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Indonesia: Resources and Their Technological Development

Copyright Date: 1970
Pages: 288
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  • Book Info
    Book Description:

    The need to find solutions to the grave economic and political problems faced by Indonesia presents a constant challenge. In this volume, scholars in a variety of fields study a broad spectrum of the problems of this new nation. Their overall focus centers on Indonesia's land and population with emphasis on the most efficient means of developing physical and human resources.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6205-8
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[iv])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [v]-[vi])
  3. CHAPTER 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)
    Howard W. Beers

    Since 1964, Indonesia has experienced one of the most drastic political and economic reversals to be observed in modern history. Former President Sukarno had demanded of his people a ‟stir benteng,”¹ a sharp turn to the political left. The results were frequently regrettable and need not be recapitulated here. Perhaps the most unfortunate one, certainly the most germane to our discussion, was the virtual wreckage of the Indonesian economy, to which destruction governmental neglect and mismanagement abundantly contributed. It was a period of slogans and fantasies, of expensive, nonproductive projects, and of unbridled monetary inflation.

    A corrective change was demanded...


    • CHAPTER 2 Land, Man, and His Determination to Work
      (pp. 9-16)
      Suwito Kusumowidagdo

      Indonesia is a land of vast problems and great opportunities. It is a nation which, since its very beginning, has been in continuous struggle, first for national liberation and then for a new and respectable identity in the community of nations. Only recently has it emerged from a period of civil disorders and threats to its national unity.

      It is in such a political atmosphere that free Indonesia has entered its third decade of national existence and has embarked upon a political and economic stabilization program. Stabilization should not be interpreted, however, as a rejection of change. On the contrary,...


    • CHAPTER 3 New Trends in Agricultural Development Programs in Indonesia
      (pp. 19-52)
      Tojib Hadiwidjaja

      Indonesia is an agrarian country. Seventy-two percent of the population live from agriculture, broadly defined to include smallholder farming, estate agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and inland fisheries. Fifty percent derive their total income from these agriculturally related pursuits; the remaining 22 percent have, besides farming, additional employment. More than 50 percent of the value of exports is in agricultural products such as rubber, tobacco, palm oil, copra, tea, coffee, quinine, spices, forest products, and cattle.

      Nevertheless, Indonesia has never been able to be self-sufficient in food. During the prewar period of colonial rule, 1921–1940, an average of 460 thousand...

    • CHAPTER 4 Development of the National Biological Institute
      (pp. 53-69)
      Otto Soemarwoto

      C. G. Reinwardt founded the Botanic Gardens at Bogor (then Buitenzorg) on May 18, 1817. The installation at that time was calleds’Lands Plantentuin. From this installation grew the Bibliotheca Bogoriensis in 1842, the Herbarium Bogoriense in 1844, and the Botanical Laboratory (better known as the Treub Laboratory) in 1884, the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense in 1894, and finally the Marine Research Laboratory in 1904. To the Botanic Gardens in Bogor was added the mountain garden division in Tjibodas in 1860. In 1940 another garden was established at Purwodadi, near Malang, and another one on the eastern slope of the Ardjuno...

    • CHAPTER 5 The Development of Marine Resources in Indonesia
      (pp. 70-89)
      Maxwell S. Doty and Aprilany Soegiarto

      The major problems of rapidly developing nations include communication, food, foreign exchange, and, not least, fulfilling their roles as members of the international community of nations.¹ The problem before us at the moment is how such needs are being met by Indonesia through development of its marine resources. It is pleasing to report that steps have been taken and that more are planned toward utilizing the opportunities provided by Indonesia’s geography (Figure 5:1) via the pathway of scientific development. This paper will first review some of Indonesia’s problems in apposition to the physical nature of the country; then present a...

    • CHAPTER 6 Geographical Literature on Indonesia
      (pp. 90-116)
      Karl J. Pelzer

      The purpose of this essay is to survey the geographical literature dealing with Indonesia, going back to the end of the eighteenth century. Not that we do not have writings of a geographical nature dating back to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and earlier, but for economy of space this survey starts with the literature of the last quarter of the eighteenth century. No attempt will be made to include every author who has written on some aspect of the natural-physical or cultural ecology of Indonesia.¹ Instead, a selection will be made of the more important publications of the late...

