblemen and knights, and those of noble descent, and all others got together in Lerma and made a pact and agreement: to assist each other in opposing King Alfonso,¹ harming him however they could if he did not grant and fulfill to them the things they would go and demand (which we will relate further...

    • Chapter 21 How Juan Alfonso Carrillo Came to King Alfonso with Letters from Don Nuño and the Noblemen in Which They Excused Themselves from What Others Were Telling About Them
      (pp. 82-84)

      In the nineteenth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1309, and the year 1271 after the birth of Jesus Christ,¹ the king was getting ready to go to Castile because of those letters sent to him. Juan Alfonso Carrillo came to him there with letters from don Nuño, don Jimeno Ruiz, don Lope Díaz, and don Fernán Ruiz de Castro in which they asked him, by his grace, to do what he had said on their behalf. And as for their credence, Carrillo told the king that these noblemen and all of...

    • Chapter 22 How King Alfonso, While Wanting to Depart for the Empire, Received Letters Written in Arabic, Which Are Found in This Chapter
      (pp. 85-90)

      After King Alfonso, as theHistoryhas narrated, had sent the bishop to his noblemen, he wanted to meet with the King of Granada and appease him while he went to Castile to win over those noblemen and prepare the journey to the empire. The King of Granada had Alfonso told to come and meet with him in the city of Jaén. There fore, King Alfonso departed from Murcia to go to the meeting; and being in Alcaraz,¹ letters from Prince Fernando and from Prince Manuel, who were in Seville, arrived in which they had King Alfonso told that a...

    • Chapter 23 On the Pacts That Passed Between King Alfonso and the Noblemen of His Kingdoms
      (pp. 91-94)

      Don Juan Núñez, don Nuño’s son, and the Bishop of Cuenca went to Prince Felipe and to these noblemen.¹ They spoke with them on King Alfonso’s behalf as they had been ordered to do. And Felipe and his noblemen answered them that they had a certain deadline they had to meet with the King of Navarre, and that they would not relinquish going there for any reason. With King Alfonso having come back to Roa,² since he was going to Burgos, the Bishop of Cuenca and don Juan Núñez came to him with the answer that Prince Felipe and the...

    • Chapter 24 How King Alfonso, Being in Burgos, Replied to What the Noblemen of His Kingdom Were Demanding of Him
      (pp. 95-98)

      TheHistorytells that after don Nuño had left Burgos, King Alfonso held a council concerning these demands with don Fadrique and with don Luis, his brothers; the Bishop of Cuenca; Gil García de Sagra; Gutier Suárez; Diego López de Salcedo¹; and with other knights of noble descent who were with them so that they could come and hear the king’s reply at his court or at Santa María de Burgos. But they refused to do it, and instead, they came armed to the wasteland with all of their men. The king went there where they were and gave his...

    • Chapter 25 How the King and the Noblemen Who Were Angry Met at the Hospital of Burgos, and What They Discussed There
      (pp. 99-102)

      During this year that theHistoryhas related, after the princes and prelates, noblemen and knights, those of noble descent, and attorneys of the council who had to come to thecorteswere assembled in Burgos,¹ the king sent to tell Prince Felipe and don Nuño, and the other noblemen who had joined them, to come and that he would speak to them before the whole court about those things he had told them the other time. They sent word that they feared the princes and noblemen who were with the king and they wanted him to grant them a...

    • Chapter 26 How the Prelates of the Kingdom Attempted Among Themselves to Bring Discord Between the King and the Noblemen So That King Alfonso Would Grant Them Certain Things They Demanded of Him
      (pp. 103-104)

      The prelates of the kingdom who were there with the king during thecortesattempted to cause a division between the king and those noblemen, and they were pleased that both parties could not reach an agreement.¹ TheHistoryeven tells that don Felipe and the noblemen only left that city on the prelates’ advice; and they acted in this fashion thinking that the king would grant them everything they requested. All of them united gave the king their complaints and made demands that had never been granted by other kings. King Alfonso, realizing the things that the prelates were...

    • Chapter 27 How Prince Felipe and the Noblemen Who Were with Him Took Leave of the King to Go to Granada
      (pp. 105-106)

      Prince Felipe, don Nuño, don Lope Díaz, don Esteban Fernández, don Fernán Ruiz de Castro, don Jimeno Ruiz de los Cameros, the noblemen, and knights of noble descent who were there with them sent their messengers to take leave of the king and to request from him a truce of forty-two days so that they could leave the kingdoms,¹ and also to request from him keepers in whose hands they would put the castles that some of them held. Afterward, they left Campos and stole many things without any right or reason, and they went over the Duero in order...

