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An American Experience in Indonesia

An American Experience in Indonesia: The University of Kentucky Affiliation with the Agricultural University at Bogor

Howard W. Beers
Copyright Date: 1971
Pages: 288
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  • Book Info
    An American Experience in Indonesia
    Book Description:

    This book tells the story of an important experiment in international cooperation and inter-university collaboration in educational development. A team of educational and agricultural specialists from the University of Kentucky (called Kenteam in the book) lived and worked in

    Bogor, Indonesia, from 1957 through 1965. Their purpose -- to work with the Agricultural University in Bogor to develop a complete college of agriculture to the level of capability for self-regeneration and growth.

    Working against a background of political and economic turmoil, Kenteam succeeded in helping the Indonesians build an institution capable of achieving its goals once the restraints of a struggling economy could be removed. This heartening story is replete with sociological insight but free of sociological jargon.

    Written in a reportorial and evaluative style, the book interweaves ideas of organizational development with close- ups of the interagency and human problems involved, telling an absorbing story of international cooperation in technical assistance. It will be read with interest by Asian specialists and the many people concerned with social change and economic and educational development.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6206-5
    Subjects: Education, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-2)
    A. D. Albright

    Broadening scope, growing size, and rising costs have brought American universities close to, and in many categories beyond, the limits of support from their usual sources. Educational programs have accordingly been somewhat constrained by community interest in their own cities and regions. To reach across oceans with costly educational activity in developing countries is possible only with support from unusual resources: foreign aid, foundation sponsorship, and international business interest. Because of its localistic relevance and its experience in community service, a university in the American interior has special fitness for technical assistance abroad, but reliance on local financing does not...

  4. 1. Bogor, the Agricultural University, and the Kentucky Contract Team
    (pp. 3-29)

    Hospital Street–Djalan Rumah Sakit II–in Bogor lies between the main building of the Agricultural University–IPB–and a row of nine faculty houses. The main building is a place of offices and laboratories built by the Indonesian government after independence of Dutch rule was proclaimed in 1945 and confirmed by international agreements in 1949. The nine houses, and three more a few blocks away, were built for the Americans of the Kentucky Contract Team who worked in the Agricultural University from late 1957 until early 1966.

    At the horizon to the left of the Kentucky team houses, a...

  5. 2. Kenteam’s Relationship with IPB, the Agricultural University at Bogor
    (pp. 30-53)

    The Indonesians were a people new to authority, independence, and responsibility, and their revolt against the Dutch was severe and complete. Their acceptance of technical assistance could hardly be without suppressed chagrin and concealed resentment–not directly against the Americans but deflected toward them from the real object, which was their humiliating need for help. Americans can probably never know or understand completely the Indonesian appraisal of Kenteam and its work, nor can Indonesians understand the depths of Kenteam response to them. Surface and middledepth relations, at least, can be identified and their impact on IPB’s development can be examined....

  6. 3. Ground Rules
    (pp. 54-79)

    Some of the rules by which the University of Kentucky team lived in Bogor were unique to the time, the place, and the persons involved. But the problems they solved would appear in any similar undertaking.

    The formal framework was the contract which provided for a three-part program: technical assistance (the work of Kenteam members); procurement of educational materials (commodities); and advanced study in the United States by staff members of IPB (the participant program).¹ In addition to procedures generally required by the contract, a body of practice accumulated in response to special needs as they appeared, and these were...

  7. 4. The Development of Educational Programs and Relationships at IPB
    (pp. 80-110)

    Teachers in colleges and universities are sometimes doctrinaire about methods. Most follow the practices their own teachers used and will defend them when challenged. The Dutch professors at Bogar relied almost entirely on lectures, which students entered in their notebooks and memorized. Examinations tested their memory. Kenteam teachers, firm in rejecting the Dutch system, were certain their own teaching techniques were better. These had developed under the aura of American preferences for newness and change, the influence of research in educational psychology, and the urgency to make practical use of knowledge. In simplified form the objective of the Dutch was...

  8. 5. Developing an Indonesian Faculty: The Participant Program
    (pp. 111-134)

    Kenteam’s mission in Bogar was to achieve the development of an Indonesian Agricultural University with its own professional personnel in whom would be vested the full responsibility for IPB’s broad, deep, and self-regenerating educational performance. All of Kenteam’s activities were directed toward this end and probably the most important of all strategies employed was that of providing advanced education in American universities for faculty members, including especially new recruits as they completed their undergraduate preparation and were selected to hold faculty positions after periods of planned foreign study. All parties to the Bogar project in technical cooperation called these candidates...

  9. 6. Kenteam, the Agency for International Development, and the University of Kentucky
    (pp. 135-150)

    The contract between the University of Kentucky and the United States Agency for International Development (formerly the International Cooperation Administration)¹ established the broad purpose and the terms of work of the University of Kentucky’s representatives–Kenteam–in Bogor. As in all such contracts during that period it was the responsibility of a chief of party to direct the team’s work. The responsibility of a division chief in AID/Djakarta was to administer the agreed support of Kenteam and to assure that Kenteam’s work was within contractual authorization. For a portion of the period Kenteam’s contract was with the agricultural division of...

  10. 7. Images of Kenteam: Self and Ascribed
    (pp. 151-177)

    Observers have wondered whether professors from temperate zones in the West can be helpful as guest professors in the tropics of the East. Can they bridge the wide gaps in ecology and culture with the hard material of scientific universals and technology and with the softer material of their own good-will and dedication? For Kenteam there are data by which to seek some answers. Accumulated files, now in the archives, yield abundant information from correspondence, minutes, record forms, memoranda, reports, and diarylike notes. Additionally, there are data from a small-scale survey conducted by interview and questionnaire which provide a measure...

  11. 8. Images of IPB: Self and Ascribed
    (pp. 178-196)

    In March 1966, the week after Kenteam professors left Bogor, IPB students occupied the university buildings with sharpened bamboo poles, knives, stones, and kindred weapons, to join the national student demand for dissolution of the Communist party (PKI), reorganization of the cabinet to eliminate communists and to make it smaller, and economic reforms (lowering of prices). The educational program at IPB was abruptly recessed. Nationally, the students had already made some gains in the major cities of several islands with army support; now the pressure was on in Bogor. The main goals were national but some were local. At IPB...

  12. 9. The American Response to Indonesian Culture
    (pp. 197-238)

    Comments on the selection of personnel to work abroad usually stress the importance of screening wives as rigorously as men. Much is made of the high visibility of American women in foreign communities and the prominence of a woman’s role in affecting the tone of relationships and in augmenting or detracting from the effectiveness of whatever work is being undertaken. For all the homage to this idea by employers of men for foreign assignments, however, there is little evidence that more than casual attention is given to the qualifications of wives. One is tempted to conclude that if the matter...

  13. 10. Retrospect
    (pp. 239-254)

    The murkiness of recent Indonesian history and the continuing fragility of political and economic order make it doubtful whether criteria or evidence to determine the effects of the Kenteam project could be precisely identified. However, a worldwide study of technical-assistance institution-building programs, the CIC-AID Rural Development Research project, was started during the last year of Kenteam’s work at Bogar, and its findings, made known in 1968, present a generalization about the sequellae of contract termination.¹ By survey of the institutions which had received technical assistance in East Asia, the authors of the report concluded that none of those from which...

  14. Appendix A. Abbreviations Used in This Book
    (pp. 255-255)
  15. Appendix B. Tables
    (pp. 256-258)
  16. Index
    (pp. 259-268)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 269-269)