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The Guardian

The Guardian

Copyright Date: 1982
Pages: 832
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  • Book Info
    The Guardian
    Book Description:

    In 1713, soon after publication of theSpectatorhad come to an end, its place on breakfast tables of Queen Anne's London was taken by theGuardian. Richard Steele, continuing in the new paper the blend of learning, wit, and moral instruction that had proved so attractive in theTatlerandSpectator, was the editor and principal writer; in the 175 numbers of theGuardianhe included 53 essays by Joseph Addison, as well as contributions by Alexander Pope, George Berkeley, and several others, some of whom doubtless transmitted their papers through the famous lion's head letterbox that Addison had erected in Button's coffeehouse. "These papers," as John C. Stephens writes in the introduction to his edition of theGuardian, "helped to form and to shape the morals and manners of countless generations in Britain and abroad."

    This first modern edition of theGuardianwas prepared from the original printing of the papers, is fully annotated and indexed, and includes a comprehensive introduction discussing especially the authorship of the individual essays.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-5950-8
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
    (pp. vi-vi)
    J. C. S.
    (pp. 1-36)

    OF THE numerous literary periodicals produced in the eighteenth century, none have been more famous than theTatler, theSpectator, and theGuardian, in which Addison and Steele brought the familiar essay to a high point of perfection. From their beginnings the three periodicals have been linked together as the prime achievement of their authors’ collaboration. For example, a work entitledHistories, Fables, Allegories, and Characters, selected from the Spectator and Guardianreached a fourth edition in 1753 and an eighteenth edition in 1765; and in 1757 there appearedA General Index to the Spectators, Tatlers, and Guardians. In 1763...

    (pp. 37-38)

    • Number 1 Thursday, March 12
      (pp. 41-43)

      THERE is no Passion so universal, however diversified or disguised under different Forms and Appearances, as the Vanity of being known to the rest of Mankind, and communicating a Man’s Parts, Virtues or Qualifications to the World; this is so strong upon Men of great Genius, that they have a restless Fondness for satisfying the World in the Mistakes they might possibly be under, with relation even to their Physiognomy. Mr.Airs,¹ that excellent Penman, has taken care to affix his own Image opposite to the Title Page of his Learned Treatise, wherein he instructs the Youth of this Nation...

    • Number 2 Friday, March 13
      (pp. 44-46)

      THE READIEST Way to proceed in my great Undertaking, is to explain who I am my self that promise to give the Town a daily Half Sheet: I shall therefore enter into my own History, without losing any Time in Preamble. I was born in the Year 1642, at a lone House within half a Mile of the Town ofBrandford, in the County oiMiddlesex;my Parents were of Ability to bestow upon me a liberal Education, and of an Humour to think that a great Happiness even in a Fortune which was but just enough to keep me...

    • Number 3 Saturday, March 14
      (pp. 47-49)

      I AM DIVERTED from the Account I was giving the Town of my particular Concerns, by casting my Eye upon a Treatise, which I could not overlook without an inexcusable Negligence, and want of Concern for all the Civil, as well as Religious Interests of Mankind. This Piece has for its Title,A Discourse of Free-thinking, occasioned by the Rise and Growth of a Sect called Free-thinkers.¹ The Author very Methodically enters upon his Argument, and says,by Free-thinking I mean the use of the Understanding in endeavouring to find out the meaning of any Proposition whatsoever, in considering the...

    • Number 4 Monday, March 16
      (pp. 50-53)

      THOUGH most Things which are wrong in their own Nature are at once confessed and absolv’d in that single Word theCustom;yet there are some, which as they have a dangerous Tendency, a thinking Man will the less excuse on that very Account. Among these I cannot but reckon the common Practise ofDedications, which is of so much the worse Consequence, as ’tis generally used by People of Politeness, and whom a Learned Education for the most part ought to have inspired with nobler and juster Sentiments. This Prostitution of Praise is not only a Deceit upon the...

    • Number 5 Tuesday, March 17
      (pp. 53-56)

      I HAVE in my second Paper mentioned the Family, into which I was retained by the Friend of my Youth; and given the Reader to understand, that my Obligations to it are such as might well naturalize me into the Interests of it. They have, indeed, had their deserved Effect; and if it were possible for a Man, who has never entered into the State of Marriage, to know the Instincts of a kind Father to an Honourable and Numerous House, I may say I have done it. I do not know but my Regards, in some Considerations, have been...

    • Number 6 Wednesday, March 18
      (pp. 57-59)

      I HAVE dispatched my young Women, and the Town has them among them; it is necessary for the Elucidation of my future Discourses, which I desire may be denominated, as they are the Precepts of a Guardian,Mr. Ironside’s Precautions:¹ I say it is, after what has been already declared, in the next place necessary to give an Account of the Males of this worthy Family, whose Annals I am writing. The Affairs of Women being chiefly Domestick, and not made up of so many Circumstances, as the Duties of Men are, I fear I cannot dispatch the Account of...

    • Number 7 Thursday, March 19
      (pp. 60-62)

      I THIS Morning did my self the Honour to visit LadyLizard, and took my Chair at the Tea-Table, at the upper End of which that graceful Woman, with her Daughters about her, appeared to me with greater Dignity than ever any Figure, either ofVenusattended by the Graces,Dianawith her Nymphs, or any other Celestial who owes her Being to Poetry.

      The Discourse we had there, none being present but our own Family, consisted of private Matters, which tended to the Establishment of these young Ladies in the World. My Lady, I observed, had a Mind to...

    • Number 8 Friday, March 20
      (pp. 63-65)

      A GUARDIAN cannot bestow his time in any Office more suitable to his Character, than in representing the Disasters to which we are exposed by the Irregularity of our Passions. I think I speak of this matter in a way not yet taken notice of, when I observe that they make Men do things unworthy of those very Passions. I shall illustrate this by a Story I have lately read in theRoyal Commentaries ofPeru, wherein you behold an Oppressor a most contemptible Creature after his Power is at an end; and a Person he oppressed so wholly intent...

    • Number 9 Saturday, March 21
      (pp. 66-69)

      MANY OF THE Subjects of my Papers will consist of such things as I have gathered from the Conversation, or learned from the Conduct of a Gentleman, who has been very conversant in our Family, by Name Mr.Charwell. This Person was formerly a Merchant in this City, who by exact Oeconomy,¹ great Frugality, and very fortunate Adventures, was about twenty Years since, and the fortieth Year of his Age, arrived to the Estate which we usually call a Plumb.² This was a Sum so much beyond his first Ambition, that he then resolved to retire from the Town, and...

    • Number 10 Monday, March 23
      (pp. 70-72)

      WHEN I am in deep Meditation in order to give my Wards proper Precautions, I have a principal Regard to the Prevalence of things which People of Merit neglect, and from which those of no Merit raise to themselves an Esteem; of this Nature is the Business of Dress. It is weak in a Man of Thought and Reflection to be either depressed or exalted from the Perfections or Disadvantages of his Person. However there is a respective Conduct to be observed in the Habit, according to the eminent Distinction of the Body either way. A gay Youth in the...

    • Number 11 Tuesday, March 24
      (pp. 73-75)

      THERE is an oblique way of Reproof, which takes off from the Sharpness of it; and an Address in Flattery, which makes it agreeable though never so gross: But of all Flatterers, the most skilful is he who can do what you like, without saying any thing which argues you do it for his Sake; the most winning Circumstance in the World being the Conformity of Manners. I speak of this as a Practice necessary in gaining People of Sense, who are not yet given up to Self-Conceit; those who are far gone in Admiration of themselves need not be...

    • Number 12 Wednesday, March 25
      (pp. 76-78)

      WHEN A POEM makes its first Appearance in the World, I have always observed, that it gives Employment to a greater number of Criticks, than any other kind of Writing. Whether it be that most Men, at some time of their Lives, have try’d their Talent that way, and thereby think they have a right to judge; or whether they imagine, that their making shrewd Observations upon the Polite Arts, gives them a pretty figure; or whether there may not be some Jealousie and Caution in bestowing Applause upon those who write chiefly for Fame. Whatever the Reasons be, we...

    • Number 13 Thursday, March 26
      (pp. 78-81)

      THE READER has had some Account of the whole Family of theLizards, except the younger Sons. These are the Branches which ordinarily spread themselves, when they happen to be hopeful, into other Houses, and new Generations, as honourable, numerous and wealthy as those from whence they are derived. For this reason it is, that a very peculiar Regard is to be had to their Education.

      Young Men, when they are good for any thing, and left to their own Inclinations, delight either in those Accomplishments we call their Exercise, in the Sports of the Field, or in Letters. Mr....

    • Number 14 Friday, March 27
      (pp. 81-83)


      YOU HAVING in your First Paper declared, among other things, that you will publish whatever you think may conduce to the Advancement of the Conversation of Gentlemen, I cannot but hope you will give my Young Masters, when I have told you their Age, Condition, and how they lead their Lives, and who, though I say it, are as docil as any Youths inEurope, a Lesson which they very much want, to restrain ’em from the Infection of bad Company, and squandering away their Time in idle and unworthy Pursuits. A Word from you, I am very well...

    • Number 15 Saturday, March 28
      (pp. 84-86)

      I CAME yesterday into the Parlour, where I found Mrs.Cornelia, my Lady’s third Daughter, all alone, reading a Paper, which, as I afterwards found, contained a Copy of Verses upon Love and Friendship. She, I believe, apprehended that I had glanced my Eye upon the Paper, and by the Order and Disposition of the Lines might distinguish that they were Poetry; and therefore, with an innocent Confusion in her Face, she told me I might read them if I pleased, and so withdrew. By the Hand, at first sight, I could not guess whether they came from a Beau...

    • Number 16 Monday, March 30
      (pp. 86-89)

      TWO MORNINGS ago a Gentleman came in to my LadyLizardsTea-Table, who is distinguished in Town by the good Taste he is known to have in polite Writings, especially such as relate to Love and Gallantry. The Figure of the Man had something odd and grotesque in it, though his Air and Manner were genteel and easie, and his Wit agreeable. The Ladies, in Complaisance to him, turned the Discourse to Poetry. This soon gave him an Occasion of producing two new Songs to the Company; which, he said, he would venture to recommend as compleat Performances. The first,...

    • Number 17 Tuesday, March 31
      (pp. 90-93)

      IF IT WERE possible to bear up against the Force of Ridicule, which Fashion has brought upon People for acknowledging a Veneration for the most Sacred things, a Man might say that the time we are now in is set apart for Humiliation; and all our Actions should at present more particularly tend that way. I remember about thirty Years ago an eminent Divine,¹ who was also most exactly well-bred, told his Congregation atWhitehall, That if they did not vouchsafe to give their Lives a new Turn, they must certainly go to a Place which he did not think...

    • Number 18 Wednesday, April 1
      (pp. 93-96)

      THE PROSPECT of Death is so gloomy and dismal, that if it were constantly before our Eyes, it would imbitter all the Sweets of Life. The gracious Author of our Being hath therefore so formed us, that we are capable of many pleasing Sensations and Reflections, and meet with so many Amusements and Solicitudes, as divert our Thoughts from dwelling upon an Evil, which, by reason of its seeming distance, makes but languid Impressions upon the Mind. But how distant soever the Time of our Death may be, since it is certain that we must die, it is necessary to...

    • Number 19 Thursday, April 2
      (pp. 97-99)

      IT WAS prettily observed by some body concerning the great Vices, that there are three which give Pleasure, as Covetousness, Gluttony and Lust; one, which tasts of nothing but Pain, as Envy; the rest have a Mixture of Pleasure and Pain, as Anger and Pride.¹ But when a Man considers the State of his own Mind, about which every Member of the Christian World is supposed at this time to be employed, he will find that the best Defence against Vice is preserving the worthiest Part of his own Spirit pure from any great Offence against it. There is a...

    • Number 20 Friday, April 3
      (pp. 99-102)

      ALL GALLANTRY and Fashion, one would imagine, should rise out of the Religion and Laws of that Nation wherein they prevail; but alas! in this Kingdom, gay Characters, and those which lead in the Pleasures and Inclinations of the fashionable World, are such as are readiest to practise Crimes the most abhorrent to Nature, and contradictory to our Faith. A Christian and a Gentleman are made inconsistent Appellations of the same Person; you are not to expect eternal Life, if you do not forgive Injuries, and your mortal Life is uncomfortable, if you are not ready to commit a Murder,...