    • Chapter 28 How the King’s Heralds Came to Don Felipe, and About What They Told Him
      (pp. 107-108)

      “Lord and Prince Felipe, noblemen and knights of noble descent, lords of the towns who are here from the kingdoms of Castile and León: You know well that while the king was in Murcia, you sent word to him that he order sums be given to you and that you would go and serve him wherever he thought you should. And he ordered them given to you; they gave them to you by his command. And because Prince Fernando, his son, was at the frontier, he ordered you to go and serve him and you refused to do it. And...

    • Chapter 29 Of the Explanations That King Alfonso’s Heralds, On His Behalf, Gave to Prince Felipe
      (pp. 109-111)

      “Sir Prince Felipe, your knight whom you sent to the king told him that due to the outrages and dis-inheritances you had received from him and the wrongs in the land you have done, you therefore distanced yourself from him. And you know that during the time in which you were a clergyman,¹ you said many times to your brother the king that you wanted to abandon the clergy; and he always pleaded with you and advised you not to do it, for while you were the Archbishop of Seville and Abbot of Valladolid and of Cuevas Rubias, with other...

    • Chapter 30 Of the Answers That the Heralds of King Alfonso, On His Behalf, Gave to Don Nuño
      (pp. 112-115)

      “Don Nuño¹: Your knight whom you sent to King Alfonso told him that you were leaving him because while you were serving at Málaga, he took away the land you held from him, and also because he was encroaching upon the rights of Castile and León. You know that you received from him much honor and favor, more than any man of your station ever received from any other king. For being a child, you grew up with him, and being Prince, when he began to rule, because of the love he felt for you, he placed Gonzalo Nuño, your...

    • Chapter 31 Concerning the Replies That the King’s Heralds Gave to Don Lope Díaz
      (pp. 116-119)

      “Don Lope Díaz ¹: The king sends to tell you that the knight you sent to him when you took leave of the king said that because the king had disinherited you and was not granting you the land that your father and your grandfather used to hold, you considered yourself even more disinherited, although not of the land that your father had left you. And this is why you say that the king encroached upon the rights of Castile and León and why you were leaving him. Don Lope Díaz, you know how many favors he did you, for...

    • Chapter 32 Of the Answers That the King’s Heralds Gave to Don Fernán Ruiz de Castro
      (pp. 120-121)

      “Don Fernán Ruiz de Castro¹: The king sends to tell you that the knight whom you sent told the king that you were abandoning him because King Alfonso has disinherited you from the territory of León. Don Fernán Ruiz, you know well that the king favored you and made his father grant you the land he held that belonged to Ruy Fernández, your father, when you were a child of four—which he was not accustomed to do for any nobleman, because the land of the one who died he customarily granted to the son who was old enough to...

    • Chapter 33 Of the Answers That the King’s Heralds, At His Bidding, Gave to Don Esteban Fernández
      (pp. 122-123)

      “Don Esteban Fernández¹: The knight whom you sent to the king told him that because it had been a long time since he gave you your monies, and because he kept you away from your wife, Aldonza Rodríguez, by force, and because he was encroaching upon the laws of Castile and León, that for this you were parting from him. The king tells you that you hold from him his well-cared-for land, which he was able to give you, and the rest that you hold in money; and that his letters command you to give him firm proof that you...

    • Chapter 34 Of the Explanation That the King’s Heralds Told Don Juan Núñez
      (pp. 124-124)

      “Don Juan Núñez¹: Your squire told the king that you were parting from him, and he considered it a great surprise—on the one hand, because he never did anything to you so that you ought to part from him, and on the other, because he always cared for you and did you good. Even when you went overseas, he always refused to take away the land from you, and he gave it to your son, and today you hold it through him. Even now, in good faith, he has it in his heart to give you more, and for...

    • Chapter 35 Of the Answers That the King’s Heralds Gave to Don Álvar Díaz
      (pp. 125-125)

      “Don Álvar Díaz¹: The knight whom you sent to inform the king that you were departing his service said that you were doing it because the king took away land from you without any legitimate reason, and also because he illegally encroached upon the land of Castile and León. About this we tell you that the king did not take away the land from you, but that, as you know, you went away from the kingdom and abandoned the land you held, and furthermore that you acted very wrongly. Because of the King of Aragón’s plea, he welcomed you back...

