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African Businessmen and Development in Zambia

African Businessmen and Development in Zambia

Andrew A. Beveridge
Anthony R. Oberschall
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    African Businessmen and Development in Zambia
    Book Description:

    Drawing on their extensive fieldwork in Zambia, the authors address these central concerns: the social origins and motivations of African entrepreneurs, and the determinants of their success; the impact of government policies on business growth; the relative performance of Zambians in business; and the effects of small business on Zambian society.

    Originally published in 1979.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6732-5
    Subjects: Business, History

Table of Contents

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  1. Preface
    (pp. xiii-2)
    Andrew A. Beveridge and Anthony R. Oberschall
  2. Introduction
    (pp. 3-14)

    African traders and businessmen and their enterprises are the subject of this book. Development, modernization, economic growth, entrepreneurship, dependency, neocolonialism, and other terms are some of the abstract concepts social scientists use for describing and explaining social change in the third world. That market traders selling tomatoes, onions, and dried fish; purveyors of groceries, beer, lodging, and taxi rides; and makers of furniture, houses, coffins, and water buckets, as well as small industrialists and contractors, are important actors in the vast dramas of social change may be easily overlooked by theorists and policy makers. Yet we intend to contribute to...

  3. CHAPTER I From Rhodes to Kaunda
    (pp. 15-54)

    Before the advent of Livingstone and other British explorers in the mid-1800s, the small amount of trade and industry that existed in Zambia was in the hands of the Africans who lived there, except for the slave trade, which was controlled by the Arabs and Swahili. After British colonization, Zambia remained an economic backwater until the growth of copper mining just prior to the Great Depression. Foreign capital and multinational corporations developed one of the largest copper-mining complexes in the world by means of African labor drawn from villages. Indeed, with a GNP of close to $2 billion in 1973,...

  4. CHAPTER II Market Trade
    (pp. 55-88)

    The broad base of African business activity in Lusaka has consisted of market traders selling fish, tomatoes, onions, and small quantities of other foods to African consumers; young men peddling Coca-Cola, bread, and meat-filled pastries from bicycles and pushcarts throughout the city; craftsmen making and selling buckets for carrying water; and carpenters assembling chairs, tables, and dressers. These small enterprises, found largely in markets, have provided more employment than any other category of African business. They have far outnumbered the combined total of all other business establishments. They have introduced many of the larger and more successful entrepreneurs to business...

  5. CHAPTER III Small Retail Trade
    (pp. 89-118)

    African retailing in Lusaka grew from a handful of stores located in a few African neighborhoods in the 1950s to numerous shops in every African residential area in the 1970s. Any observer who takes a casual walk through an African neighborhood in Lusaka or in any other Zambian city sees ample evidence of this growth. In some areas it seems as if there is a shop every few feet. Despite this proliferation, even rudimentary information was lacking about these businesses and their owners. Government officials, who presumably might be personally acquainted with some of the African businessmen, considered such shops...

  6. CHAPTER IV Challenging Expatriate Entrepreneurs
    (pp. 119-161)

    At the peak of African enterprise in Zambia are the substantial businessmen who own and operate large complex businesses. Their level of business is very different from small-scale trading, artisan, and transport activities. We considered an African businessman substantial if his business had aggregate monthly sales in excess of 8,000 kwacha or if he was engaged in an area of business that had been the exclusive province of European or Asian entrepreneurs. In 1970 and 1971, we located and interviewed all but two such businessmen in Lusaka.

    They were already in day-to-day competition with Europeans and Asians and included among...

  7. CHAPTER V Rural Business Enterprise
    (pp. 162-203)

    Although the bulk of monetized economic activity was centered in urban areas, in the early 1970s seven of ten Zambians still lived in rural areas. The rapid expansion of African business activity taking place in urban areas was being accompanied by a similar, though slower, growth throughout Zambia’s countryside and rural centers—the provincial and district capitals off the rail line. Many rural dwellers supported themselves by cultivating agricultural products primarily for their own consumption, but some sold an increasing share of their produce. In an attempt to promote rural development the government constructed new schools, health centers, agricultural stations,...

  8. CHAPTER VI Success, Family Patterns, and Life Styles
    (pp. 204-242)

    Numerous African businessmen throughout Zambia have founded enterprises, expanded them, earned high profits, and gone on to new endeavors. Yet not all were successes—some failed outright, and others barely scraped by. We now turn from a discussion of specific business types to an examination of the social patterns related to African business success and failure. First, we will see what factors accounted for differences in individual success among African businessmen in Zambia in the early 1970s. Second, we will analyze the impact of family patterns on business success and vice versa. Since African businessmen are also family members, the...

  9. CHAPTER VII Policies, Politics, and African Businessmen
    (pp. 243-274)

    Government officials were frequently ambivalent about private business, and their policies toward business vacillated in unpredictable ways. Consider the following sequence of events: economic reforms were proclaimed to Zambianize private business activity; economic inequality, especially that resulting from the activities of successful African businessmen, was roundly condemned; the government never came forward with a program to implement the reforms; the economic reforms proved to have only limited direct effects; businessmen were jailed for charging two ngwee over a fifty-four-ngwee price ceiling for a bar of soap; some imported goods were nearly impossible to find when supply routes changed because of...

  10. CHAPTER VIII African Enterprise, Entrepreneurship, and Social Change
    (pp. 275-313)

    Central to our study of African businessmen in Zambia are three closely related topics:

    1. What forces give rise to indigenous business activity? Are the individual attributes and social and economic variables that favor entrepreneurship different from those that lead to routine business activity? What accounts for business success in a postcolonial African setting? This first topic is that of entrepreneurial supply and performance.

    2. The growth and performance of African business in Zambia allows a realistic assessment to be made of the contribution and prospects of indigenous private enterprise within a wider development strategy in similar third world societies....

  11. APPENDIX I. Conduct of Fieldwork and Interview Schedules
    (pp. 314-323)
  12. APPENDIX II. Earnings and Growth Estimates of Businessmen and Traders
    (pp. 324-339)
  13. APPENDIX III. Multivariate Analyses of Business Success
    (pp. 340-361)