    • Number 21 Saturday, April 4
      (pp. 102-104)

      DR. TILLOTSON, in his Discourse concerningthe Danger of all tyiown Sin, both from the Light of Nature and Revelation, after having given us the Description of the Last Day out of Holy Writ, has this remarkable Passage.

      ‘I appeal to any Man, whether this be not a Representation of things very proper and suitable tothat Great Day, wherein he who made the World shall come to judge it? And whether the Wit of Man ever devised any thing so awful, and so agreeable to the Majesty of God, and the solemn Judgment of the whole World? The Description...

    • Number 22 Monday, April 6
      (pp. 105-107)

      PASTORAL Poetry not only amuses the Fancy the most delightfully, but is likewise more indebted to it than any other sort whatsoever. It transports us into a kind ofFairy Land, where our Ears are soothed with the Melody of Birds, bleating Flocks, and purling Streams; our Eyes enchanted with flowery Meadows and springing Greens; we are laid under cool Shades, and entertained with all the Sweets and Freshness of Nature. It is a Dream, ’tis a Vision, which we wish may be real, and we believe that it is true.

      Mrs.Cornelia Lizard’s Head was so far turned with...

    • Number 23 Tuesday, April 7
      (pp. 107-109)

      HAVING already conveyed my Reader into the Fairy or Pastoral Land, and informed him what manner of Life the Inhabitants of that Region lead; I shall in this Day’s Paper give him some Marks, whereby he may discover whether he is imposed upon by those who pretend to be of that Country; or, in other Words, what are the Characteristicks of a trueArcadian.

      From the foregoing Account of the Pastoral Life, we may discover that Simplicity is necessary in the Character of Shepherds. Their Minds must be supposed so rude and uncultivated, that nothing but what is plain and...

    • Number 24 Wednesday, April 8
      (pp. 110-113)

      JACK LIZARD was about Fifteen when he was first entered in the University, and being a Youth of a great deal of Fire, and a more than ordinary Application to his Studies, it gave his Conversation a very particular Turn. He had too much Spirit to hold his Tongue in Company; but at the same time so little Acquaintance with the World, that he did not know how to talk like other People.

      After a Year and half’s Stay at the University, he came down among us to pass away a Month or two in the Country. The first Night...

    • Number 25 Thursday, April 9
      (pp. 113-116)

      THE prevailing Humour of crying up Authors that have writ in the Days of our Fore-fathers, and of passing slightly over the Merit of our Contemporaries, is a Grievance that Men of a free and unprejudiced Thought have complained of throughaall Ages in their Writings.

      I went home last Night full of these Reflections from a Coffee-House where a great many excellent Writings were arraigned, and as many very indifferent ones applauded, more (as it seemed to me) upon the Account of their Date, than upon any intrinsick Value or Demerit. The Conversation ended with great Encomiums upon my...

    • Number 26 Friday, April 10
      (pp. 116-119)

      AN HEALTHY old Fellow, that is not a Fool, is the happiest Creature living. It is at that Time of Life only Men enjoy their Faculties with Pleasure and Satisfaction. It is then we have nothing to manage, as the Phrase is; we speak the downright Truth, and whether the rest of the World will give us the Privilege or not, we have so little to ask of them that we can take it. I shall be very free with the Women from this one Consideration; and having nothing to desire of them, shall treat them as they stand in...

    • Number 27 Saturday, April 11
      (pp. 119-122)

      IN COMPASSION to those gloomy Mortals, who by their Unbelief are rendered incapable of feeling those Impressions of Joy and Hope, which the Celebration of the late glorious Festival naturally leaves on the Mind of a Christian,¹ I shall in this Paper endeavour to evince that there are Grounds to expect a future State, without supposing in the Reader any Faith at all, not even the Belief of a Deity. Let the most stedfast Unbeliever open his Eyes, and take a Survey of the sensible World, and then say if there be not a Connexion, an Adjustment, an exact and...

    • Number 28 Monday, April 13
      (pp. 122-124)

      THEOCRITUS,BionandMoschusare the most famous amongst theGreekWriters of Pastorals.¹ The two latter of these are judged to be far short ofTheocritus,whom I shall speak of more largely, because he rivals the greatest of all Poets,Virgilhimself. He hath the Advantage confessedly of theLatin,in coming before him, and writing in a Tongue more proper for Pastoral. The Softness of theDorickDialect, which this Poet is said to have improved beyond any who came before him, is what the AncientRomanWriters owned their Language could not approach. But besides this...

    • Number 29 Tuesday, April 14
      (pp. 124-128)

      IN ORDER to look into any Person’s Temper, I generally make my first Observation upon his Laugh, whether he is easily moved, and what are the Passages which throw him into that agreeable kind of Convulsion. People are never so much unguarded as when they are pleased; and Laughter being a visible Symptom of some inward Satisfaction, ’tis then, if ever, we may believe the Face. There is, perhaps, no better Index to point us to the Particularities of the Mind than this, which is in it self one of the chief Distinctions of our Rationality. For, asMiltonsays,...

    • Number 30 Wednesday, April 15
      (pp. 128-130)

      THEITALIANSandFrenchbeing dispatched, I come now to theEnglish,whom I shall treat with such Meekness as becomes a good Patriot; and shall so far recommend this our Island as a proper Scene for Pastoral under certain Regulations, as will satisfie the courteous Reader that I am in the Landed Interest.¹

      I must in the first place observe, that our Countrymen have so good an Opinion of the Ancients, and think so modestly of themselves, that the generality of Pastoral Writers have either stoln all from theGreeksandRomans,or so servilely imitated their Manners and...

    • Number 31 Thursday, April 16
      (pp. 131-134)

      MY LADYLizardis never better pleased than when she sees her Children about her engaged in any profitable Discourse. I found her last Night sitting in the midst of her Daughters, and forming a very beautiful Semi-circle about the Fire. I immediately took my place in an Elbow Chair, which is always left empty for me in one Corner.

      Our Conversation fell insensibly upon the Subject of Happiness, in which every one of the young Ladies gave her Opinion, with that Freedom and Unconcernedness which they always use when they are in Company only with their Mother and myself....

    • Number 32 Friday, April 17
      (pp. 135-138)

      HAVING delivered my Thoughts upon Pastoral Poetry, after a Didactic manner, in some foregoing Papers, wherein I have taken such Hints from the Criticks as I thought rational, and departed from them according to the best of my Judgment, and substituted others in their Place, I shall close the whole with the following Fable or Allegory.

      In ancient Times there dwelt in a pleasant Vale ofArcadiaa Man of very ample Possessions, namedMenalcas;who, deriving his Pedigree from the GodPan,kept very strictly up to the Rules of the Pastoral Life, as it was in theGolden....

    • Number 33 Saturday, April 18
      (pp. 138-141)

      I HAVE made it a Rule to my self not to Publish any thing on aSaturday,but what shall have some Analogy to the Duty of the Day ensuing. It is an unspeakable Pleasure to me, that I have lived to see the Time wherein I can observe such a Law to my self, and yet turn my Discourse upon what is done at the Play-House. I am sure the Reader knows I am going to mentionthe Tragedy of CATO. The principal Character is moved by no Consideration, but respect to that sort of Virtue, the Sense of...

    • Number 34 Monday, April 20
      (pp. 142-144)

      IT IS A MOST vexatious thing to an old Man, who endeavours to square his Notions by Reason, and to talk from Reflection and Experience, to fall in with a Circle of young Ladies at their Afternoon Tea-Table. This happened very lately to be my Fate. The Conversation, for the first half hour, was so very rambling, that it is hard to say what was talked of, or who spoke least to the Purpose. The various Motions of the Fan, the Tossings of the Head, intermixt with all the pretty kinds of Laughter, made up the greatest part of the...

    • Number 35 Tuesday, April 21
      (pp. 144-146)


      ‘I AM A MAN who have spent great part of that Time in rambling through Foreign Countries, which young Gentlemen usually pass at the University; by which course of Life, although I have acquired no small Insight into the Manners and Conversation of Men, yet I could not make proportionable Advances in the way of Science and Speculation. In my Return thoroughFrance,as I was one Day setting forth this my Case to a certain Gentleman of that Nation, with whom I had contracted a Friendship, after some Pause, he conducted me into his Closet, and opening a...

    • Number 36 Wednesday, April 22
      (pp. 147-150)

      THE GENTLEMAN, who doth me the Favour to write the following Letter, saith as much for himself as the Thing will bear. I am particularly pleased to find, that in hisApology for Punninghe only celebrates the Art, as it is a Part of Conversation. I look upon premeditated Quibbles and Punns committed to the Press as unpardonable Crimes. There is as much Difference betwixt these and the Starts in common Discourse, as betwixt casual Rencounters, and Murder with Malice Præpense.¹


      ‘I Have, from your Writings, conceived such an Opinion of your Benevolence to Mankind, that I trust...

    • Number 37 Thursday, April 23
      (pp. 150-153)

      IT IS NATURAL for an old Man to be fond of such Entertainments as revive in his Imagination the agreeable Impressions made upon it in his Youth: The Sett of Wits and Beauties he was first acquainted with, the Balls and Drawing-Rooms in which he made an agreeable Figure, the Musick and Actors he heard and saw, when his Life was fresh and his Spirits vigorous and quick, have usually the Preference in his Esteem to any succeeding Pleasures that present themselves when his Taste is grown more languid. It is for this Reason I never see a Picture of...

    • Number 38 Friday, April 24
      (pp. 154-156)

      I HAVE lately given aPrecautionconcerning the Difficulty in arriving at what ought to be esteemed aFine Gentlemen. That Character has been long wholly engrossed by well-drest Beaus, and Men of Sense have given up all Pretence to it. The highest any of them contend for is the Character of apretty Gentleman;for here the Dress may be more careless, and some Wit is thought necessary, whereas aFine Gentlemanis not obliged to Converse further than the offering his Snuff-box round the Room. However, thepretty Gentlemanmust have his Airs, and tho’ they are not...

    • Number 39 Saturday, April 25
      (pp. 156-159)

      MY CORRESPONDENT, who has acquired the Faculty of entering into other Mens Thoughts, having in pursuance to a former Letter sent me an Account of certain useful Discoveries he has made by the help of that Invention, I shall communicate the same to the Publick in this Paper.

      Mr. Ironside,

      ‘ON the 11th Day ofOctoberin the Year 1712, having left my Body locked up safe in my Study, I repaired to theGrecianCoffee-house,¹ where entering into thePineal Glandof a certain eminentFree-thinker,I made directly to the highest part of it, which is the Seat...

    • Number 40 Monday, April 27
      (pp. 160-165)

      I DESIGNED to have troubled the Reader with no farther Discourses ofPastorals,but being informed that I am taxed of Partiality in not mentioning an Author, whose Eclogues are published in the same Volume with Mr.Philips’s; I shall employ this Paper in Observations upon him, written in the free Spirit of Criticism, and without Apprehension of offending that Gentleman, whose Character it is, that he takes the greatest Care of his Works before they are published, and has the least Concern for them afterwards.

      I have laid it down as the first Rule of Pastoral, that its Idea...

    • Number 41 Tuesday, April 28
      (pp. 166-168)

      THE FOLLOWING Letter has so much Truth and Reason in it, that I believe every Man of Sense and Honour inEngland,will have a just Indignation against the Person, who could commit so great a Violence, as that of which my Correspondent complains.


      ‘I CLAIM a Place in your Paper for what I now write to you, from the Declaration which you made at your first Appearance, and the very Title you assume to your self.

      ‘If the Circumstance, which I am going to mention, is over look’d by one, who calls himselfGuardian,I am sure Honour...

    • Number 42 Wednesday, April 29
      (pp. 169-172)

      TOMLIZARDtold us a Story, the other Day, of some Persons which our Family know very well, with so much Humour and Life, that it caused a great deal of Mirth at the Tea-Table. His BrotherWill,theTemplar,was highly delighted with it, and the next Day being with some of his Inns-of-Court Acquaintance, resolved (whether out of the Benevolence, or the Pride of his Heart, I will not determine) to entertain them with what he calleda pleasant Humour enough. I was in great Pain for him when I heard him begin, and was not at all...