    • Chapter 36 Of the Explanations That King Alfonso’s Knights Told to Don Nuño González, the Younger, and to Don Diego López de Haro, and to the Other Noblemen Who Were There
      (pp. 126-127)

      “To all you of noble descent and knights who are here and to those who are not here,¹ we tell you on the king’s behalf that you should ponder all the things that the king sent to say to these noblemen about what he wanted to do for them and what he wanted to fulfill for them again and now. And they never did want to accept it or receive it, doing him many wrongs and many insolences. For if they demanded rights, he gave them and granted them through his word in the courts and through his privilege. Other...

    • Chapter 37 Of the Answer That Prince Felipe Gave to King Alfonso’s Ambassadors
      (pp. 128-129)

      After Prince Felipe, the noblemen, and the knights had heard what the king’s messengers told them, they withdrew in order to reach an agreement, and they sent for the king’s messengers and gave them this answer:

      “Don Gonzalo Ruiz and don Sancho Pérez: We have heard what you said to all of us together on the king’s behalf, and understanding it very well; we cannot respond to each matter, for the explanations are very long, but we answer you concerning the two most important things.

      As to what you say, that the king gave us his land and hismaravedís...

    • Chapter 38 How Prince Felipe and the Noblemen Went to the Bishopric of Jaén
      (pp. 130-130)

      In the twentieth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1310, and the year 1272 after the birth of Jesus Christ, Prince Felipe and the noblemen gave this answer and departed for Atienza. And they made their way to the Bishopric of Jaén in order to go to Granada.¹ Along the way, they committed great robberies and arrived at Sabiote, near Úbeda, with all of the plunder they carried along with them—which was more than five thousand horses, and clothes, and cattle, and other things. Prince Fernando, hereditary prince; and Prince Sancho,...

    • Chapter 39 Of the Things That the Queen and the Archbishop of Toledo Requested the King to Grant to the Noblemen
      (pp. 131-132)

      “These are the things that the queen, the archbishop, and the bishops asked of the king through his grace so that he might grant them to Prince Felipe and the noblemen concerning the demands they made.¹

      Regarding the statutes, may he grant them his statutes and their uses and customs, just as they had them in the time of King Fernando and he granted it to them; and if there is anything he needs to execute, he will fulfill it.

      Regarding the tithe of services, may he remove it; and since these noblemen of the land return to his favor,...

    • Chapter 40 How King Alfonso Sent His Ambassadors to Prince Felipe, and of the Answer
      (pp. 133-136)

      Prince Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo, and Prince Manuel arrived at Toledo where King Alfonso was,¹ and they related to him how Prince Fernando and they, and the prelates, and masters spoke with Prince Felipe and with those noblemen, who said that they refused to do anything of all that they told them nor did they wish to forsake the journey because of what the king was sending to tell through his writ, sealed with his seal, and that they were sending him another, which reads as follows:

      “Firstly, may the king grant statutes and privileges, uses, and customs to the...

    • Chapter 41 Of the Letter That the Queen and the Princes Sent to Prince Felipe and the Noblemen Who Were with Him in Granada
      (pp. 137-138)

      The queen, the archbishop, don Fadrique, and don Manuel also sent another letter to don Felipe, don Nuño, don Lope Díaz, Fernán Ruiz, and to don Esteban Fernández.¹ It said as follows:

      “Know that we advised, pleaded, and asked for the king’s mercy so that he allow you to come to his service, have his favor, and grant you all those things you had sent to ask on your behalf. He grants them to you and wants to do them just as we send to tell to you in this our letter sealed with our seals. The things we are...

    • Chapter 42 Where the History Returns to Relate the Facts That Were Between Prince Felipe and the King of Granada
      (pp. 139-139)

      Because it is appropriate that the deeds that are done by greater men be written before those that are done by lesser men, for this reason we related up to this point how King Alfonso heard what the noblemen had sent to tell him there and the answer he gave them. And we cease to relate the treaties that the noblemen had with the King of Granada, and [now], theHistoryrelates it at this point as follows: that before don Felipe, don Nuño, the noblemen, those of noble descent, and the knights who were going with them entered Granada,...

