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International Conflict and Collective Security

International Conflict and Collective Security

WILLARD N. HOGAN
Copyright Date: 1955
Pages: 212
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt130jkbz
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  • Book Info
    International Conflict and Collective Security
    Book Description:

    The control of man's violence against man presents to modern society its greatest problem. A capacity to deal with the most devastating type of conflict -- international war -- is crucial to human welfare and even to the survival of civilization. Nations have become interdependent in technology and economy, but world political organization is based on a system of sovereign states now divided into hostile camps armed with absolute weapons.

    This book is a study of the development of collective security, or international cooperative action for the maintenance of peace. The approach is based upon the "principle of concern," a recognition of the fact that organization to preserve peace is essential for every political community.

    As a case study Willard N. Hogan has analyzed the principle of collective security as it has worked in practice in international organizations over the past thirty-five years. He holds that collective security is not unworkable as a method for stopping aggression and maintaining peace.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6352-9
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Willard N. Hogan
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. CHAPTER ONE The Principle of Concern
    (pp. 1-3)

    Modern attempts to deal with the problem of war by means of collective security represent a reliance upon the “principle of concern” in international relations. This principle may be defined as a recognition that conflict among the members of a group affects the entire group and that a unilateral resort to violence against any member constitutes an offense against all members. It involves the idea of organization to preserve peace, an idea which lies at the basis of every political community.

    During the century prior to World War I the nations sought to preserve peace by the balance-of-power policy, the...

  5. CHAPTER TWO Acceptance: The League of Nations
    (pp. 4-11)

    Acceptance of the principle of concern by the League of Nations after World War I was a crucial event. The succeeding course of international organization has been marked by controversies over the principle, its soundness and its meanings; by the successes and failures of action based upon it; by its development and interpretation; and even by the alternatives suggested for it.

    Organized peace as a war aim had been expressed in Great Britain as early as 1914, when Prime Minister Asquith spoke of “a real European partnership based on the recognition of equal right and established and enforced by a...

  6. CHAPTER THREE Limitation
    (pp. 12-57)

    No sooner had the principle of concern been accepted than its limitation began to develop. This retreat from general acceptance took place in several ways. First, there was a geographic limitation when membership in the League of Nations did not become universal. The original hope and intention was that the League would function on a world-wide basis. Obviously, however, this could not take place unless all important nations undertook to carry out the obligations of the Covenant. Second, there was a limitation by interpretations incompatible with the implications of full acceptance. This weakened the basic assumptions on which the League...

  7. CHAPTER FOUR Modified Application
    (pp. 58-107)

    The principle of concern was accepted as a basis for international organization after World War I and then limited in the ways described in the preceding chapter. During 1925-1926 a new trend–toward modified application–was introduced. The limitation of general acceptance was replaced by an attempt to develop collective security on a more modest and gradual basis. The principle of concern was regionalized. The erection of a new system to replace the old was discarded for particular arrangements which, it was hoped, would develop in the direction of a more general or universal system.

    It became clear that general...

  8. CHAPTER FIVE Disintegration
    (pp. 108-164)

    The fourth and last phase of international organization for the control of conflict during the period 1919-1939 was characterized by disintegration. The attempt at modified application of the principle of concern was unsuccessful. And the only alternative to its success was complete failure to incorporate the principle into international law and organization as a basis for the control of international conflict. The outbreak of World War II marked that failure. Since the phase of disintegration was so acutely and universally apparent, no extended discussion is necessary to establish its occurrence. Accordingly, this chapter will be limited to a recapitulation of...

  9. CHAPTER SIX Reaffirmation: The United Nations
    (pp. 165-188)

    The Allied victory over the Axis powers in World War II brought a new question about the nature and basis of international legal and political organization for the future. The answer was the United Nations, anticipated and planned during the war, and brought into existence through a Charter signed in 1945. The League of Nations belongs to history, but the United Nations is a crucial issue of the moment. For the United Nations the time span is so short, the events are so close, and the ultimate result is so uncertain, that no definitive statements can be attempted. There is...

  10. Bibliography
    (pp. 189-194)
  11. Index
    (pp. 195-202)