    • Number 43 Thursday, April 30
      (pp. 172-174)

      I HAD FOR some Days observed something in Agitation, which was carried by Smiles and Whispers, between my LadyLizardand her Daughters, with a professed Declaration that Mr.Ironsideshould not be in the Secret. I would not trespass upon the Integrity of theSparklerso much as to sollicit her to break her Word even in a Trifle; but I take it for an Instance of her Kindness to me, that as soon as she was at Liberty she was impatient to let me know it, and this Morning sent me the following Billet.


      ‘MY BrotherTom....

    • Number 44 Friday, May 1
      (pp. 175-178)

      I HAVE frequently observed in the Walks belonging to all the Inns of Court, a Sett of old Fellows who appear to be Humourists, and wrapped up in themselves; but have long been at a loss when I have seen them Smile, and name my Name as I passed by, and say oldIronsidewears well. I am a meer Boy to some of them who frequentGray’s-Inn,but am not a little pleased to find they are even with the World, and return upon it its Neglect towards them, which is all the Defence we old Fellows have against...

    • Number 45 Saturday, May 2
      (pp. 178-181)

      I DON’T KNOW that I have been more intimately moved with Pity in my whole Life, than when I was reading a Letter from a young Woman, not yet Nineteen, in which there are these lamentable Words,Alas! whitherashall I fly? he has deceived, ruined and left me. The Circumstances of her Story are only those ordinary ones, that her Lover was a Man of greater Fortune than she could expect would Address to her upon honourable Terms; but she said to her self,she had Wit and Beauty, and such Charms as often Captivate so far as to make...

    • Number 46 Monday, May 4
      (pp. 181-184)

      YESTERDAY, at my LadyLizard’s Tea-Table, the Discourse happened to turn upon Women of Renown; such as have distinguished themselves in the World by surprising Actions, or by any great and shining Qualities, so as to draw upon themselves the Envy of their own Sex, and the Admiration of ours. My Lady has been curious in collecting the Lives of the most famous, of which she has a considerable number, both in Print and in Manuscript. This naturally led me to speak of MadamMaintenon;and, at the Request of my Lady and her Daughters, I have undertaken to put...

    • Number 47 Tuesday, May 5
      (pp. 184-189)

      MADEMOISELLEDaubignéwas conducted from MadamVillete’s to a Relation, who had a Law-Suit then depending atParis;and being for that Reason obliged to go thither, she carryed MademoiselleDaubignéwith her. This Lady hired Apartments in the same House where the famousScaronwas lodged: She made anaAcquaintance with him; and one Day, being obliged to go abroad alone upon a Visit, she desired he would give her Cousin leave, in the mean time, to come and sit with him; knowing very well that a young Lady was in no Danger from such a Person, and that...

    • Number 48 Wednesday, May 6
      (pp. 189-192)

      IT IS THE general Opinion, that MadamMaintenonhas of late Years influenced all the Measures of the Court ofFrance. The King, when he has taken the Air after Dinner, never fails of going to sit with her till about Ten a-Clock; at which time he leaves her to go to his Supper. The Comptroller-General of the Finances likewise comes to her Apartments to meet the King: While they are in Discourse MadamMaintenonsits at her Wheel towards the other end of the Room, not seeming to give the least Attention to what is said. Nevertheless, the Minister...

    • Number 49 Thursday, May 7
      (pp. 192-195)

      IT IS OF great Use to consider the Pleasures which constitute Human Happiness, as they are distinguished into Natural and Fantastical.Natural PleasuresI call those, which, not depending on the Fashion and Caprice of any particular Age or Nation, are suited to Humane Nature in general, and were intended by Providence as Rewards for the using our Faculties agreeably to the Ends for which they were given us.Fantastical Pleasuresare those which having no natural Fitness to delight our Minds, presuppose some particular Whim or Taste accidentally prevailing in a Sett of People, to which it is owing...

    • Number 50 Friday, May 8
      (pp. 195-198)

      THE PERPLEXITIES and Diversions, recounted in the following Letter, are represented with some pleasantry; I shall therefore make this Epistle the Entertainment of the Day.


      ‘THE TIME of going into the Country drawing near,¹ I am extremely enlivened with the agreeable Memorial of every Thing that contributed to my Happiness when I was last there. In the recounting of which, I shall not dwell so much upon the Verdure of the Fields, the Shade of Woods, the Trilling of Rivulets, or Melody of Birds, as upon some particular Satisfactions, which, though not merely Rural, must naturally create a Desire...

    • Number 51 Saturday, May 9
      (pp. 199-202)

      TIS PROBABLE the first Poets were found at the Altar, that they employed their Talents in adorning and animating the Worship of their Gods; the Spirit of Poetry and Religion reciprocally warm’d each other, Devotion inspir’d Poetry, and Poetry exalted Devotion; the most Sublime Capacities were put to the most noble Use; Purity of Will, and Fineness of Understanding, were not such Strangers as they have been in latter Ages, but were most frequently lodg’d in the same Breast, and went, as it were, Hand in Hand, to the Glory of the World’s great Ruler, and the Benefit of Mankind....

    • Number 52 Monday, May 11
      (pp. 203-208)

      I SHALL not assume to my self the Merit of every thing in these Papers. Wheresoever, in Reading or Conversation, I observe any thing that is curious and uncommon, useful or entertaining, I resolve to give it to the Publick. The greatest Part of this very Paper is an Extract from aFrenchManuscript, which was lent me by my good Friend MrCharwell;he tells me he has had it above this twenty Years in his Possession; and he seems to me to have taken from it very many of the Maxims he has pursued in the new Settlement,...

    • Number 53 Tuesday, May 12
      (pp. 208-211)

      IT HAPPENS that the Letter which was in one of my Papers, concerning a Lady ill treated by theExaminer,and to which he replies by taxing theTattlerwith the like Practice, was written by oneSteele,who put his Name to the Collection of Papers calledLucubrations. It was a wrong thing in theExaminerto go any farther than theGuardianfor what is said in theGuardian:But sinceSteeleowns the Letter, it is the same thing. I apprehend, by reading theExaminerover a second time, that he insinuates, by the Words close to...

    • Number 54 Wednesday, May 13
      (pp. 211-214)

      IT HAS been observed very often, in Authors Divine and Prophane, that we are all equal after Death, and this by way of Consolation, for that deplorable Superiority which some among us seem to have over others; but it would be a Doctrine of much more comfortable Import, to establish an Equality among the Living; for the Propagation of which Paradox I shall hazard the following Conceits.¹

      I must here lay it down, that I don’t pretend to satisfie every barren Reader, that all Persons that have hitherto apprehended themselves extremely miserable shall have immediate Succour from the Publication of...

    • Number 55 Thursday, May 14
      (pp. 214-216)

      IT IS USUAL with Polemical Writers to object ill Designs to their Adversaries. This turns their Argument into Satyr, which instead of shewing an Error in the Understanding, tends only to expose the Morals of those they write against. I shall not act after this manner with respect to theFree-Thinkers. Virtue, and the Happiness of Society, are the great Ends which all Men ought to promote, and some of that Sect would be thought to have at Heart above the rest of Mankind. But supposing those who make that Profession to carry on a good Design in the Simplicity...

    • Number 56 Friday, May 15
      (pp. 217-220)

      I WAS CONSIDERING last Night, when I could not sleep, how noble a Part of the Creation Man was designed to be, and how distinguished in all his Actions above other Earthly Creatures. From hence I fell to take a View of the Change and Corruption which he has introduced into his own Condition, the groveling Appetites, the mean Characters of Sense, and wild Courses of Passions, that cast him from the Degree in which Providence had placed him, the debasing himself with Qualifications not his own, and his degenerating into a lower Sphear of Action. This inspired me with...

    • Number 57 Saturday, May 16
      (pp. 220-223)

      IT IS OF no small Concern to me that the Interests of Virtue are supplanted by common Custom, and Regard for indifferent things. Thus Mode and Fashion defend the most absurd and unjust Proceedings, and no Body is out of Countenance for doing what every Body practises, though at the same time there is no one who is not convinced in his own Judgment of the Errors in which he goes on with the Multitude. My Correspondent, who writes me the following Letter, has put together a great many Points which would deserve serious Consideration, as much as things which...

    • Number 58 Monday, May 18
      (pp. 223-226)

      A PUBLICK Spirit is so great and amiable a Character, that most People pretend to it, and perhaps think they have it in the most ordinary Occurrences of Life. Mrs.Cornelia Lizardbuys abundance of Romances for the Encouragement of Learning; and Mrs.Annabellasquanders away her Mony in buying fine Cloaths, because it sets a great many Poor People at Work. I know a Gentleman, who drinks vast Quantities of Ale andOctober,¹ to encourage our own Manufacture; and another who takes his three Bottles ofFrenchClaret every Night, because it brings a great Custom to the Crown....

    • Number 59 Tuesday, May 19
      (pp. 226-229)

      THE TRAGEDY ofCatohas encreased the number of my Correspondents, but none of ’em can take it ill that I give the Preference to the Letters which come from a Learned Body, and which on this occasion may not improperly be termed thePlausus Academici. The first is from my LadyLizard’s youngest Son, who (as I mentioned in a formerPrecaution)¹ is Fellow ofAll-Souls,and applies himself to the Study of Divinity.


      ‘I RETURN you Thanks for your Present ofCato;I have read it over several times with the greatest Attention and Pleasure imaginable: You...

    • Number 60 Wednesday, May 20
      (pp. 230-232)


      THERE is nothing in which Men deceive themselves more ridiculously, than in the Point of Reading, and which, as it’s commonly practised, under the Notion of Improvement, has less Advantage. The generality of Readers, who are pleased with wandring over a number of Books almost at the same Instant, or if confined to one, who pursue the Author with much Hurry and Impatience to his last Page, must without doubt be allowed to be notable Digesters. This unsettled way of Reading, naturally seduces us into as undetermined a manner of Thinking, which unprofitably fatigues the Imagination, when a continued...

    • Number 61 Thursday, May 21
      (pp. 233-237)

      I CANNOT think it extravagant to imagine, that Mankind are no less, in Proportion, accountable for the ill Use of their Dominion over Creatures of the lower Rank of Beings, than for the Exercise of Tyranny over their own Species. The more entirely the Inferior Creation is submitted to our Power, the more answerable we should seem for our Mismanagement of it; and the rather, as the very Condition of Nature renders these Creatures incapable of receiving any Recompence in another Life for their ill Treatment in this.

      ‘Tis observable of those noxious Animals, which have Qualities most powerful to...

    • Number 62 Friday, May 22
      (pp. 237-240)

      UPON THE late Election ofKing’sScholars, my Curiosity drew me toWestminsterSchool. The sight of a Place where I had not been for many Years, revived in my Thoughts the tender Images of my Childhood, which by a great length of Time had contracted a Softness that rendered them inexpressibly agreeable. As it is usual with me to draw a secret unenvied Pleasure from a thousand Incidents overlooked by other Men, I threw my self into a short Transport, forgetting my Age, and fancying my self a School-boy.

      This Imagination was strongly favoured by the Presence of so...

    • Number 63 Saturday, May 23
      (pp. 240-243)

      I AM OBLIGED, for many Reasons, to insert this first Letter, tho’ it takes me out of my way, especially on aSaturday;but the Ribaldry of some part of that will be abundantly made up by the Quotation in the second.

      Friday, May22, 1713.


      ‘THEExaminerof this Day consists of Reflections upon the Letter I writ to you, published in yours of the 12th Instant. The Sentence upon which he spends most of his Invectives, is this,I will give my self no manner of Liberty to make Guesses at him, if I may say him;...

    • Number 64 Monday, May 25
      (pp. 243-246)

      I AM TOLD by several Persons whom I have taken into my Ward, that it is to their great Damage I have digressed so much of late from the natural Course of my Precautions. They have Addressed and Petitioned me with Appellations and Titles, which admonish me to be that sort of Patron which they want me to be, as follows.

      ‘THAT your Petitioners behold, with great Sorrow, your Honour employing your important Moments in remedying Matters which nothing but Time can cure, and which do not so immediately, or, at least, so professedly appertain to your Office, as do...

    • Number 65 Tuesday, May 26
      (pp. 246-249)

      THERE is not any where, I believe, so much Talk about Religion, as among us inEngland;nor do I think it possible for the Wit of Man to devise Forms of Address to the Almighty, in more ardent and forcible Terms than are every where to be found in ourBook of Common Prayer. And yet I have heard it read with such a Negligence, Affectation, and Impatience, that the Efficacy of it has been apparently lost to all the Congregation: For my part I make no scruple to own it, that I go sometimes to a particular Place...