    • Chapter 43 Of the Letter and Treaties That Were Processed Between the King of Granada and the Noblemen
      (pp. 140-143)

      “Let all those who see this letter know that we—Alamir Abboadille Mahomad Aben Yuzaf Abenasar, King of Granada¹; Amir Amus Lemin; and Alamir Abboadille, our son and heir—are making this treaty with the honorable Prince Don Felipe, son of King Fernando; the nobleman don Nuño González, son of Count Gonzalo; the nobleman don Lope Díaz de Haro, Lord of Vizcaya; the nobleman don Esteban Fernandez; the nobleman don Fernán Ruiz de Castro; the nobleman don Juan Núñez, son of don Nuno Gonzalez; the nobleman don Diego López, brother of the aforementioned nobleman don Lope Díaz de Haro, the...

    • Chapter 44 Of the Letters That King Don Alfonso Had From Prince Don Felipe and the Noblemen Who Were in Granada
      (pp. 144-146)

      In order to relate the treaties that Prince Don Felipe and the noblemen had with the King of Granada, let us relate what they sent to reply to the queen, the archbishop, and to Prince Manuel. TheHistoryrelates it here and as follows: that after Prince Felipe and the noblemen saw the letters from the queen, the archbishop, and don Manuel, they sent an answer to the archbishop, in which they said to him that they were very grateful because he beseeched the king to grant them those things that theHistoryhas related that he granted to them....

    • Chapter 45 How the King of Granada Spoke with Don Nuño So That He Would Take a Petition to the King in Order to Make Peace
      (pp. 147-149)

      The King of Granada, realizing that the chiefs were very powerful in his kingdom, and that with the noblemen he could not do against them what he wanted because of the great support that King Don Alfonso was giving them, and moreover, because he realized that the noblemen were sending messengers each day to the king and also that they were receiving letters from the queen and princes, he understood that they wished to come. The King of Granada spoke with don Nuño so that he might send his son don Juan Núñez to the king that he might take...

    • Chapter 46 How Prince Don Felipe Defeated the Chiefs, and How He Seized the Bounty They Carried with Them
      (pp. 150-150)

      TheHistoryhas related that during that time in which they made Mahomad Alamir Abboadille the king, some Moors wanted to have as king his brother. This brother of the king and those who favored him fled Granada and went to Málaga. And the leader of Málaga, who was an enemy of the King of Granada, welcomed them, and they assembled as many armies as they could and went to rob the land of the King of Granada. As soon as don Felipe, don Nuño, and the other noblemen who were in Granada knew about this, they took all of...

    • Chapter 47 How the King Held a Meeting in Almagro, and of the Things That Were Accomplished There
      (pp. 151-153)

      Notwithstanding that Prince Felipe, don Nuño, don Lope Díaz, and the noblemen who were in Granada requested that the king grant them statutes, uses, and customs according to what they had during the time of the other kings who were in Castile and León, the king was aware and knew of many others who were with him and served him who claimed that they were querulous about this. Among these were men of noble descent, prelates, noblemen, knights, and many others from the cities and towns of his kingdom. They particularly considered themselves wronged by the tributes the king collected...

    • Chapter 48 Of the Messengers That the King of Granada, Prince Felipe, and the Noblemen Who Were with Him Sent to King Alfonso
      (pp. 154-156)

      As soon as don Felipe, don Nuño, and the other noblemen who were in Granada had seen the writ that don Juan Núñez brought and the letters that don Gonzalo Ruiz brought, and having heard what they told them, don Nuño spoke with the King of Granada concerning those treaties that King Don Alfonso sent to order him to communicate with them. But the King of Granada did not give an answer to any of them, for he thought King Alfonso would not request of him such a great thing as the harbors of Algeciras and Tarifa, and that if...

    • Chapter 49 How King Alfonso Sent His Messengers to the Nobles Who Were in Granada
      (pp. 157-159)

      The king, having taken counsel concerning these matters, decided to send don Juan González, Master of Calatrava, to the nobles with his message, and decided that Gonzalo Ruiz de Atienza might go with him to Granada and sign with the nobles the treaties he had agreed to, so that they might send to petition Prince Don Fernando to send them to the Master of Calatrava; and to send another trusted messenger with whom to discuss the treaties.

      The king told the master to speak with them and tell them that the nobles were not speaking correctly in demanding the treaty...

