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The Dilemmas of Growth in Prewar Japan

The Dilemmas of Growth in Prewar Japan

Edited by JAMES WILLIAM MORLEY
GEORGE M. BECKMANN
JAMES B. CROWLEY
R. P. DORE
PETER DUUS
KENTARŌ HAYASHI
CHIHIRO HOSOY
AKIRA IRIYE
JAMES WILLIAM MORLEY
TETSUO NAJITA
TSUTOMU ŌUCHI
HUGH T. PATRICK
EDWIN O. REISCHAUER
ROBERT M. SPAULDING
ARTHUR E. TIEDEMANN
Copyright Date: 1971
Pages: 537
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x18xv
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  • Book Info
    The Dilemmas of Growth in Prewar Japan
    Book Description:

    The sixth and final volume in the series published for the Conference on Modern Japan reviews the political, economic and foreign policy problems faced by Japan during the 1930's and '40's. James Morley's introductory chapter, "Choice and Consequence," and Edwin O. Reisehauer's conclusion. "What Went Wrong?" define the context of the discussion.

    Contents: "Foreword," John Whitney Hall. 1. "Introduction: Choice and Consequence," James William Morley. PART ONE: Political and Military. II. "The Bureaucracy as a Political Force, 1920-45," Robert M. Spaulding, Jr. III. "Retrogression in Japan's Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process," Chihiro Hosoya. IV. "The Failure of Military Expansionism," Akira Iriye. V. "The Radical Left and the Failure of Communism," George M. Beekmann. PART TWO: Economic and Social. VI. "Rural Origins of Japanese Fascism," R. P. Dore and Tsutomu Ouchi. VII. "The Economic Muddle of the 192O's," Hugh I. Patrick. VIII. "Big Business and Politics in Prewar Japan," Arthur E. Tiedemann. PAKT THREE: Intellectual. IX. "Intellectuals as Visionaries of the New Asian Order," James B. Crowley. X. "Nakano Seigo and the Spirit of the Meiji Restoration in Twentieth- Century Japan," Tetsuo Najita. XI. "Oyama Ikuo and the Search for Democracy," Peter Duus. PART FOUR: Comparisons and Conclusions. XII. "Japan and Germany in the Interwar Period," Kentaro Hayashi. XIII. "What Went Wrong?" Edwin O. Reischauer. Index.

    Originally published in 1974.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7290-9
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. FOREWORD
    (pp. vii-2)
    John Whitney Hall

    Scholarly studies of Japan have had a truly remarkable growth in the United States and other English-speaking countries in the years following World War II. To some extent this has been the natural result of the popular boom of interest in Japan stimulated by the war and its aftermath and by the increased opportunities which Westerners have had to associate with the Japanese people. But it is more directly the result of the spread of academic programs devoted to Japan and particularly the growing number of specialists trained to handle the Japanese language.

    In the fall of 1958 a group...

  4. CHAPTER I Introduction: Choice and Consequence
    (pp. 3-30)
    JAMES WILLIAM MORLEY

    Ever since the preliminary seminar was held in Hakone in i960, participants in the Conference on Modern Japan have been troubled by the relationship between democratic values and the historic process of modernization. Kawashima Takeyoshi raised the issue at the start, insisting that the desire for democracy has played an “important role” in providing the “motive force” for modernizing Japan.¹ Certainly one cannot deny its presence. At the first seminar, in Bermuda, Marius Jansen reflected on the appeal of individualistic values to intellectuals early in the Meiji period;² and in the present volume Tetsuo Najita and Peter Duus show how...

  5. PART ONE: POLITICAL AND MILITARY

    • CHAPTER II The Bureaucracy as a Political Force, 1920-45
      (pp. 33-80)
      ROBERT M. SPAULDING JR.

      In most accounts of Japanese political history after World War I, the central theme has been the capture and manipulation of the Cabinet by political parties and later by the military services. Historical analysis has centered on the character and purpose of these two groups: Were the party leaders pioneering democrats or hypocritical spoilsmen: the military officers, reckless plotters or maligned patriots? Other elite institutions and groups are either ignored or treated as static components of the environment. Passing references to the pluralism of the political system have not attracted much attention to the Privy Council, the House of Peers,...

    • CHAPTER III Retrogression in Japan’s Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process
      (pp. 81-106)
      CHIHIRO HOSOYA

      Although the problem of modernization has increasingly attracted the attention of social scientists in various fields since the Hakone Conference, this does not mean that there were no academic controversies or studies dealing with the problem before i960. On the contrary, the social changes in the modern world, which the term “modernization” attempts to designate, have been the object of serious study for a long time and even the term itself does not sound as fresh and modern as it once did.

      To account for the increasing tendency to pay more attention to the modernization problem and to view it...

    • CHAPTER IV The Failure of Military Expansionism
      (pp. 107-138)
      AKIRA IRIYE

      In the 1920’s Japan tried peaceful expansionism and failed. If the nation was to continue to grow, military means must now be employed; the use of force would enable the nation to achieve ends which the “economic diplomacy” of the 1920’s had not been able to obtain—such was the reasoning behind the militaristic adventures of the 1930’s.¹

      In discussing Japanese militarism after the Manchurian incident, it is useful to view it as the antithesis not of pacifism but of peaceful expansionism. Militarism triumphed not as a goal but as a means for obtaining the same ends which the diplomacy...