    • Number 66 Wednesday, May 27
      (pp. 249-253)

      THE FOLLOWING Letter is full of Imagination, and, in a fabulous manner, sets forth a Connexion between Things, and an Alliance between Persons that are very distant and remote to common Eyes. I think I know the Hand to be that of a very Ingenious Man, and shall therefore give it the Reader without further Preface.


      ‘THERE is a Sett of Mankind, who are wholly employed in the Ill-natured Office of gathering up a Collection of Stories that lessen the Reputation of others, and spreading them Abroad with a certain Air of Satisfaction. Perhaps, indeed, an innocent unmeaning Curiosity,...

    • Number 67 Thursday, May 28
      (pp. 253-255)

      IT HAS been remarked, by curious Observers, that Poets are generally Long-lived, and run beyond the usual Age of Man, if not cut off by some Accident or Excess, asAnacreon,¹ in the midst of a veryamerry old Age, was choaked with a Grape-stone. The same Redundancy of Spirits, that produces the Poetical Flame, keeps up the vital Warmth, and administers uncommon Fewel to Life. I question not but several Instances will occur to my Reader’s Memory, fromHomerdown to Mr.Dryden. I shall only take Notice of two who have excelled in Ly ricks, the one an...

    • Number 68 Friday, May 29
      (pp. 255-258)

      THE PAPER of to-Day shall consist of a Letter from my Friend SirHarry Lizard,which, with my Answer, may be worth the Perusal of young Men of Estates, and young Women without Fortunes. It is absolutely necessary, that in our first vigorous Years we lay down some Law to our selves for the Conduct of future Life, which may at least prevent essential Misfortunes. The cutting Cares which attend such an Affection as that, against which I forewarn my Friend SirHarry,are very well known to all who are called the Men of Pleasure; but when they have...

    • Number 69 Saturday, May 30
      (pp. 258-261)

      I HAD THIS Morning a very valuable and kind Present sent me, of a translated Work of a most excellent Foreign Writer, who makes a very considerable Figure in the Learned and Christian World. It is Entituled,A Demonstration of the Existence, Wisdom, and Omnipotence of God,drawn from the Knowledge of Nature, particularly of Man, and fitted to the meanest Capacity, by the Archbishop ofCambray,Author ofTelemachus,and translated from theFrenchby the same Hand thatEnglishedthat excellent Piece. This great Author, in the Writings which he has before produced, has manifested an Heart full...

    • Number 70 Monday, June 1
      (pp. 261-264)

      AS I WAS, the other Day, taking a Solitary Walk in St.Paul’s, I indulged my Thoughts in the Pursuit of a certain Analogy between that Fabrick and theChristian Churchin the largest Sense. The Divine Order and OEconomy of the one seemed to be emblematically set forth by the just, plain, and majestic Architecture of the other. And as the one consists of a great variety of Parts united in the same regular Design, according to the truest Art, and most exact Proportion; so the other contains a decent Subordination of Members, various sacred Institutions, sublime Doctrines, and...

    • Number 71 Tuesday, June 2
      (pp. 264-267)

      I QUESTION not but my Country Customers will be surprised to hear me complain that this Town is, of late Years, very much infested with Lions; and will, perhaps, look upon it as a strange Piece of News when I assure them that there are many of these Beasts of Prey, who walk our Streets, in broad Day-light, beating about from Coffee-house to Coffee-house, and seeking whom they may devour.¹

      To unriddle this Paradox, I must acquaint my Rural Reader that we polite Men of the Town give the Name of a Lion to any one that is a great...

    • Number 72 Wednesday, June 3
      (pp. 267-270)

      OXFORD is a Place which I am more inquisitive about, than even that of my Nativity; and when I have an Account of any sprightly Saying, or rising Genius from thence, it brings my own youthful Days into my Mind, and throws me Forty Years back into Life. It is for this Reason, that I have thought my self a little neglected of late byJack Lizard,from whom I used to hear at least once a Week. The last Post brought me his Excuse, which is, that he hath been wholly taken up in preparing some Exercises for the...

    • Number 73 Thursday, June 4
      (pp. 270-273)

      IT IS MATTER of great Concern that there come so many Letters to me, wherein I see Parents make Love for their Children, and without any manner of Regard to the Season of Life, and the respective Interests of their Progeny, judge of their future Happiness by the Rules of ordinary Commerce. When a Man falls in Love in some Families they use him as if his Land was mortgaged to ’em, and he cannot discharge himself, but by really making it the same thing in an unreasonable Settlement, or foregoing what is dearer to him than his Estate it...

    • Number 74 Friday, June 5
      (pp. 274-277)

      I WILL make no Apology for preferring this Letter, and the Extract following, to any thing else which I could possibly insert.

      Cambridge, May3


      ‘YOU HAVING been pleased to take Notice of what you conceived excellent in some of ourEnglishDivines, I have here presumed to send a Specimen, which, if I am not mistaken, may, for Acuteness of Judgment, Ornament of Speech, and true Sublime, compare with any of the choicest Writings of the Ancient Fathers or Doctors of the Church, who lived nearest to the Apostles Times. The Subject is no less than that of...

    • Number 75 Saturday, June 6
      (pp. 277-280)

      THIS PAPER shall consist of Extracts from two great Divines, but of very different Genius. The one is to be admired for convincing the Understanding, the other for inflaming the Heart. The former urges us in this plain and forcible manner to an Enquiry into Religion, and practising its Precepts.

      ‘Suppose the World began some time to be; it must either be made by Counsel and Design, that is, produced by some Being that knew what it did, that did Contrive it and Frame it as it is; which it is easie to conceive, a Being that is infinitely Good,...

    • Number 76 Monday, June 8
      (pp. 280-284)

      I EVER thought it my Duty to preserve Peace and Love among my Wards. And since I have set up for an UniversalGuardian,I have laid nothing more to Heart, than the Differences and Quarrels between the Landed and the Trading Interests of my Country, which indeed comprehends the whole. I shall always contribute, to the utmost of my Power, to reconcile these Interests to each other, and to make them both sensible that their mutual Happiness depends upon their being Friends.

      They mutually furnish each other with all the Necessaries and Conveniences of Life; the Land supplies the...

    • Number 77 Tuesday, June 9
      (pp. 284-286)

      THE WRITERS of Morality assign two sorts of Goods, the one is in it self desirable, the other is to be desired, not on Account of its own Excellency, but for the sake of some other thing which it is Instrumental to obtain. These are usually distinguished by the Appellations ofEndandMeans. We are prompted by Nature to desire the former, but that we have any Appetite for the latter is owing to Choice and Deliberation.

      But, as wise Men engage in the Pursuit of Means, from a farther View of some natural Good with which they are...

    • Number 78 Wednesday, June 10
      (pp. 287-290)

      IT IS NO small Pleasure to me, who am zealous in the Interests of Learning, to think I may have the Honour of leading the Town into a very new and uncommon Road of Criticism. As that kind of Literature is at present carried on, it consists only in a Knowledge of Mechanick Rules, which contribute to the Structure of different sorts of Poetry, as the Receits of good Houswives do to the making Puddings of Flower, Oranges, Plumbs, or any other Ingredients. It would, methinks, make these my Instructions more easily intelligible to ordinary Readers, if I discoursed of...

    • Number 79 Thursday, June 11
      (pp. 290-293)

      IT IS AN Employment worthy a reasonable Creature, to examine into the Disposition of Men’s Affections towards each other, and, as far as one can, to improve all Tendencies to Good-nature and Charity. No one could be unmoved with this Epistle, which I received the other Day from one of my Correspondents, and which is full of the most ardent Benevolence.


      ‘I SELDOM read your Political, your Critical, your Ludicrous, or, if you will call them so, your Polite Papers, but when I observe any thing which I think written for the Advancement of Good-will amongst Men, and laying...

    • Number 80 Friday, June 12
      (pp. 293-296)

      I HAVE found, by Experience, that it is impossible to Talk distinctly without defining the Words of which we make use. There is not a Term in our Language which wants Explanation so much as the WordChurch. One would think when People utter it, they should have in their Minds Ideas of Virtue and Religion; but that important Monosyllable drags all the other Words in the Language after it, and it is made use of to express both Praise and Blame, according to the Character of him who speaks it. By this means it happens, that no one knows...

    • Number 81 Saturday, June 13
      (pp. 296-298)

      THE PAPER which was published on the 30th of last Month, ended with a Piece of Devotion written by the Archbishop ofCambray. It would (as it was hinted in thatPrecaution)be of singular Use, for the Improvement of our Minds, to have the secret Thoughts of Men of good Talents on such Occasions. I shall for the Entertainment of this Day give my Reader two Pieces, which, if he is curious, will be pleasing for that Reason, if they prove to have no other Effect upon him. One of them was found in the Closet of anAthenian...

    • Number 82 Monday, June 15
      (pp. 299-302)

      THOUGH Men see every Day People go to their long Home, who are younger than themselves, they are not so apt to be alarmed at that, as at the Decease of those who have lived longer in their sight: They miss their Acquaintance, and are surprized at the loss of an habitual Object. This gave me so much Concern for the Death of Mr.William Peerof the Theatre-Royal, who was an Actor at the Restoration, and took his Theatrical Degree withBetterton, KynastonandHarris.¹ Tho’ his Station was humble he performed it well, and the common Comparison with...

    • Number 83 Tuesday, June 16
      (pp. 302-305)

      THERE is a restless Endeavour in the Mind of Man after Happiness. This Appetite is wrought into the Original Frame of our Nature, and exerts it self in all parts of the Creation that are endued with any degree of Thought or Sense. But as the Human Mind is dignified by a more comprehensive Faculty than can be found in the inferior Animals, it is natural for Men not only to have an Eye, each to his own Happiness, but also to endeavour to promote that of others in the same Rank of Being: And in proportion to the Generosity...

    • Number 84 Wednesday, June 17
      (pp. 305-307)

      Middle-Temple, June12.


      PRESUMING you may sometimes condescend to take Cognizance of small Enormities, I here lay one before you, which I proceed to without further Apology, as well knowing that the best Compliment to a Man of Business is to come to the Point.

      ‘There is a silly Habit among many of our Minor Orators, who display their Eloquence in the several Coffee-houses of this fair City, to the no small Annoyance of considerable Numbers of her Majesty’s spruce and loving Subjects, and that is a Humour they have got of twisting off your Buttons. These Ingenious Gentlemen...

    • Number 85 Thursday, June 18
      (pp. 308-311)

      TO SUFFER Scandal (says somebody) is the Tax which every Person of Merit pays to the Publick;¹ and my LordVerulamfinely observes, that a Man who has no Virtue in himself, ever envies Virtue in others. I know not how it comes to pass, But Detraction thro’ all Ages has been found a Vice which the Fair Sex too easily give into. Not theRomanSatyrist could use them with more Severity than they themselves do one another.² Some audacious Criticks, in my Opinion, have launched out a little too far, when they take upon them to prove, in...

    • Number 86 Friday, June 19
      (pp. 311-315)

      Oxford, June16, 1713.


      THE CLASSICAL Writers, according to your Advice, are by no means neglected by me, while I pursue my Studies in Divinity. I am perswaded that they are Fountains of good Sense and Eloquence; and that it is absolutely necessary for a young Mind to form itself upon such Models. For, by a careful Study of their Stile and Manner, we shall at least avoid those Faults, into which a youthful Imagination is apt to hurry us; such as Luxuriance of Fancy, Licentiousness of Stile,¹ Redundancy of Thought, and false Ornaments. As I have been flattered...

    • Number 87 Saturday, June 20
      (pp. 315-318)

      MY PRECAUTIONS are made up of all that I can hear and see, translate, borrow, paraphrase or contract, from the Persons with whom I mingle and converse, and the Authors whom I read. But the grave Discourses which I sometimes give the Town, do not win so much Attention as lighter Matters. For this Reason it is, that I am obliged to consider Vice as it is ridiculous, and accompanied with Gallantry, else I find in a very short time I shall lye like waste Paper on the Tables of Coffeehouses: Where I have taken most Pains I often find...