    • CHAPTER 7 Mineral Resources in Indonesian Development
      (pp. 117-140)
      R. P. Koesoemadinata and V. E. Nelson

      One of the basic prerequisites for successful economic development of a nation mentioned by Ambassador Suwito Kusumowidagdo is mineral wealth. He included this wealth as an area of hope for the future economic development of Indonesia. Since no second crop may be expected, rich diverse mineral deposits are one of a nation’s most valuable but ephemeral possessions. They might be termed its quick assets. It is the purpose of this paper to attempt an assessment of these assets in only the most general terms. Special emphasis is given to petroleum resources because they are somewhat better known and more fully...


    • CHAPTER 8 Malnutrition in Children in Indonesia
      (pp. 143-164)
      Catharine S. Rose and Paul György

      It is no mere sentimentality to think of bright and healthy children as one of the finest natural resources of any country. These, in the long run, are the beneficiaries and guardians of our technology, and their optimum upbringing, even in terms of national development, is a matter of proper concern.

      In Indonesia, as in most underdeveloped countries, the nutritional situation is poor. Corrective efforts have not kept up with the problems of rising population. Some benefits have been obtained through small and large projects of the national government and with foreign assistance, but the accomplishment has often fallen short...

    • CHAPTER 9 Medical Science and Technology
      (pp. 165-179)
      John S. Wellington and Ruth A. Boak

      The introduction of Western medicine to Indonesia preceded any local educational efforts by nearly 250 years. During the centuries prior to the coming of the Europeans, Hindu, Arabian, and Chinese medicine had been practiced in various parts of the archipelago, and remnants of all these systems are still to be found today (de Langen 1938). The ships’ surgeons on Dutch trading vessels, which began to arrive in Indonesia about 1600, established land-based hospitals for the medical care of sailors, most of whom suffered from scurvy. For the next 300 years, medical care in Indonesia was provided mainly for the Dutch...

    • CHAPTER 10 Science Education in Developing Countries
      (pp. 180-197)
      Francis E. Dart

      An American professor who had watched satellites cross the night sky over Java thought that this paper—which begins with an anecdote of a satellite viewed from Nepal—might be as relevant to problems of science education in the former as in the latter place.

      I have not worked in Indonesia—the only exception among those who have written papers for this seminar—but was invited to participate—and was encouraged to accept—on the ground that, pending research in Indonesia, it is useful to examine for adaptive reflection in that country what may have been learned from observation in...

    • CHAPTER 11 Indonesian Science Education and National Development
      (pp. 198-221)
      R. Murray Thomas

      To some degree science education has been cast as the servant of national development by each of the governments controlling the Indonesian archipelago during the twentieth century—the Dutch until 1942, the Japanese in 1942–1945, the clashing Dutch and Indonesians during the revolution of 1945–1949, and the Indonesians alone since 1950. However, at no time during the century was science education assigned such a major role as in the 1960s, when the Republic launched its eight-year plan intended to produce a ‟just and prosperous” life for all. President Sukarno’s guided-democracy regime was ended in the violent aftermath to...

    • CHAPTER 12 The Development of Library Services in Indonesia
      (pp. 222-237)
      Lily K. Soemadikarta

      Beyond doubt, Indonesian authorities recognize that education is fundamental in the nation’s potential for development, and the government has adhered to a consistent policy of providing schools for every level of education. The number of schools and students have increased very rapidly since the proclamation of independence. Along with this development has come a pressing need for expansion of library services.

      Books, journals, and other reading materials are indispensable tools at all levels of education. A program to eradicate illiteracy must be accompanied by a greater availability of suitable reading materials if the newly literate are to keep their skill....

    • CHAPTER 13 Science and Technology and the Political Culture
      (pp. 238-258)
      Stephen A. Douglas

      We have been considering the prospects for application of science and technology to specific problems of economic and social development in Indonesia. Let us now consider another dimension of development, the political. There is a linkage between the two, perhaps best appreciated by the would-be agents of scientific and technological change. The foreign technical adviser participating in the construction of a fertilizer plant soon learns, as does the indigenous agricultural extension worker, that the success of his mission depends very largely upon the political climate. The lesson is manifold—in Indonesia and in every other country where men have tried...

    • CHAPTER 14 Economics and Indonesian Agricultural Development
      (pp. 259-274)
      David H. Penny and J. Price Gittinger

      Economics has a critical role to play in the formulation and execution of effective programs to further agricultural development in Indonesia. The static nature of much Indonesian agriculture calls for a more aggressive economic policy.

      Unfortunately, there the clichés end, and the determining of just what role economics can play in the social, political, and economic life of present-day Indonesia presents unexpected difficulties. This paper, based on firsthand knowledge of Indonesian agricultural programs, examines possible contributions of economics in a very practical context—one which, we hope, can lead to more ‟economic” use of economic research talent for agricultural development....

  7. Index
    (pp. 275-282)