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The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1889-1918

The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1889-1918

C. Roland Marchand
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    The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1889-1918
    Book Description:

    The history of the peace movement in the United States was one of dramatic change: in the mid-IKWs it consisted of a few provincial societies; by 1912 it had become eminently respectable and listed among its members an impressive number of the nation's leaders; by 1918 it was once again weak and remote from those who formulated national policy. Along with these fluctuations went equally substantial changes of leadership and purpose that, as C. Roland Marchand emphasizes, reflected the motives of the various reform groups that successively joined and dominated the movement. Most of those who joined were not devoted solely to the cause of world peace, but saw in the programs of the movement a chance for the fulfillment of their own mare immediately relevant goals. Consequently the story of the peace movement reflects the concerns of such groups as the international lawyers who wanted a world court of arbitration as an alternative to war, the business leaders who believed that international economic stability would be endangered by war, and the labor unions who felt that the working class suffered most in war.

    Originally published in 1973.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7025-7
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xvii-2)
    C. Roland Marchand
  2. CHAPTER ONE Up from Sentimentalism
    (pp. 3-38)

    The year 1909, to the casual observer, may easily assume the appearance of a banner year for the peace movement in the United States. Statements by leaders of the movement during that year bristled with pride, expectancy, and optimism. “No congress in our land,” boasted Frederick Lynch, gained so large an attendance as the recent New York Arbitration Congress of 1907. “Now we have the sight of statesmen and governors and kings of finance almost fighting each other at peace gatherings to get the rostrum to plead for the peace of the world. . . .” During the same year,...

  3. CHAPTER TWO Courts, Judges, and the Rule of Law
    (pp. 39-73)

    In 1905 a minor secession took place within the ranks of the decade-old Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration. Dean George Kirchwey of the Columbia University Law School, appearing at the conference for the first time, expressed the dissatisfaction of a small but growing faction within the conference with the diffuseness and impracticality of the present organization. “I have longed,” said Kirchwey on the final day of the meetings, “for some exhibition of a more definite purpose in the gathering than the threshing of the old straw of the Constitution or treading the wine press of ancient wars.” It was...

  4. CHAPTER THREE Businessmen and Practicality
    (pp. 74-98)

    As the peace movement of the opening years of the twentieth century began to quicken and expand, it sought desperately to cast off its reputation for utopianism, moral sentimentalism, and impractical idealism. In order to appeal to a wider audience and seize the opportunities of the new century, its leaders concluded, they must prove their movement to be effective and modern. Their zealous quest for practicality took on two forms—the search for a practical program and the campaign for the support of practical men.

    The first need, that of a practical program, brought the peace movement to focus its...

  5. CHAPTER FOUR Peace through Research: The Great Foundations
    (pp. 99-143)

    By 1910 efficiency had become the new watchword of the peace movement in the United States. With the international lawyers equating the peace movement with expedient American foreign policy and the businessmen describing it in terms of “hardheaded practicality,” the movement had largely effaced the taint of utopianism. The new “establishment” status of the movement was epitomized by the New York Peace Society, with its successful enlistment of men of wealth, influence, and prestige. “A New York Peace Society dinner looks like a banquet of the Chamber of Commerce," wrote Frederick Lynch in 1911. In describing the composition of the...

  6. CHAPTER FIVE Responses to the War Crisis
    (pp. 144-181)

    The outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914 burst like a bombshell upon the sanguine and unsuspecting peace organizations in the United States. Fears of a conflagration in Europe had been almost forgotten in the rising crescendo of optimistic rhetoric proclaiming the rapid progress of the peace movement. Benjamin Trueblood had recently described the movement as on the threshold of its “final stage” and the Quaker internationalist William I. Hull had compared the movement to a ship nearing the end of its voyage. “Its advocates,” he wrote, “have seen it sail so swiftly within the past dozen years, over...

  7. CHAPTER SIX The Maternal Instinct
    (pp. 182-222)

    On 29 August 1914 fifteen hundred women in mourning dress marched silently down Fifth Avenue in New York City to the beat of muffled drums. Crowds interrupted their silence with applause as the leaders of the parade displayed their peace flag, a large white banner with a dove carrying an olive branch in the center. The women’s funereal but dramatic protest against the war in Europe marked the beginning of a remarkable transformation of the peace movement in the United States.¹

    Within a year after the Woman’s Peace Parade a multitude of new leaders and societies emerged to challenge the...

  8. CHAPTER SEVEN Preserving the Social Fabric
    (pp. 223-265)

    While Rosika Schwimmer and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence frenetically toured the country in the fall of 1914 delivering emotion-laden appeals to American women to build a peace movement upon the “motherhood instinct,” a small group of humanitarian social reformers met quietly at the Henry Street Settlement House in Manhattan’s Lower East Side to consider the implications of war in Europe for social work and reform programs. On 22 September 1914 the nation’s most revered settlement house leaders, Jane Addams and Lillian Wald, had jointly issued an invitation to a group of twenty-six prominent men and women associated with reform programs to attend...

  9. CHAPTER EIGHT The Workingman’s Burden
    (pp. 266-322)

    The American declaration of war against Germany on 6 April 1917 nearly destroyed the surviving peace organizations. The leaders of the Woman's Peace Party and the American Union Against Militarism had come to the peace movement through their initial and dominant concerns with various domestic reforms. After the spring of 1917, they found that energetic work for peace severely jeopardized their influence and public acceptability, and thus their ability to defend or push forward their domestic reform programs. Gradually they drew back from the struggle to reverse or substantially alter the government’s apparently irreversible course of action.

    As the reformers...

  10. CHAPTER NINE Peace, Church Unity, and the Social Gospel
    (pp. 323-380)

    Of the various professional groups represented among participants in the early twentieth century peace movement, the clergy, by its continued presence, seemed most to lend the movement a semblance of continuity. But even in the realm of clerical participation, the tide of internal revolution that surged through the peace movement between 1898 and 1918 produced ample waves of change. Since clerical interest in peace expressed itself, somewhat uniquely, in active but dissimilar peace organizations both before and after 1915, the story of evolving clerical attitudes can best be recounted by retracing the several phases of the peace movement already chronicled...

  11. CHAPTER TEN Conclusion
    (pp. 381-390)

    The brief ascendancy of the People’s Council in 1917 and the maturing of the Fellowship of Reconciliation early in 1918 conveniently mark the conclusion of the early twentieth century phase of the peace movement in the United States. Activity by these and other organizations continued and the struggle over the League of Nations lay ahead, but by the beginning of 1918 the possibilities of the peace movement's recent course of development had been thoroughly explored.

    The peace movement had gained an impetus during the opening years of the twentieth century from America’s increased international involvements. Commercial growth, the Spanish-American War,...