    • Number 88 Monday, June 22
      (pp. 318-320)

      TO ONE who regards things with a Philosophical Eye, and hath a Soul capable of being delighted with the Sense that Truth and Knowledge prevail among Men, it must be a grateful Reflection to think that the sublimest Truths, which among the Heathens only here and there one of brighter Parts and more Leisure than ordinary could attain to, are now grown familiar to the meanest Inhabitants of these Nations.

      Whence came this surprising Change, that Regions formerly inhabited by ignorant and savage People should now outshine AncientGreece,and the other Eastern Countries, so renowned of old, in the...

    • Number 89 Tuesday, June 23
      (pp. 321-323)

      THE SAME Faculty of Reason and Understanding, which placeth us above the Brute part of the Creation, doth also subject our Minds to greater and more manifold Disquiets than Creatures of an inferior Rank are sensible of. It is by this that we anticipate future Disasters, and oft create to our selves real Pain from imaginary Evils, as well as multiply the Pangs arising from those which cannot be avoided.

      It behoves us therefore to make the best Use of that sublime Talent, which, so long as it continues the Instrument of Passion, will serve only to make us more...

    • Number 90 Wednesday, June 24
      (pp. 323-325)

      IT IS, THEY say, frequent with Authors to write Letters to themselves, either out of Laziness or Vanity. The following is Genuine, and, I think, deserves the Attention of every Man of Sense inEngland.


      ‘THOUGH I am not apt to make Complaints, and have never yet troubled you with any, and little thought I ever should, yet seeing that in your Paper of this Day, you take no Notice of Yesterday’sExaminer,as I hoped you would, my Love for my Religion, which is so nearly concerned, would not permit me to be silent. The Matter, Sir, is...

    • Number 91 Thursday, June 25
      (pp. 325-327)

      IT IS THE great Rule of Behaviour to follow Nature, the Author of the following Letter is so much convinced of this Truth, that he turns what would render a Man of a little Soul exceptious, humoursome, and particular in all his Actions, to a Subject of Raillery and Mirth. He is, you must know, but half as tall as an ordinary Man, but is contented to be still at his Friend’s Elbow, and has set up a Club, by which he hopes to bring those of his own Size into a little Reputation.


      ‘I REMEMBER a Saying of...

    • Number 92 Friday, June 26
      (pp. 328-330)


      THE CLUB rising early this Evening, I have time to finish my Account of it. You are already acquainted with the Nature and Design of our Institution; the Characters of the Members, and the Topicks of our Conversation, are what remain for the Subject of this Epistle.

      ‘The most eminent Persons of our Assembly are a little Poet, a little Lover, a little Politician, and a little Heroe. The first of these,Dick Distickby Name, we have elected President, not only as he is the shortest of us all, but because he has entertain’d so just a Sense...

    • Number 93 Saturday, June 27
      (pp. 331-335)

      THE FOLLOWING Letters are curious and instructive, and shall make up the Business of the Day.

      June25, 1713.


      ‘THE INCLOSED is a faithful Translation from an old Author, which if it deserves your Notice, let the Readers guess whether he was Heathen or Christian.’

      I am, Your most Humble Servant.

      ‘I cannot, my Friends, forbear letting you know what I think of Death; for methinks I view and understand it much better, the nearer I approach to it. I am convinced that your Fathers, those Illustrious Persons whom I so much loved and honoured, do not cease to...

    • Number 94 Monday, June 29
      (pp. 335-338)

      SINCE our Success in Worldly Matters may be said to depend upon our Education, it will be very much to the Purpose to enquire if the Foundations of our Fortune could not be laid deeper and surer than they are. The Education of Youth falls of Necessity under the Direction of those who, thro’ fondness to us and our Abilities, as well as to their own unwarrantable Conjectures, are very likely to be deceived, and the Misery of it is, that the poor Creatures, who are the Sufferers upon wrong Advances, seldom find out the Errors till they become irretrievable....

    • Number 95 Tuesday, June 30
      (pp. 339-342)

      I FIND Business encrease upon me very much, as will appear by the following Letters.

      Oxford, June24, 1713.


      ‘THIS Day Mr.Oliver Purville,Gent. Property Man to the Theatre-Royal in the room of Mr.William PeerDeceased,¹ arrived here in WidowBartlett’s Waggon.² He is an humble Member of the Little Club,³ and a Passionate Man, which makes him tell the Disasters which he met with on his Road hither, a little too incoherently to be rightly understood. By what I can gather from him, that within three Miles of this sideWickhamthe Party was set upon...

    • Number 96 Wednesday, July 1
      (pp. 343-345)

      THERE is no Maxim in Politicks more indisputable, than that a Nation should have many Honours in reserve for those who do National Services. This raises Emulation, cherishes Publick Merit, and inspires every one with an Ambition which promotes the Good of his Country. The less expensive these Honours are to the Publick, the more still do they turn to its Advantage.

      TheRomansabounded with these little Honorary Rewards, that without conferring Wealth or Riches, gave only Place and Distinction to the Person who received them. An Oaken Garland to be worn on Festivals and Publick Ceremonies, was the...

    • Number 97 Thursday, July 2
      (pp. 346-348)


      I WAS LEFT a Thousand Pounds by an Uncle, and being a Man to my thinking very likely to get a Rich Widow, I laid aside all Thoughts of making my Fortune any other way, and without Loss of Time made my Applications to one who had buried her Husband about a Week before. By the help of some of her She Friends, who were my Relations, I got into her Company when she would see no Man besides my self and her Lawyer, who is a little, rivelled, spindle-shanked Gentleman, and married to boot, so that I had...

    • Number 98 Friday, July 3
      (pp. 348-350)

      THE FIRST who undertook to instruct the World in single Papers, wasIsaac Bickerstaffof famous Memory; a Man nearly related to the Family of the Ironsides. We have often smoked a Pipe together, for I was so much in his Books, that at his Decease he left me a Silver Standish, a pair of Spectacles, and the Lamp by which he used to write his Lucubrations.

      The venerableIsaacwas succeeded by a Gentleman of the same Family, very memorable for the Shortness of his Face and of his Speeches. This Ingenious Author published his Thoughts, and held his...

    • Number 99 Saturday, July 4
      (pp. 350-353)

      THERE is no Virtue so truly great and godlike as Justice. Most of the other Virtues are the Virtues of Created Beings, or accommodated to our Nature as we are Men. Justice is that which is practised by God himself, and to be practised in its Perfection by none but him. Omniscience and Omnipotence are requisite for the full Exertion of it. The one, to discover every degree of Uprightness or Iniquity in Thoughts, Words and Actions. The other, to measure out and impartasuitable Rewards and Punishments.

      As to be perfectly Just is an Attribute in the Divine Nature,...

    • Number 100 Monday, July 6
      (pp. 353-355)

      THERE is a certain Female Ornament by some called a Tucker, and by others the Neck-piece, being a slip of fine Linnen or Muslin that used to run in a small kind of ruffle round the uppermost Verge of the Womens Stays, and by that means covered a great part of the Shoulders and Bosom. Having thus given a Definition, or rather Description of the Tucker, I must take Notice, that our Ladies have of late thrown aside this Fig-Leaf, and exposed in its Primitive Nakedness that gentle Swelling of the Breast which it was used to conceal. What their...

    • Number 101 Tuesday, July 7
      (pp. 355-358)

      THIS BEING the great Day of Thanksgiving for the Peace, I shall present my Reader with a couple of Letters that are the Fruits of it. They are written by a Gentleman who has taken this Opportunity to seeFrance, and has given his Friends inEnglanda general Account of what he has there met with, in several Epistles. Those which follow were put into my Hands with Liberty to make them publick, and I question not but my Reader will think himself obliged to me for so doing.


      ‘SINCE I had the Happiness to see you last,...

    • Number 102 Wednesday, July 8
      (pp. 358-359)

      I AM ALWAYS beating about in my Thoughts for something that may turn to the Benefit of my dear Countrymen. The present Season of the Year having put most of them in slight Summer-Suits, has turned my Speculations to a Subject that concerns every one who is sensible of Cold or Heat, which I believe takes in the greatest part of my Readers.

      There is nothing in Nature more inconstant than theBritishClimate, if we except the Humour of its Inhabitants. We have frequently in one Day all the Seasons of the Year. I have shivered in the Dog-days,...

    • Number 103 Thursday, July 9
      (pp. 360-362)

      I AM CONSIDERING how most of the greatPhænomena, or Appearances in Nature, have been imitated by the Art of Man. Thunder is grown a common Drug among the Chymists. Lightning may be bought by the Pound. If a Man has occasion for a Lambent Flame, you have whole Sheets of it in a handful of Phosphor.¹ Showers of Rain are to be met with in every Water-work;² and we are informed, that some Years ago the Vertuoso’s ofFrancecovered a little Vault with Artificial Snow, which they made to fall above an Hour together for the Entertainment of...

    • Number 104 Friday, July 10
      (pp. 362-365)

      ON TUESDAY last I published two Letters written by a Gentleman in his Travels. As they were applauded by my best Readers, I shall this Day Publish two more from the same Hand. The first of them contains a Matter of Fact which is very curious, and may deserve the Attention of those who are versed in ourBritishAntiquities.

      Blois, May15.N. S.


      ‘BECAUSEI am at present out of the Road of News, I shall send you a Story that was lately given me by a Gentleman of this Country, who is descended from one of...

    • Number 105 Saturday, July 11
      (pp. 365-367)

      THERE was no Part of the Show on the Thanksgiving-Day thatbso much pleased and affected me as the little Boys and Girls whocwere ranged with so much Order and Decency in that Part of theStrandwhich reaches from theMaypoletoExeter Change.¹ Such a numerous and Innocent Multitude, cloathed in the Charity of their Benefactors, was a Spectacle pleasing both to God and Man, and a more beautiful Expression of Joy and Thanksgiving than could have been exhibited by all the Pomps of aRomanTriumph. Never did a more full and unspotted Chorus of Human...

    • Number 106 Monday, July 13
      (pp. 367-369)

      AS I WAS making up myMonday’s Provision for the Publick, I received the following Letter, which being a better Entertainment than any I can furnish out my self, I shall set it before the Reader, and desire him to fall on without further Ceremony.


      ‘YOUR two Kinsmen and Predecessors of Immortal Memory, were very famous for their Dreams and Visions, and contrary to all other Authors never pleased their Readers more than when they were Nodding.¹ Now it is observed, that theSecond-sightgenerally runs in the Blood; and, Sir, we are in hopes that you yourself, like...

    • Number 107 Tuesday, July 14
      (pp. 369-372)

      I HAVE lately entertained my Reader with two or three Letters from a Traveller,¹ and may possibly, in some of my future Papers, oblige him with more from the same Hand. The following one comes from a Projector, which is a Sort of Correspondent as diverting as a Traveller: His Subject having the same Grace of Novelty to recommend it, and being equally adapted to the Curiosity of the Reader. For my own Part, I have always had a particular Fondness for a Project, and may say, without Vanity, that I have a pretty tolerable Genius that way my self.²...

    • Number 108 Wednesday, July 15
      (pp. 373-375)

      I DO NOT care for burning my Fingers in a Quarrel, but since I have communicated to the World a Plan, which has given Offence to some Gentlemen whom it wou’d not be very safe to disoblige, I must insert the following Remonstrance; and at the same time promise those of my Correspondents who have drawn this upon themselves, to exhibite to the Publick any such Answer as they shall think proper to make to it.

      Mr. Guardian,

      ‘I WAS very much troubled to see the two Letters which you lately published concerning the Short Club. You cannot imagine what...

    • Number 109 Thursday, July 16
      (pp. 375-377)

      I HAVE received many Letters from Persons of all Ranks and Conditions in reference to my late Discourse concerning the Tucker.¹ Some of them are filled with Reproaches and Invectives. A Lady, who subscribes herselfTeraminta, bids me in a very pert manner mind my own Affairs, and not pretend to meddle with their Linnen; for that they do not dress for an old Fellow, who cannot see them without a pair of Spectacles. Another who calls her selfBubnelia, vents her Passion in Scurrilous Terms; an old Ninnyhammer, a Dotard, a Nincompoop, is the best Language she can afford...

    • Number 110 Friday, July 17
      (pp. 377-380)

      THE CANDOUR whichHoraceshows in the Motto of my Paper, is that which distinguishes a Critick from a Caviller. He declares that he is not offended with those little Faults in a Poetical Composition, which may be imputed to Inadvertency, or to the Imperfection of Human Nature. The truth of it is, there can be no more a perfect Work in the World than a perfect Man. To say of a celebrated Piece that there are Faults in it, is in effect to say no more, than that the Author of it was a Man. For this reason I...