    • Chapter 50 About the Assembly That the King Convoked in Ávila, and About How Don Fernán Ruiz de Castro Came Under His Grace
      (pp. 160-161)

      In the twenty-first year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1311, and the year 1273 after the birth of Jesus Christ, this King Alfonso came to Ávila with those of the kingdom of León and Extremadura who were united there through the letter of his summoning. Being there and showing them the making of the treaty that he had with the Moors, and likewise, the wrong and outrage that don Felipe and the nobles who were in Granada had done him in departing to his enemies and pillaging the land from him, and...

    • Chapter 51 How Prince Don Fernando Sent the Master of Calatrava to Discuss Friendship with the Noblemen Who Were in Granada
      (pp. 162-164)

      Prince Don Fernando, who was in Córdoba, learning of the answer that the noblemen in Granada had sent Gonzalo Ruiz to tell his father, the king, and also finding out that those noblemen were seizing food and other things for which they had need, and that those and the mighty ones of the King of Granada wanted to invade and overrun King Alfonso’s territory, particularly the Bishopric of Jaén, don Fernando held a council with the Masters of Uclés and Calatrava,¹ and with his brother don Alfonso Fernández,² and with other noblemen who were with him there on what he...

    • Chapter 52 Of the Letter That King Alfonso Sent to His Son Prince Don Fernando Concerning the Friendship of the Noblemen
      (pp. 165-172)

      “Don Fernando: I saw the letter you sent me and also those that the Master of Calatrava sent you, which those who are in Granada sent him. I also realized that after Gonzalo Ruiz came from there, they advised you to send the Master of Calatrava to Granada so that he would grant the King of Granada the treaty of Alcalá de Benzaide, and to give him my letter in which I promised in good faith that he consider that you forsake the chiefs in the council, but that later you should not do it in secrecy; and the Masters...

    • Chapter 53 How King Alfonso Sent the Queen to Córdoba So That She Could Resolve the Affair of the Noblemen Who Were in Granada
      (pp. 173-174)

      Prince Don Fernando had sent to tell King Alfonso that the noblemen, the masters, and the others who were there with him were very angry about the long time they had been there. Some said they did not have the funds to spend and that the king did not send any to them. Others from the councils said they had fulfilled the time they had to serve and that they wanted to leave, and that for this reason the king could not have them at his service, as certain as it was necessary. Alfonso also received a letter from his...

    • Chapter 54 How the Queen and Prince Fernando Sent Their Messengers to the Noblemen Who Were in Granada
      (pp. 175-179)

      The queen arrived at Córdoba and had council with her son Prince Don Fernando, the masters, and the noblemen who were with him.¹ She found out from them the things that had happened until that time. Also there was the Elect of Albarracín,² who had come with letters and a message from King Don Jaime for don Felipe, don Nuño, and the other noblemen who were in Granada. Prince Fernando and the queen immediately begged and ordered the Master of Calatrava and Gonzalo Ruiz de Atienza to go to Granada with their letters to speak with the noblemen on behalf...

    • Chapter 55 How the King Being in Cuenca, the Queen’s Messengers Arrived to Discuss the Peace with the King of Granada and His Noblemen
      (pp. 180-182)

      We have related how King Alfonso departed from Ávila to go to meet with King Jaime of Aragón.¹ He brought with him to the meeting Prince Don Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and the son of King Jaime; Prince Manuel; Prince Sancho, son of this King Alfonso; and his nephew don Alfonso, whom they called Molina; and other companies of prelates, noblemen, knights, and citizens from the cities. As soon as he had arrived in Cuenca, Alfonso found out how King Jaime of Aragón was in great discord with his son and first heir, Prince Pedro, and for this reason King...

    • Chapter 56 How the Noblemen Who Were in Granada and the Master of Calatrava Came to the Queen in Córdoba
      (pp. 183-186)

      After don Nuño and the Master of Calatrava left Córdoba concerning the discussion they had had with the queen and with Prince Fernando, they went to Granada, and with them went Martĺn Ruiz de Leyva. They showed the King of Granada, Prince Felipe, and the other noblemen from Castile and León who were there in what fashion the treaties were being discussed and signed, and they all considered it well and were pleased by it. They immediately sent their letters to the queen and to Prince Fernando in which they sent to tell them that don Nuño, don Lope Dĺaz,...

