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Senatorial Politics and Foreign Policy

Senatorial Politics and Foreign Policy

MALCOLM E. JEWELL
Copyright Date: 1962
Pages: 224
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt130jg90
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  • Book Info
    Senatorial Politics and Foreign Policy
    Book Description:

    Bipartisanship has become so associated with the conduct of foreign policy that partisanship has virtually been forgotten. In this persuasive study of senatorial politics, Malcolm E. Jewell reasserts the importance of partisanship, arguing that increased party responsibility is the best guarantee for the establishment of sound policy and for the continued support of policy once established. The author bases his conclusions on a study of the Senate during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6340-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. ii-vi)
  2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. vii-viii)
    M.E.J.
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. 1 INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-9)

    THE PROBLEM RAISED A CENTURY AND A QUARTER AGO BY THE author ofDemocracy in Americaseldom troubled the American people during the many years that they enjoyed an isolation protected by two broad oceans. In our generation, however, every new foreign crisis brings increased international responsibilities to this country and further emphasizes the difficulties of conducting foreign relations in a democracy. Any nation, but particularly the leader of an alliance, needs to have dependability and continuity in its foreign policy; yet in a democracy the opposition party may overturn established policies at any time. Diplomatic moves must often be...

  5. 2 THE DECLINE OF DEMOCRATIC INTERNATIONALISM
    (pp. 10-34)

    SAMUEL LUBELL HAS CALLED ELECTION RETURNS THE “WATER marks which reveal the flow of history.”¹ As the student of party politics must start by examining election returns, so the student of senatorial politics must first analyze rollcalls. It is true that some issues never reach a rollcall vote and that the votes alone leave questions of causation unanswered. Yet rollcalls are vital to our study because they alone provide unbiased, uncontrovertible evidence of decisions on foreign policy questions in the Senate. Because our foreign policy has so often been labeled bipartisan, it is important to emphasize the frequent contrasts in...

  6. 3 THE REPUBLICAN RECORD
    (pp. 35-52)

    THE REPUBLICAN VOTING RECORD ILLUSTRATES, EVEN MORE vividly than the Democratic record, the transformation that can occur when partisan responsibility for foreign policy changes. As shown in Table 5, a majority of Republican senators supported the Truman administration on only 37 percent of the rollcalls; the party was almost united in opposition on a substantial number of the remainder. During the Eisenhower administration, majority support rose to 83 percent. There are some striking differences between the Democratic and Republican records, notably the greater resistance to internationalism in Republican ranks. A majority of Republicans voted for Truman’s programs only about half...

  7. 4 PARTY LEADERS
    (pp. 53-83)

    THE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE SENATE CAN BE UNDERstood only in terms of the men who operate them. The student of leadership in the Senate must be constantly aware not only that he is dealing with intangibles but that the far greater part of his concern is hidden from scrutiny. The importance of personal influence rather than institutional techniques results from the relatively small membership of the Senate, the diffusion of power among a number of veteran senators, and the absence of party sanctions. Party leaders in the Senate have varied widely in their concept of the role they should...

  8. 5 THE POLICY COMMITTEES
    (pp. 84-109)

    THE POLICY COMMITTEE AND THE CAUCUS (OR CONFERENCE) of all members are the organs through which party leadership has been institutionalized in the Senate. The Democratic Conference has rarely met in recent years, while the Republican Conference has, in effect, become merged with the Policy Committee. Consequently, we can focus attention on the policy committees, created by the Senate in 1947 after the House had deleted a provision for committees in both branches from the 1946 Legislative Reorganization Act. Though the committees have a statutory base and have staffs financed by the federal budget, they are not uniform in size,...

  9. 6 THE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE
    (pp. 110-145)

    POLITICAL POWER IS DECENTRALIZED IN CONGRESS LARGELY because of the strength of standing committees. In recent years perhaps the most powerful of these in the Senate has been the Foreign Relations Committee. Though the committee has been remarkably free from partisan conflict, its decisions have been instrumental in setting the record of both parties in the Senate on foreign policy. Most of the senators who have significantly influenced the Senate’s deliberations on foreign policy have been leaders, not of the parties, but of this committee. The limitations of the party leaders and the institutions described earlier have frequently resulted partly...

  10. 7 PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP AND THE SENATE
    (pp. 146-167)

    DURING THE LAST QUARTER CENTURY THE PRESIDENT’S RESPONSIbility for initiating and promoting legislation has steadily grown, nowhere more than in the field of foreign affairs. The evidence in Chapters 2 and 3 shows that a President can normally depend on greater support for his foreign programs from senators in his own party than from those in the opposition. It remains necessary to demonstrate what presidential techniques are most valuable in augmenting partisan support and how these can be combined with the techniques needed to develop bipartisan support for the President’s program.

    There has been congressional resistance to the growth of...

  11. 8 PUBLIC OPINION
    (pp. 168-197)

    A SENATOR MAY BE CONVINCED BY A PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS that some new foreign program is imperative, he may be persuaded by the Foreign Relations Committee that the program is wise, and he may be receptive to the majority leader’s pleas for party unity in support of the program. Yet he may read his mail, visit his constituents, study a public opinion poll, and vote no. No one realizes better than a senator what different concepts of foreign policy are held by the citizens on Main Street and the elected officials on either end of Pennsylvania Avenue. The foreign policies considered...

  12. 9 THE ROLE OF PARTIES IN THE FOREIGN POLICY PROCESS
    (pp. 198-210)

    CAN THE AMERICAN PARTIES CONTRIBUTE A GREATER MEASURE of rationality and responsibility to the policymaking process in foreign affairs? The problem is a twofold one. The President needs more help from his party for the initiation and particularly for the continuation of foreign programs. These programs require the dependable support of a party majority; they must not be subject to the vicissitudes of shifting coalitions in Congress. The opposition party faces a greater problem. Lacking a President, it needs machinery to devise and publicize agreed-on alternatives in foreign policy. Even if the opposition can seldom offer complete alternatives, it has...

  13. INDEX
    (pp. 211-214)