    • Number 111 Saturday, July 18
      (pp. 380-383)

      I AM VERY much concerned when I see young Gentlemen of Fortune and Quality so wholly set upon Pleasures and Diversions, that they neglect all those Improvements in Wisdom and Knowledge which may make them easie to themselves and useful to the World. The greatest Part of ourBritishYouth lose their Figure and grow out of Fashion by that Time they are five and twenty. As soon as the natural Gaiety and Amiableness of the young Man wears off, they have nothing left to recommend them, butlie bythe rest of their Lives among the Lumber and Refuse...

    • Number 112 Monday, July 20
      (pp. 383-385)

      THE PHILOSOPHERS of KingCharleshis Reign were busie in finding out the Art of Flying. The famous BishopWilkinswas so confident of Success in it, that he says he does not question but in the next Age it will be as usual to hear a Man call for his Wings when he is going a Journey, as it is now to call for his Boots. TheaHumour so prevailed among the Vertuoso’s of thisbReign, that they were actually making Parties to go up to the Moon together, and were more put to it in their Thoughts how...

    • Number 113 Tuesday, July 21
      (pp. 385-387)

      I LAST Night received a Letter from an honest Citizen who it seems is in his Honey-Moon. It is written by a plain Man on a plain Subject, but has an Air of good Sense and natural Honesty in it, which may perhaps please the Publick as much as my self. I shall not therefore scruple the giving it a Place in my Paper, which is designed for common Use, and for the Benefit of the Poor as well as Rich.

      Cheapside, July 18.

      Good Mr. Ironside,

      ‘I HAVE lately married a very pretty Body, who being something younger and...

    • Number 114 Wednesday, July 22
      (pp. 387-389)

      I THINK my self obliged to acquaint the Publick, that the Lion’s Head, of which I advertised them about a Fortnight ago, is now erected atButton’s Coffee-house inRussel street, Covent-Garden,where it opens its Mouth at all Hours for the Reception of such Intelligence as shall be thrown into it. It is reckoned an excellent Piece of Workmanship, and was designed by a great Hand in Imitation of the AntiqueÆgyptianLion, the Face of it being Compounded out of that of a Lion and a Wizzard. The Features are strong and well furrow’d. The Whiskers are admired...

    • Number 115 Thursday, July 23
      (pp. 389-392)

      WHEN I read Rules of Criticism I immediately enquire after the Works of the Author who has written them, and by that means discover what it is he likes in a Composition; for there is no question but every Man aims at least at what he thinks beautiful in others.aIf I find by his own manner of Writing that he is heavy and tasteless, I throw aside his Criticisms with a secret Indignation, to see a Man without Genius or Politeness dictating to the World on Subjects which I find are above his reach.

      If the Critick has published...

    • Number 116 Friday, July 24
      (pp. 392-393)

      THERE ARE many little Enormities in the World, which our Preachers would be very glad to see removed; but at the same time dare not meddle with them, for fear of betraying the Dignity of the Pulpit. Should they recommend theTuckerin a Pathetick Discourse, their Audiences would be apt to laugh out. I knew a Parish, where the top-Woman of it used always to appear with a Patch upon some part of her Forehead: The good Man of the Place Preached at it with great Zeal for almost a Twelve-month; but instead of fetching out the Spot which...

    • Number 117 Saturday, July 25
      (pp. 394-396)

      LOOKING over the late Edition of MonsieurBoileau’s Works, I was very much pleased with the Article which he has added to his Notes on the Translation ofLonginus.¹ He there tells us, that the Sublime in Writing rises either from the Nobleness of the Thought, the Magnificence of the Words, or the harmonious and lively Turn of the Phrase, and that the perfect Sublime arises from all these three in Conjunction together. He produces an Instance of this perfect Sublime in four Verses from theAthaliahof MonsieurRacine. WhenAbner, one of the chief Officers of the Court,...

    • Number 118 Monday, July 27
      (pp. 396-398)

      I AM VERY well pleased to find that my Lion has given such Universal Content to all that have seen him. He has had a greater Number of Visitants than any of his Brotherhood in theTower.¹ I this Morning examined his Maw, where among much other Food I found the following delicious Morsels.

      Mr. Guardian,

      ‘I AM A Daily Peruser of your Papers, I have read over and over your Discourse concerning the Tucker;² as likewise your Paper ofThursdaythe 16th Instant, in which you say it is your intention to keep a watchful Eye over every part...

    • Number 119 Tuesday, July 28
      (pp. 398-401)

      THERE is nothing which more shows the want of Taste and Discernment in a Writer, than the decrying of any Author in Gross, especially of an Author who has been the Admiration of Multitudes, and that too in several Ages of the World. This, however, is the general Practice of all illiterate and undistinguishing Criticks. BecauseHomerandVirgilandSophocleshave been commended by the Learned of all Times, every Scribler, who has no relish of their Beauties, gives himself an Air of Rapture when he speaks of them. But as he praises these he knows not why, there...

    • Number 120 Wednesday, July 29
      (pp. 401-403)


      AS SOON as you have set up your Unicorn,¹ there is no question but the Ladies will make him push very furiously at theMen;for which reason I think it is good to be before-hand with them, and make the Lion roar aloud atFemaleIrregularities. Among these, I wonder how theirGaminghas so long escaped your Notice. You who converse with the sober Family of theLizards, are perhaps a Stranger to these Virago’s; but what wou’d you say, should you see theSparklershaking her Elbow for a whole Night together, and thumping the Table...

    • Number 121 Thursday, July 30
      (pp. 404-406)


      EVER SINCE the first Notice you gave of the Erection of that useful Monument of yours inButton’s Coffee-house,¹ I have had a restless Ambition to imitate the renownedLondonPrentice, and boldly venture my Hand down the Throat of your Lion.² The Subject of this Letter is a Relation of a Club whereof I am aaMember, and which has made a considerable Noise of late, I mean the Silent Club. The Year of our Institution is 1694, the Number of Members twelve, and the Place of our Meeting isDumb’s Ally inHolborn.³ We look upon...

    • Number 122 Friday, July 31
      (pp. 406-409)

      THAT I may get out of Debt with the Publick as fast as I can, I shall here give them the remaining part ofStrada’s Criticism on theLatinHeroick Poets. My Readers may see the whole Work in the three Papers Numbered 115, 119, 122. Those who are acquainted with the Authors themselves, cannot but be pleased to see them so justly represented; and as for those who have never perused the Originals, they may form a Judgment of them from such accurate and entertaining Copies. The whole Piece will show at least how a Man of Genius (and...

    • Number 123 Saturday, August 1
      (pp. 409-411)

      THERE are a sort of Knights-Errant in the World, who, quite contrary to those in Romance, are perpetually seeking Adventures to bring Virgins into Distress, and to ruin Innocence. When Men of Rank and Figure pass away their Lives in these Criminal Pursuits and Practices, they ought to consider that they render themselves more Vile and Despicable than any Innocent Man can be, whatever low Station his Fortune or Birth have placed him in. Title and Ancestry render a good Man more Illustrious, but an ill one more contemptible.

      Thy Father’s Merit sets thee up to view,

      And plants thee...

    • Number 124 Monday, August 3
      (pp. 412-415)

      Mr. Guardian,

      BEFORE I proceed to make you my Proposals, it will be necessary to inform you, that an uncommon Ferocity in my Countenance, together with the remarkable Flatness of my Nose, and Extent of my Mouth, have long since procured me the Name ofLionin this our University.

      ‘The vast Emolument that, in all Probability, will accrue to the Publick from the Roarings of my new erected Likeness atButton’s,¹ hath made me desirous of being as like him in that Part of his Character, as I am told I already am in all Parts of my Person....

    • Number 125 Tuesday, August 4
      (pp. 415-418)

      MEN OF MY Age receive a greater Pleasure from fine Weather, than from any other sensual Enjoyment of Life. In spite of the Auxiliary Bottle,aor any Artificial Heat, we are apt to droop under a gloomy Sky; and taste no Luxury, like a Blue Firmament and Sun-shine. I have often, in a Splenetick Fit,¹ wished my self a Dormouse, during the Winter; and I never see one of those snug Animals, wrapt up close in his Fur, and compactly happy in himself; but I contemplate him with Envy, beneath the Dignity of a Philosopher. If the Art of Flying...

    • Number 126 Wednesday, August 5
      (pp. 418-421)

      IF WE CONSIDER the whole Scope of the Creation that lies within our View, the Moral and Intellectual, as well as the Natural and Corporeal, we shall perceive throughout a certain Correspondence of the Parts, a Similitude of Operation, and Unity of Design, which plainly demonstrate the Universe to be the Work ofOneinfinitely Good and Wise Being; and that the System of Thinking Beings is actuated by Laws derived from the same Divine Power which ordained those by which the Corporeal System is upheld.

      From the Contemplation of the Order, Motion and Cohesion of Natural Bodies, Philosophers are...

    • Number 127 Thursday, August 6
      (pp. 421-425)

      AN AGREEABLE young Gentleman, that has a Talent for Poetry, and does me the Favour to entertain me with his Performances after my more serious Studies, read me Yesterday the following Translation. In this Town, where there are so many Women of prostituted Charms, I am very glad when I gain so much Time of Reflection from a Youth of a gay Turn, as is taken up in any Composition, tho’ the Piece he writes is not foreign to that his natural Inclination. For it is a great Step towards gaining upon the Passions, that there is a delicacy in...

    • Number 128 Friday, August 7
      (pp. 425-428)

      IT IS USUALLY thought, with great Justice, a very impertinent thing in a private Man to intermeddle in Matters which regard the State.¹ But the Memorial which is mentioned in the following Letter is so daring, and so apparently designed for the most Traiterous Purpose imaginable, that I do not care what Misinterpretation I suffer, when I expose it to the Resentment of all Men who value their Country, or have any Regard to the Honour, Safety, or Glory of their Queen. It is certain there is not much Danger in delaying the Demolition ofDunkirkduring the Life of...

    • Number 129 Saturday, August 8
      (pp. 428-430)

      ANGER is so uneasie a Guest in the Heart, that he may be said to be born unhappy who is of a rough and cholerick Disposition. The Moralists have defined it to be,a desire of Revenge for some Injury offered. Men, of hot and heady Tempers, are eagerly desirous of Vengeance, the very Moment they apprehend themselves injured: Whereas the Cool and Sedate watch proper Opportunities to return Grief for Grief to their Enemy. By this Means, it often happens that the Cholerick inflict disproportioned Punishments, upon slight, and sometimes imaginary Offences: but the temperately Revengeful have leisure to...

    • Number 130 Monday, August 10
      (pp. 431-435)

      AS THE greatest part of Mankind are more affected by things which strike the Senses, than by Excellencies that are to be discerned by Reason and Thought, they form very erroneous Judgments, when they compare the one with the other. An eminent Instance of this is, that vulgar Notion, that Men addicted to Contemplation are less useful Members of Society, than those of a different course of Life. The business therefore of my present Paper shall be, to compare the distinct Merits of the Speculative and the Active Parts of Mankind.

      The Advantages arising from the Labours of Generals and...

    • Number 131 Tuesday, August 11
      (pp. 436-439)

      THERE are two sorts of Persons within the Consideration of my Frontispiece; the first are the mighty Body of Lingerers, Persons who don’t indeed employ their Time Criminally, but are such pretty Innocents, who, as the Poet says,¹

      The others being something more Vivacious, are such as do not only omit to spend their Time well, but are in the constant Pursuit of Criminal Satisfactions. Whatever the Divine may think, the Case of the first seems to me the most deplorable, as the Habit of Sloth is more invincible than that of Vice. The first is preferr’d even when the...

    • Number 132 Wednesday, August 12
      (pp. 440-443)

      Mr. Ironside,

      THE FOLLOWING Letter was really written by a young Gentleman in a languishing Illness, which both himself, and those who attended him, thought it impossible for him to outlive. If you think such an Image of the State of a Man’s Mind in that Circumstance be worth Publishing, it is at your Service, and take it as follows.

      Dear Sir,

      ‘YOU FORMERLY observed to me, that nothing made a more ridiculous Figure in a Man’s Life, than the Disparity we often find in him Sick and Well. Thus one of an unfortunate Constitution is perpetually exhibiting a miserable...