    • Chapter 57 How King Alfonso and King Jaime of Aragón Met at Requena, and of the Deeds That Happened There
      (pp. 187-190)

      We have already told, and theHistoryhas already related it, that King Alfonso delayed his meeting with King Jaime of Aragón because his messengers, whom he had sent to negotiate an agreement and peace between this King Jaime and his first son and heir, Prince Pedro, concerning the disagreement and conflict that existed between them, were unsuccessful. Because this agreement could not be made, King Jaime came to the meeting and Prince Pedro sent to tell him that he should excuse him from those meetings because, since he could not have an agreement with his father, he desisted from...

    • Chapter 58 How King Alfonso Reconciled with the Noblemen Who Were in Granada and Made Peace with the King of Granada
      (pp. 191-194)

      In the twenty-second year of the reign of this Ring Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1312, and the year 1274 after the birth of Jesus Christ,¹ don Lope Díaz and don Esteban Fernández, having come to Córdoba with the answer for which they went to Granada, told the queen and don Fernando that the King of Granada and all of them were coming to Córdoba in honor of the queen and the prince, and that from there they would go to wherever the king might be. Don Nuño, don Lope Díaz, and don Esteban Fernández asked the queen...

    • Chapter 59 How King Alfonso Obtained the Things for Which He Had Need in Order to Go to the Empire Organized, and of How He Departed from Toledo
      (pp. 195-197)

      In the twenty-third year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1313, and the year 1275 after the birth of Jesus Christ, this King Alfonso, being in Toledo, and having collected the sum that the King of Granada had to give him, his brother Prince Manuel and the others who had to go with him to the empire were there with him. The king gave to these all the things for which they had need for that journey.¹ He also ordered loaded in Seville and in the harbors of Algeciras many ships with wheat,...

    • Chapter 60 Of How Prince Fernando Began to Rule the Kingdom, and of How All Were Very Pleased with Him
      (pp. 198-198)

      Prince Fernando departed from Toledo and went to Extremadura, and from there he went to the kingdom of León. He traveled through the cities and towns expounding and practicing justice in those places where it was required; and with the authority of the king’s seal, he appointed royal judges in all of the king’s land. He also appointed governors and officials in those cities, towns, and places where they requested it from him, and also in those he considered such to be necessary to resolve their conflicts. And he ruled and preserved all of the land injustice and in such...

    • Chapter 61 Of How the King of Granada Complained to Aben Yuzaf Abroad
      (pp. 199-201)

      The King of Granada was very aggrieved because of the truce he granted to the chiefs while he was in Seville, for he had given King Alfonso a great fortune and had destroyed the letter of the treaty that the noblemen had with him. All of this he had done thinking that the chiefs would remain in such fashion that he could conquer them and take from them the land they held. He realized that because they remained in a truce with him during that year, after that time the King of Castile would want to protect them again. Thus,...

    • Chapter 62 How Aben Yuzaf of Morocco Fought with Don Nuño and Defeated Him, and of How Don Nuño Died in This Battle
      (pp. 202-204)

      We have already related how King Alfonso, when he went to the empire, left don Nuño as governor of the frontier. While don Nuño was in Córdoba, he found out that Aben Yuzaf had crossed, and all of those knights with him. So he immediately sent word to Prince Fernando, who was in Burgos. Don Fernando immediately sent letters to the princes, all noblemen, knights, and all of the others of the kingdom to tell them how Aben Yuzaf had crossed hither from overseas and that he was waging war and causing harm and damage to the land. Also that...

    • Chapter 63 Of How the Archbishop of Toledo Fought a Battle with the Moors Who Brought a Cavalry and Killed Him, and of How Don Lope Díaz Fought a Battle Another Day with the Moors, and What Happened There
      (pp. 205-208)

      Throughout all of the kingdom of Castile and León spread the news of the multitude of the Moors who crossed with Aben Yuzaf and of the many harms they did in the land of the Christians. For this reason they prepared to go to the frontier. Prince Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo, son of King Jaime of Aragón, as soon as he knew about this had all the vassal knights of the king who lived in Toledo, Talavera, Guadalajara, and in Madrid summoned so that they could go with him. These knights, because of the order they had from don Fernando...