    • CHAPTER V The Radical Left and the Failure of Communism
      (pp. 139-178)
      GEORGE M. BECKMANN

      The history of the Japanese Communist party, especially in the period from its establishment in 1922 to the outbreak of the China incident in 1937, constitutes an important sidelight on the nature of the Japanese imperial system and of intellectual change in a society which, however conservative, was well along in the process of modernization. Japanese Communists were primary agents in the diffusion of Marxism, which became an important influence in Japanese universities and intellectual circles in the 1920’s and which was the ideological basis of the first fundamental challenge to the imperial interpretation (kōkoku shikam) of Japanese history and...

  6. PART TWO: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL

    • CHAPTER VI Rural Origins of Japanese Fascism
      (pp. 181-210)
      R. P. DORE and TSUTOMU ŌUCHI

      In this Meiji centennial year many Japanese intellectuals are, for the first time and in gingerly fashion, allowing themselves the indulgence of self-congratulatory celebration of the last century of their national history. It is fitting that it should be in this year that the Conference on Modern Japan, which has done its share to propagate the “success story” interpretation should be having its second thoughts. Clearly it was not roses, roses all the way; nor was the toil and blood and sacrifice always purposefully exacted by wise leaders for ultimate objectives of which we can all approve; nor are we...

    • CHAPTER VII The Economic Muddle of the 1920’s
      (pp. 211-266)
      HUGH T. PATRICK

      In analyzing the dilemmas of Japan’s growth in the interwar period, I regard the basic economic question to be: To what extent did economic factors, and precisely what factors, cause Japan to choose, or stumble onto, the path which led to militarism and war? Posing the issue so broadly inevitably raises the problem of complete explanation, since the relative importance of economic factors can be determined only if we know the relative importance of all other causes—political, social, cultural, external, etc. Clearly economic and noneconomic factors are interrelated in complex ways—by feedbacks and interdependence—the facts much less...

    • CHAPTER VIII Big Business and Politics in Prewar Japan
      (pp. 267-316)
      ARTHUR E. TIEDEMANN

      The aim of this chapter is to examine various aspects I of the relation between big business and politics in prewar Japan. By big business I mean primarily the large-scale modernized sector of the economy which began to emerge in the last decades of the nineteenth century and which reached a mature stage in the twentieth century. To a certain extent the term may be taken to be loosely synonymous with what is called the zaibatsu, but as used here it also includes all large-scale modern enterprises whether customarily designated as zaibatsu or not. A knowledge of this relation between...

  7. PART THREE: INTELLECTUAL

    • CHAPTER IX Intellectuals as Visionaries of the New Asian Order
      (pp. 319-374)
      JAMES B. CROWLEY

      Against the blinding implosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese historians understandably came to view the course of Japan’s national policy in the 1930’s as a “valley of darkness.” Henceforth, the story of this decade would be told primarily in terms of a limited number of characters—ultranationalists, fascists, and militarists. The central theme became the pernicious spectre of these groups trampling Taisho democracy underfoot, driving the nation into atavistic aggression and reactionary totalitarianism. And, of course, the main villain became the military establishment, impelling the nation into a war which was, in Churchill’s language, incompatible, “with prudence or even with...

    • CHAPTER X Nakano Seigō and the Spirit of the Meiji Restoration in Twentieth-Century Japan
      (pp. 375-422)
      TETSUO NAJITA

      One can read the literature of extreme nationalism in virtually any period in the history of modern Japan before the Pacific War and find recurring, in regular fashion, the frustrated cry for a newishin(“restoration”). Despite a general familiarity with this theme among students of Japanese history, it has not been adequately understood in the West. There has been a tendency, for example, to place its radical manifestations in the 1930’s in the context of a definitional model of European fascism. More generally, it has been looked at outside this comparative frame as an obscurantist Japanese phenomenon defying clear...

    • CHAPTER XI Ōyama Ikuo and the Search for Democracy
      (pp. 423-458)
      PETER DUUS

      In the fall of 1930, shortly before he was shot by a would be assassin, Hamaguchi Osachi waxed pessimistic about the state of the political world. “No sooner have the people of our country realized that party government has been established than they have been disappointed at the enormity of its defects,” he wrote. “Without taking time to consider deeply whether these defects of party government are the fault of the system or the fault of the party politicians, they have lost hope in the present state of politics and take a gloomy view of the future.”¹ His comment, written...

  8. PART FOUR: COMPARISONS AND CONCLUSIONS

    • CHAPTER XII Japan and Germany in the Interwar Period
      (pp. 461-488)
      KENTARŌ HAYASHI

      It is generally acknowledged that there are many similarities in the modern histories of Japan and Germany. Both peoples achieved national unification and appeared on the stage of international politics about 1870. The comparative lateness of these events placed both of them in such a state of rivalry with the more advanced countries as to stamp certain common features on their modern institutions and politics.

      In both Japan and Germany, for example, the power of the modern state was created not so much to accomplish the self-governing objectives of civil society as to concentrate the nation’s strength to meet the...

    • CHAPTER XIII What Went Wrong?
      (pp. 489-510)
      EDWIN O. REISCHAUER

      Despite sharp disagreements among Japanese and Western scholars over the definition of “modernization” in general and the dynamics of Japan’s own process of change during the past century, there is nonetheless wide agreement that, as Dore and Ōuchi put it, “something ‘went wrong’ in Japan in the late twenties and thirties of this century.” The disastrous war that grew out of these years in itself seems adequate proof of this assumption, and most scholars, whether or not they have “value-free” definitions of “modernization,” join in deploring the breakdown of political democratization that preceded and accompanied the war catastrophe.

      No one...

  9. List of Contributors
    (pp. 511-514)
  10. INDEX
    (pp. 515-527)