    • Number 133 Thursday, August 13
      (pp. 443-447)

      THE LETTERS which I published in theGuardian of Saturdaylast, are written with such Spirit and Greatness of Mind, that they had excited a great Curiosity in my LadyLizard’s Family, to know what occasioned the Quarrel betwixt the two brave Men who wrote them; and what was the Event of their Combat. I found the Family the other Day listning in a Circle to Mr.WilliamtheTempler, who was informing the Ladies, of the Ceremonies used in theSingle Combat, when the Kings ofEnglandpermitted such Trials to be performed in their Presence. He took Occasion,...

    • Number 134 Friday, August 14
      (pp. 447-449)

      MY LION having given over roaring for some time, I find that several Stories have been spread abroad in the Country to his Disadvantage. One of my Correspondents tells me, it is confidently reported of him, in their Parts, that he is silenced by Authority; another informs me, that he hears he was sent for by a Messenger, who had Orders to bring him away with all his Papers, and that upon Examination he was found to contain several dangerous things in his Maw. I must not omit another Report which has been raised by such as are Enemies to...

    • Number 135 Saturday, August 15
      (pp. 450-452)

      A GOOD Conscience is to the Soul what Health is to the Body: It preserves a constant Ease and Serenity within us, and more than countervails all the Calamities and Afflictions which can possibly befall us. I know nothing so hard for a generous Mind to get over as Calumny and Reproach, and cannot find any Method of quieting the Soul under them, besides this single one, of our being conscious to our selves that we do not deserve them.

      I have been always mightily pleased with that Passage inDon Quixote, where the fantastical Knight is represented as loading...

    • Number 136 Monday, August 17
      (pp. 452-454)

      SOME OF our Quaint Moralists have pleased themselves with an Observation, that there is but one Way of coming into the World, but a thousand to go out of it.¹ I have seen a fanciful Dream written by aSpaniard, in which he introduces the Person of Death metamorphosing himself like anotherProteusinto innumerable Shapes and Figures. To represent the fatality of Feavers and Agues, with many other Distempers and Accidents that destroy the Life of Man; Death enters first of all in a Body of Fire, a little after he appears like a Man of Snow, then rolls...

    • Number 137 Tuesday, August 18
      (pp. 455-457)

      HORACE,Juvenal, Boileau, and indeed the greatest Writers in almost every Age, have exposed, with all the Strength of Wit and good Sense, the Vanity of a Man’s valuing himself upon his Ancestors, and endeavoured to show that true Nobility consists in Virtue, not in Birth. With Submission however to so many great Authorities, I think they have pushed this matter a little too far. We ought in Gratitude to Honour the Posterity of those who have raised either the Interest or Reputation of their Country, and by whose Labours we our selves are more Happy, Wise or Virtuous than...

    • Number 138 Wednesday, August 19
      (pp. 457-460)

      THERE is nothing which I study so much in the Course of these my Daily Dissertations as Variety. By this means every one of my Readers is sure some time or other to find a Subject that pleases him, and almost every Paper has some particular Set of Men for its Advocates. Instead of seeing the Number of my Papers every Day increasing, they would quickly lie as a Drug upon my Hands, did not I take care to keep up the Appetite of my Guests, and quicken it from time to time by something new and unexpected. In short,...

    • Number 139 Thursday, August 20
      (pp. 461-463)

      Most VenerableNestor,

      I FIND that every body is very much delighted with the Voice of your Lion. His Roarings against the Tucker have been most melodious and emphatical.¹ It is to be hoped, that the Ladies will take warning by them, and not provoke him to greater Outrages; for I observe, that your Lion, as you your self have told us, is made up of Mouth and Paws. For my own part, I have long considered with my self how I might express my Gratitude to this noble Animal that has so much the good of our Country at...

    • Number 140 Friday, August 21
      (pp. 463-465)

      I HAVE lately received a Letter from an Astrologer inMoor-fields,¹ which I have read with great Satisfaction. He observes to me, that my Lion atButton’s Coffee house was very luckily erected in the very Month when the Sun was inLeo. He further adds, that upon Conversing with the above-mentioned Mr.Button(whose other Name he observes isDaniel, a good Omen still with regard to the Lion his Cohabitant) he had discovered the very Hour in which the said Lion was set up; and that by the help of other Lights, which he had received from the...

    • Number 141 Saturday, August 22
      (pp. 465-468)

      WIT, SAITH the Bishop ofRochesterin his elegant Sermon against the Scorner,as it implies a certain uncommon Reach and Vivacity of Thought, is an Excellent Talent, very fit to be employed in the Search of Truth, and very capable of assisting us to discern and embrace it.¹ I shall take leave to carry this Observation further into common Life, and remark, that it is a Faculty, when properly directed, very fit to recommend young Persons to the Favour of such Patrons, as are generously studious to promote the Interest of Politeness, and the Honour of their Country. I...

    • Number 142 Monday, August 24
      (pp. 468-471)

      BEING obliged, at present, to attend a particular Affair of my own, I do impower my Printer to look into the Arcana of the Lion, and select out of them such as may be of publick Utility; and Mr.Buttonis hereby authorised and commanded to give my said Printer free Ingress and Egress to the Lion, without any Hindrance, Lett, or Molestation whatsoever, untill such time as he shall receive Orders to the contrary. And for so doing this shall be his Warrant.

      Nestor Ironside.

      By Vertue of the foregoing Order, the Lion has been carefully examined, and the...

    • Number 143 Tuesday, August 25
      (pp. 471-473)

      NOTWITHSTANDING the Levity of the Pun, which is in the second Line of my Motto, the Subject I am going upon is of the most serious Consequence, and concerns no less than the Peace and Quiet, and (for ought I know) the very Life and Safety, of every inoffensive and well-disposed Inhabitant of this City. Frequent Complaints have been made to me, by Men of Discretion and Sobriety, in most of the Coffee-houses from St.James’s toJonathan’s,¹ that there is sprung up of late a very numerous Race of young Fellows about the Town, who have the Confidence to...

    • Number 144 Wednesday, August 26
      (pp. 474-476)

      IT IS A very just, and a common Observation upon the Natives of this Island, that in their different Degrees, and in their several Professions and Employments, they abound as much, and perhaps more, in good Sense, than any People; and yet, at the same time, there is scarce anEnglishmanof any Life and Spirit, that has not some odd Cast of Thought, some Original Humour, that distinguishes him from his Neighbour. Hence it is, that our Comedies are enriched with such a Diversity of Characters, as is not to be seen upon any other Theatre inEurope. Even...

    • Number 145 Thursday, August 27
      (pp. 476-478)

      AMONGST the several Challenges and Letters which my Paper of the 25th has brought upon me, there happens to be one which I know not well what to make of. I am doubtful whether it is the Archnessaof some Wag, or the serious Resentment of a Coxcomb, that vents his Indignation with an insipid Pertness. In either of these two Lights I think it may divert my Readers, for which Reason I shall make no scruple to comply with the Gentleman’s Request, and make his Letter Publick.

      Old Testy,


      ‘YOUR grey Hairs for once shall be your...

    • Number 146 Friday, August 28
      (pp. 479-480)

      THE GENERALITY of my Readers, I find, are so well pleased with the Story of the Lion, in my Paper of the 20th Instant,¹ and with my Friend’s Design of compiling a History of that noble Species of Animals; that a great many Ingenious Persons have promised me their Assistance to bring in Materials for the Work, from all the Store-houses of Ancient and Modern Learning, as well as from Oral Tradition. For a farther Encouragement of the Undertaking, a considerable number ofVirtuosihave offered, when my Collections shall swell into a reasonable Bulk, to contribute very handsomly, by...

    • Number 147 Saturday, August 29
      (pp. 481-483)

      HAVING, in my Paper of the 21st ofJuly,¹ shew’d my Dislike of the ridiculous Custom of garnishing a new-married Couple, and setting a Gloss upon their Persons, which is to last no longer than the Hony-Moon; I think it may be much for the Emolument of my Disciples of both Sexes, to make them sensible, in the next place, of the Folly of launching out into extravagant Expences, and a more magnificent way of Living immediately upon Marriage. If the Bride and Bridegroom happen to be Persons of any Rank, they come into all Publick Places, and go upon...

    • Number 148 Monday, August 31
      (pp. 483-485)

      THERE is a kind of Apothegm, which I have frequently met with in my Reading, to this purpose;That there are few, if any Booths, out of which a Man of Learning may not extract something for his use.¹ I have often experienced the Truth of this Maxim, when, calling in at my Bookseller’s, I have taken the Book next to my Hand off the Counter, to employ the Minutes I have been obliged to linger away there, in waiting for one Friend or other. Yesterday, when I came there, theTurkish Taleshappened to lie in my way; upon...

    • Number 149 Tuesday, September 1
      (pp. 486-490)

      I HAVE, in a formerPrecaution,¹ endeavoured to shew the Mechanism of anEpick Poem, and given the Reader Prescriptions whereby he may, without the scarce Ingredient of aGenius, compose the several Parts of that great Work. I shall now treat of an Affair of more general Importance, and makeDressthe Subject of the following Paper.

      Dress is grown of universal Use in the Conduct of Life. Civilities and Respect are only paid to Appearance. Tis a Varnish that gives a Lustre to every Action, aPasse-par-toutthat introduces us into all polite Assemblies, and the only certain...

    • Number 150 Wednesday, September 2
      (pp. 490-493)

      I WENT the other Day to visitEliza, who, in the perfect Bloom of Beauty, is the Mother of several Children. She had a little prating Girl upon her Lap, who was begging to be very fine, that she might go Abroad; and the indulgent Mother, at her little Daughter’s Request, had just taken the Knots off her own Head, to adorn the Hair of the pretty Trifler. A smiling Boy was at the same time caressing a Lap-Dog, which is their Mother’s Favourite, because it pleases the Children; and she, with a Delight in her Looks which heightened her...

    • Number 151 Thursday, September 3
      (pp. 494-496)

      I BELIEVE you distance me not so much in Years as in Widsom, and therefore since you have gained so deserved a Reputation, I beg your Assistance in correcting the Manners of an untoward Lad, who perhaps may listen to your Admonitions, sooner than to all the severe Checks, and grave Reproofs of a Father. Without any longer Preamble, you must know, Sir, that about two Years ago,Jackmy eldest Son and Heir was sent up toLondon, to be admitted of theTemple, not so much with a View of his Studying the Law, as a desire to...

    • Number 152 Friday, September 4
      (pp. 496-499)

      THERE IS no Rule inLonginuswhich I more admire, than that wherein he advises an Author who would attain to the Sublime, and writes for Eternity, to consider, when he is engaged in his Composition, whatHomerorPlato, or any other of those Heroes in the Learned World, would have said or thought upon the same Occasion.¹ I have often practised this Rule, with regard to the best Authors among the Ancients, as well as among the Moderns: With what Success I must leave to the Judgment of others. I may at least venture to say with Mr....

    • Number 153 Saturday, September 5
      (pp. 499-501)

      THERE is no Passion which steals into the Heart more imperceptibly, and covers it self under more Disguises, than Pride. For my own part, I think if there is any Passion or Vice which I am wholly a Stranger to, it is this; tho’, at the same time, perhaps this very Judgment which I form of my self, proceeds in some measure from this corrupt Principle.

      I have been always wonderfully delighted with that Sentence in Holy Writ,Pride was not made for Man.¹ There is not indeed any single view of human Nature under its present Condition, which is...

    • Number 154 Monday September 7
      (pp. 501-504)

      I QUESTION not but the following Letter will be very Entertaining to those who were present at the late Masquerade, as it will recall into their Minds several merry Particulars that passed in it, and, at the same time, be very acceptable to those who were at a Distance from it, as they may form from hence some Idea of this fashionable Amusement.


      ‘I COULD scarce ever go into good Company, but the Discourse was on the Ambassador, the Politeness of his Entertainments, the Goodness of hisBurgundyandChampaign, the Gaiety of his Masquerades, with the odd fantastical...

    • Number 155 Tuesday, September 8
      (pp. 504-506)

      I HAVE often wonderd that Learning is not thought a proper Ingredient in the Education of a Woman of Quality or Fortune. Since they have the same improveable Minds as the Male part of the Species, why should they not be cultivated by the same Methods? why should Reason be left to it self in one of the Sexes, and be disciplined with so much Care in the other?