    • Chapter 64 Of How Prince Fernando Was Coming to the Frontier of the War Against the Moors, and of How He Died in Villa Real of Illness
      (pp. 209-210)

      After Prince Fernando had sent to summon all of those from the kingdoms, he departed from Burgos. He went on a short journey so that the princes, noblemen, and knights of the kingdom could catch up with him and so that as soon as they arrived at the frontier, some of his armies might arrive with him. On the way, he found out how the archbishop and don Nuño were dead. Notwithstanding that he realized his coming was much needed at the frontier, he also realized that it was not for his benefit or honor to arrive at the frontier...

    • Chapter 65 Of How Prince Sancho Came to the Frontier, and How He Appointed Himself Crown Prince of Castile
      (pp. 211-213)

      Prince Sancho, who had stayed in Burgos waiting for some of his vassals, departed from there in order to go to the frontier. Although he had learned about the archbishop’s and don Nuño’s death, he found out on the way about Prince Fernando’s death, and he hastened his marches and traveled as much as he could and arrived at Villa Real. Before this, Prince Sancho had great friendship with don Lope Díaz de Haro, and this don Lope Díaz was coming to Prince Fernando, for he had found out that he was in Villa Real. On his way, don Lope...

    • Chapter 66 Of How King Alfonso Learned of the Deaths of Prince Fernando and the Archbishop of Toledo
      (pp. 214-215)

      Of the things that befell to King Alfonso while he went to the empire, theHistoryhas avoided relating, for it was never found how they happened, although it was found that King Alfonso, being in Belcaire, a place near the Ruédano River, learned how Aben Yuzaf with great forces of men crossed from overseas and killed Archbishop Sancho and don Nuño.¹ He also learned how Prince Fernando was dead, and he thought it true that the land at the frontier was in such condition that it could all be lost—or at least a great portion of it—for...

    • Chapter 67 Of How King Alfonso Came from the Empire, and of the Meeting He Held Concerning Prince Sancho’s Demand
      (pp. 216-218)

      In the twenty-fourth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1314, and the year 1276 after the birth of Jesus Christ, King Alfonso arrived at Requena. He came through the kingdom of Valencia, and from there he came to Cuenca, Huete, and then to Alcalá de Henares,¹ where he learned how his son Prince Sancho and the noblemen of the kingdom had reinforced the land so that it could be protected and not be lost. What Sancho had done pleased him greatly, and notwithstanding that before he loved him as his son, from...

    • Chapter 68 Of How King Alfonso Ordered That They Swear Allegiance to Sancho as Crown Prince, and of How He Killed His Brother Don Fadrique
      (pp. 219-220)

      The king having arrived at the city of Segovia, the princes, masters, all the high noblemen,infanzones, and knights of the cities and towns of his kingdoms came to him. The king ordered that they should make a pledge and do homage to Prince Sancho, his first heir, so that after the days of King Alfonso they would have him as king and lord; and all of them did what the king ordered them.¹

      As soon as these agreements and fealties were made, Queen Violante, wife of this King Alfonso, sent letters to her brother don Pedro of Aragón about...

    • Chapter 69 Of How King Alfonso Ordered Built a Very Large Fleet, Which He Sent Against Algeciras
      (pp. 221-222)

      In the twenty-fifth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1315, and the year 1277 after the birth of Jesus Christ, King Alfonso, feeling great sorrow for the harm and damage that Aben Yuzaf had done him while he went to the empire—and also in order to prevent that he cross there by the harbor of Algeciras, just as he crossed the other time, and thus so that he could move quickly to have control over the King of Granada who had caused him to cross here—being in Burgos, King Alfonso...

    • Chapter 70 Of How King Alfonso Sent Men from His Kingdoms to Besiege Algeciras and Gave Them as Captain His Son Prince Pedro
      (pp. 223-224)

      In the twenty-sixth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1316, and the year 1278 after the birth of Jesus Christ, the men whom the king had summoned in order to send them to besiege the city of Algeciras were gathered in Seville. The month of March had arrived, and the king agreed with those who were with him there that because he had already sent the fleet, all of those who had to go to that siege by land might go with his son Prince Pedro, whom he gave them as their...

    • Chapter 71 Of How Prince Sancho Conferred with the King of Aragón So That His Mother, the Queen, Might Return to Castile, and That He Seize Prince Fernando’s Sons
      (pp. 225-226)

      While these men had this city of Algeciras besieged, King Alfonso was in Seville, and Prince Sancho, his first heir, was in Castile. Because his mother, Queen Violante, left from Segovia for Aragón and took with her her daughter-in-law doña Blanca, and the sons of this doña Blanca, don Alfonso and don Fernando, Prince Sancho made an effort during that time so that his mother, the queen, might return to the kingdom.¹ He was not doing this without his father’s order, and he sent his very insistent letters to his mother, the queen, and King Pedro of Aragón, his uncle...

    • Chapter 72 Of How the Fleet of the King of Castile Was Lost, and of How the Siege of Algeciras Came to an End, and How the Moors Captured the Admiral
      (pp. 227-231)

      We have already related how King Alfonso was in Seville while the city of Algeciras was besieged. Prince Pedro and those who were in that siege were pressing the Moors who were in that city as much as they could—on the one hand, by fighting many battles with them; and on the other, by shooting at them with the machines; and furthermore, by not allowing food to reach them by land or sea. Those of the army fulfilled the time for which they were paid in their contracts. Also, those at sea who were with the fleet safeguarding the...

    • Chapter 73 Of How King Alfonso Made a Truce with Aben Yuzaf and Was Preparing Himself to Come to the Frontier for the War Against the King of Granada
      (pp. 232-233)

      After the army that King Alfonso had in Algeciras, of which his son don Pedro was the leader, was destroyed by Aben Yuzaf’s might, and also his fleet—by which destruction King Alfonso, who was in Seville, was very dismayed—the king, thinking that he would not be able to conquer that city because of the might that Aben Yuzaf had across the sea, searched for a way to reconcile himself with this king so that he could wage war on the King of Granada. And King Alfonso and King Aben Yuzaf made their agreement in the year 1317 of...

    • Chapter 74 Of How Prince Don Sancho Entered the Vega of Granada, and of a Battle That the Master of Santiago Fought and Lost, and of the Meeting That King Alfonso Had with the King of France
      (pp. 234-237)

      In the twenty-eighth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1318, and the year 1280 after the birth of Jesus Christ, Prince Don Sancho strove to bring out all his noblemen and counselors from the land so that they were all in Córdoba with King Alfonso. Prince Don Sancho went to Toledo and took from there all the knights and other men whom he could, and he set out for Jaén. He arrived there in the month of June and sent his message to King Alfonso, his father, in which he asked him...

    • Chapter 75 Of How King Alfonso Entered the Vega of Granada and Wasted It, and What Happened Afterward, and of Other Deeds in the Kingdom
      (pp. 238-243)

      In the twenty-ninth year of the reign of this King Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1319, and the year 1281 after the birth of Jesus Christ, King Alfonso came to Burgos and held the marriages of his sons Prince Pedro and Prince Juan. Prince Pedro wed the daughter of the Lord of Narbonne, and Prince Juan married the daughter of the Marquis of Monferrat, who was wed to Princess Beatriz, his daughter.¹ And the Marquis of Monferrat asked King Alfonso to give him something for the land he had in Normandy. So the king gave him in pay...

    • Chapter 76 How Prince Don Sancho Spoke Against King Don Alfonso, His Father, and of the Happenings That Took Place in the Kingdom
      (pp. 244-249)

      In the thirtieth year of the reign of this King Don Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1320, and the year 1282 after the birth of Jesus Christ, Prince Don Sancho then sent Prince Don Juan, his brother, with letters and with empowerment to all the cities and towns of the kingdom of León to speak with them so that they might support this way and this authority to supplicate the grace of his father so that he not encroach upon their rights, arrest them, nor be angry at them. Prince Don Juan went everywhere urging that they support...

    • Chapter 77 About the Things That Happened in the Kingdom Concerning the Meeting Prince Don Sancho Had Against His Father, King Don Alfonso, and About the Death of the Above-Mentioned King
      (pp. 250-259)

      In the thirty-first year of the reign of this King Don Alfonso, which was in the Era of 1321, and the year 1283 after the birth of Jesus Christ, Prince Don Sancho came to Cáceres and then to Puente de Alcántara. And to him came a message as to how Prince Don Pedro, his brother, who was in Ledesma, was on his way to desert Prince Sancho and to meet with King Alfonso, his father, because the king would give Prince Don Pedro the realm of Murcia of which they would name him king. As soon as Prince Don Sancho...

  7. Selected Bibliography
    (pp. 260-264)
  8. Index
    (pp. 265-268)