      There are some Reasons why Learning seems more adapted to the Female World, than to the Male. As in the first place, because they have more spare Time upon their Hands,...

    • Number 156 Wednesday, September 9
      (pp. 507-511)

      IN MY LASTSaturday’s Paper I supposed a Molehill, inhabited by Pismires or Ants, to be a lively Image of the Earth, Peopled by Human Creatures.¹ This Supposition will not appear too forced or strained to those who are acquainted with the Natural History of these little Insects, in order to which I shall present my Reader with the Extract of a Letter upon this curious Subject, as it was Published by the Members of theFrenchAcademy, and since translated intoEnglish. I must confess I was never in my Life better entertained than with this Narrative, which is...

    • Number 157 Thursday, September 10
      (pp. 511-515)

      IT HAS been observed by Writers of Morality, that in order to quicken Human Industry, Providence has so contrived it, that our daily Food is not to be procured without much Pains and Labour. The chase of Birds and Beasts, the several Arts of Fishing, with all the different kinds of Agriculture, are necessary Scenes of Business, and give Employment to the greatest part of Mankind. If we look into the Brute Creation, we find all its Individuals engaged in a painful and laborious way of Life, to procure a necessary Subsistanceafor themselves, or those that grow up under...

    • Number 158 Friday, September 11
      (pp. 515-518)

      I WAS Yesterday pursuing the Hint which I mentioned in my last Paper, and comparing together the Industry of Man with that of other Creatures; in which I could not but observe, that notwithstanding we are obliged by Duty to keep our selves in constant Employ, after the same manner as inferior Animals are prompted to it by Instinct, we fall very short of them in this Particular. We are here the more inexcusable, because there is a greater variety of Business to which we may apply our selves. Reason opens to us a large Field of Affairs, which other...

    • Number 159 Saturday, September 12
      (pp. 519-521)

      HAVING read over your Paper of Tuesday last,¹ in which you recommend the Pursuits of Wisdom and Knowledge to those of the Fair Sex, who have much Time lying upon their Hands, and among other Motives make Use of this, That several Women, thus accomplished, have raised themselves by it to considerable Posts of Honour and Fortune, I shall beg leave to give you an Instance of this Kind, which many now living can testify the Truth of, and which I can assure you is Matter of Fact.

      ‘About twelve Years ago I was familiarly acquainted with a Gentleman, who...

    • Number 160 Monday, September 14
      (pp. 522-524)

      FROM WRITING the History of Lyons,¹ I lately went off to that of Ants,² but to my great Surprise, I find that some of my good Readers have taken this last to be a work of Invention, which was only a plain Narrative of matter of Fact. They will several of them have it that my lastThursdayandFriday’s Papers are full of concealed Satyr, and that I have attacked People in the shape of Pismires, whom I durst not meddle with in the shape of Men. I must confess that I write with Fear and Trembling ever since...

    • Number 161 Tuesday, September 15
      (pp. 525-527)

      EVERY Principle that is a Motive to good Actions ought to be encouraged, since Men are of so different a Make, that the same Principle does not work equally upon all Minds. What some Men are prompted to by Conscience, Duty, or Religion, which are only different Names for the same thing, others are prompted to byHonour.

      The Sense of Honour is of so fine and delicate a Nature, that it is only to be met with in Minds which are naturally Noble, or in such as have been cultivated by great Examples, or a refined Education. This Paper...

    • Number 162 Wednesday, September 16
      (pp. 527-529)

      I WAS THE other Day in Company at my LadyLizard’s, when there came in among us their CousinTom, who is one of those Country Squires that set up for plain honest Gentlemen who speak their Minds. Tom is in short a lively impudent Clown, and has Wit enough to have made him a pleasant Companion, had it been polished and rectified by good Manners.Tomhad not been a Quarter of an Hour with us, before he set every one in the Company a Blushing, by some blunt Question, or unlucky Observation. He asked theSparklerif her...

    • Number 163 Thursday, September 17
      (pp. 530-533)

      WHEN I am disposed to give my self a Day’s Rest, I order the Lion to be opened, and search into that Magazine of Intelligence for such Letters as are to my Purpose. The first I looked into comes to me from one who is Chaplain to a great Family. He treats himself, in the beginning of it, after such a Manner, as I am persuaded no Man of Sense would treat him. Even the Lawyer and the Physician, to a Man of Quality, expect to be used like Gentlemen, and much more may any one of so superior a...

    • Number 164 Friday, September 18
      (pp. 533-536)

      AN EMINENT Prelate of our Church observes that there is no way of Writing so proper, for the refining and polishing a Language, as the translating of Books into it, if he who undertakes it has a competent Skill of the one Tongue, and is a Master of the other.¹ When a Man writes his own Thoughts, the Heat of his Fancy, and the Quickness of his Mind, carry him so much after the Notions themselves, that for the most part he is too warm to judge of the Aptness of Words, and the Justness of Figures; so that he...

    • Number 165 Saturday, September 19
      (pp. 536-538)

      IT IS A melancholy Thing to see a Coxcomb at the Head of a Family. He scatters Infection through the whole House. His Wife and Children have always their Eyes upon him: If they have more Sense than himself, they are out of Countenance for him; If less, they submit their Understandings to him, and make daily Improvements in Folly and Impertinence. I have been very often secretly concerned, when I have seen a Circle of pretty Children cramped in their natural Parts, and pratling even below themselves, while they are talking after a couple of silly Parents. The Dulness...

    • Number 166 Monday, September 21
      (pp. 539-541)

      CHARITY is a Virtue of the Heart, and not of the Hands, says an old Writer.¹ Gifts and Alms are the Expressions, not the Essence of this Virtue. A Man may bestow great Sums on the Poor and Indigent without being Charitable, and may be Charitable when he is not able to bestow any thing. Charity is therefore a Habit of good Will, or Benevolence, in the Soul, which disposes us to the Love, Assistance, and Relief of Mankind, especially of those who stand in need of it. The poor Man who has this excellent frame of Mind, is no...

    • Number 167 Tuesday, September 22
      (pp. 541-546)

      THE FOLLOWING Story is lately Translated out of anArabianManuscript, which I think has very much the Turn of an Oriental Tale, and as it has never before been Printed, I question not but it will be highly acceptable to my Reader.

      The Name ofHelimis still famous through all the Eastern Parts of the World. He is called among thePersians, even to this Day,Helimthe great Physician. He was acquainted with all the Powers of Simples, understood all the Influences of the Stars, and knew the Secrets that were Engraved on the Seal ofSolomon...

    • Number 168 Wednesday, September 23
      (pp. 546-549)

      I OBSERVE that many of your late Papers have represented to us the Characters of accomplished Women;¹ but among all of them I do not find a Quotation which I expected to have seen in your Works: I mean the Character of the Mistress of a Family, as it is drawn out at length in the Book ofProverbs.² For my part, considering it only as a Human Composition, I do not think that there is any Character inTheophrastus,³ which has so many beautiful Particulars in it, and which is drawn with such an Elegance of Thought and Phrase....

    • Number 169 Thursday, September 24
      (pp. 549-551)

      IN FAIR Weather, when my Heart is cheered, and I feel that Exaltation of Spirits which results from Light and Warmth, joined with a beautiful Prospect of Nature, I regard my self as one placed by the Hand of God in the midst of an ample Theatre, in which the Sun, Moon and Stars, the Fruits also, and Vegetables of the Earth, perpetually changing their Positions, or their Aspects, exhibit an Elegant Entertainment to the Understanding, as well as to the Eye.¹

      Thunder and Lightning, Rain and Hail, the painted Bow, and the glaring Comets, are Decorations of this mighty...

    • Number 170 Friday, September 25
      (pp. 552-556)

      THE PLAN laid down in your first Paper gives me a Title and Authority to apply to you, in behalf of the trading World. According to the general Scheme you proposed in your said first Paper you have not professed only to entertain Men of Wit and polite Taste, but also to be useful to the Trader and the Artificer. You cannot do your Country greater Service than byainforming all Ranks of Men amongst us, that the greatest Benefactor to them all is the Merchant. The Merchant advances the Gentleman’s Rent, gives the Artificer Food, and supplies the Courtier’s...

    • Number 171 Saturday, September 26
      (pp. 557-559)

      I HAVE received Letters of Congratulation and Thanks from several of the most eminent Chocolate-houses and Coffee-houses, upon my late Gallantry and Success in opposing my self to the long Swords.¹ One tells me, that whereas his Rooms were too little before, now his Customers can saunter up and down from Corner to Corner, and Table to Table, without any Lett or Molestation. I find I have likewise cleared a great many Alleys and By-Lanes, made the Publick Walks about Town more spacious, and all the Passages about the Court and theExchangemore free and open. Several of my...

    • Number 172 Monday, September 28
      (pp. 559-561)

      I HAVE been a long time in Expectation of something from you on the Subject of Speech and Letters: I believe the World might be as agreeably entertain’d, on that Subject, as with any thing that ever came into the Lion’s Mouth. For this End I send you the following Sketch. And am,



      ‘Upon taking a View of the several Species of living Creatures our Earth is stocked with, we may easily observe, that the lower Orders of them, such as Insects and Fishes, are wholly without a Power of making known their Wants and Calamities: Others, which...

    • Number 173 Tuesday, September 29
      (pp. 562-565)

      I LATELY took a particular Friend of mine to my House in the Country, not without some Apprehension that it could afford little Entertainment to a Man of his Polite Taste, particularly in Architecture and Gardening, who had so long been conversant with all that is beautiful and great in either. But it was a pleasant Surprize to me, to hear him often declare, he had found in my little Retirement that Beauty which he always thought wanting in the most celebrated Seats, or if you will Villa’s of the Nation. This he described to me in those Verses with...

    • Number 174 Wednesday, September 30
      (pp. 566-569)

      IN PUBLICK Assemblies there are generally some envious splenetick People, who having no Merit to procure Respect, are ever finding Fault with those who distinguish themselves. This happens more frequently at those Places, where this Season of the Year calls Persons of both Sexes together for their Health. I have had Rheams of Letters fromBath, Epsom, Tunbridge, and St.Wenefride’s Well; wherein I could observe that a Concern for Honour and Virtue proceeded from the want of Health, Beauty, or fine Petticoats. A Lady, who subscribes her selfEudosia, writes a bitter Invective againstChloethe celebrated Dancer; but...

    • Number 175 Thursday, October 1
      (pp. 569-572)

      THE NOBLE Genius ofVirgilwould have been exalted still higher, had he had the Advantage of Christianity. According to our Scheme of Thoughts, if the WordMemoresin the Front of this Paper were changed intoSimiles, it would have very much heightened the Motive of Virtue in the Reader. To do good and great Actions meerly to gain Reputation, and transmit a Name to Posterity, is a vitious Appetite, and will certainly insnare the Person who is moved by it, on some occasions, into a false Delicacy for fear of Reproach; and at others into Artifices which taint...

    (pp. 573-574)

    The following dedications and “The Publisher to the Reader” appear in Tonson’s collected editions of 1714. The text is reproduced from the octavo edition.


    IN THE Character ofGuardian,it behoves me to do Honour to such as have deserved well of Society, and laid out worthy, and manly Qualities, in the Service of the Publick; no Man has more eminently distinguished himself this way, than Mr.Cadogan;With a Contempt of Pleasure, Rest, and Ease, when called to the Duties of your Glorious Profession, You have lived in a familiarity with Dangers, and with a strict Eye upon...

  8. The PUBLISHER to the READER
    (pp. 575-576)

    IT IS A Justice which Mr. Ironside owes Gentlemen who have sent Him their Assistances from time to time, in the carrying on of this Work, to acknowledge that Obligation, tho’ at the same time He Himself dwindles into the Character of a Meer Publisher, by making the Acknowledgment. But whether a Man does it out of Justice or Gratitude, or any other Virtuous Reason or not, it is also a Prudential Act to take no more upon a Man than He can bear. Too large a Credit has made many a Bankrupt, but taking even less than a Man...

  9. Appendixes

      (pp. 577-583)
      (pp. 584-586)
      (pp. 587-590)
      (pp. 591-595)
      (pp. 596-598)
    (pp. 599-600)
  11. NOTES
    (pp. 601-752)
  12. INDEX
    (pp. 753-826)