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The Matrix of Policy in the Philippines

The Matrix of Policy in the Philippines

Copyright Date: 1971
Pages: 342
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  • Book Info
    The Matrix of Policy in the Philippines
    Book Description:

    The prevailing view of the state of Philippine society is bleak: the Philippines, it is alleged, is suffering from unsatisfactory economic growth, mounting corruption, increasing lawlessness, and declining morale. To arrive at an accurate assessment of current problems and future prospects, the authors have undertaken a broad, quantitative analysis of politics, economics, crime, and dissidence within the country. Addressing the problems systematically, measuring alternative explanations and interpretations, their analysis is directed to a clearer articulation of information and policy decisions within the Philippines, and a more realistic view of the country. For the benefit of other social scientists or countries who wish to make a similar study, the appendices list in detail the data used by the authors.

    Originally published in 1971.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6709-7
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface
    (pp. vii-x)
    Harvey A. Averch, John E. Koehler and Frank H. Denton
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. xv-xv)
  5. List of Tables
    (pp. xv-1)
  6. [Map]
    (pp. 2-2)
  7. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-9)

    This book began with a misperception. Our research was originally intended to illuminate some of the links among the serious problems supposedly besetting the Philippines: crime, insurgency, political instability, and poor economic performance. However, when we began to examine the alleged problems and to search for the links, it became apparent that the problems themselves were exaggerated, or imaginary, or different in important ways from the manner in which they had been generally understood.

    The misperception with which we began was widely shared. The view commonly upheld in the U.S. and Philippine press, the U.S. Congress, and even in scholarly...

  8. 2 Philippine Geography and Society: Factor Analysis
    (pp. 10-25)

    The Philippines stretches more than 800 miles from Aparri in the north on the flood plain of the Cagayan river to Jolo in the south. Contained within the country is a range of geography, climate, culture, and economic structure as broad as we can find anywhere. Christianity and Islam are the two major religions; there are 11 major languages and over 70 minor languages;¹ and styles of living range from the Ifugao of Central Luzon who occasionally revive the headhunting customs of their ancestors to Manilans as at home in Paris and Washington as in Makati. Figure 1 shows the...

  9. 3 Perceptions of the Philippine Political System
    (pp. 26-45)

    The attitudes of the public, politicians, and bureaucrats provide one measure of the performance of the government. If the government is habitually inept and unresponsive, these faults should be revealed in the way the people view the government or in the way politicians view the public. Filipinos appear reasonably well satisfied with the performance of their government. The politicians and bureaucrats, in turn, seem to perceive the desires of the public quite clearly and try to satisfy them. Politicians note the desire of the public for delivery of local goods and services or for a candidate who speaks their language....

  10. 4 Politics in the Philippines
    (pp. 46-68)

    Politicians need to allocate programs, budget, and talent toward winning voter approval.¹ Thus, if votes are determined by pork barrel, politicians have every incentive to require the delivery of “vote-getting” programs—for example, increased government employment—rather than “growth-achieving” programs.

    Indirectly, the motives of bureaucrats are shaped by the same need because of their interactions with the politicians. To obtain budget, bureaucrats must bargain with the politicians, arranging and executing the programs the politicians choose.

    The election is the central event in Philippine politics. It is through analysis of elections that we shall assess the prospects for political change, for...

  11. 5 The Lurching Economy
    (pp. 69-114)

    Although it is hard to find evidence of rapid political change in the Philippines, economic growth is proceeding at a respectable rate and, as we shall see, is spread broadly across the country. Paradoxically, though, the image of the Philippines as a nation muddling along is drawn at least as much from dissatisfaction with the performance of the economy as it is from criticism of the political system. Criticism centers on high unemployment, an allegedly inadequate rate of growth of GNP accompanied by an exploding population, the erratic lurching of the economy, and the periodic balance of payments difficulties. In...

  12. 6 Crime in the Philippines
    (pp. 115-130)

    Filipinos and Foreigners alike view the Philippines as a violent society beset by murder, robbery, and theft. The impression is hard to escape—at least in Manila where armed guards, lurid newspaper headlines, and “check your firearms” signs are everywhere.¹ Violent crime, like the lurching of the economy, appears to be related to politics and to the same considerations of ethnicity that were so important in the political realm. Here, too, our first problem is to untangle the basic information about the prevalence of crime. Then we have to test for social and economic relationships. Finally, we have to see...

  13. 7 Dissidence Within the System
    (pp. 131-150)

    The Philippines has a long history of dissident movements forming, becoming active, and then declining. Since 1900 the nation has experienced no successful revolution, although many believe that the Hukbalahap uprising of 1949-1953 came close to success.¹ Some, impressed by analogies to Vietnam, believe that the contemporary organization called the HMB or Huk poses a similar revolutionary threat.

    The view that the current organization may be a threat of some consequence rests on the resurgence of the HMB since 1961. In 1961 it would have been fair to say that the dissidence in Central Luzon had been reduced to a...

  14. 8 The Uses of Quantitative Analysis
    (pp. 151-154)

    For the last five chapters we have been trying to follow our own prescription—that is, to be quantitative, to get inside the information systems, to use multiple tests and measures—for analyzing the problems of LDCs. Application of this prescription to the Philippines has produced an image with the following characteristics:

    The political system appears to be stable and generally responsive to the desires of most people. The stability rests on a rural sector voting along traditional lines with politicians responding primarily to rural demands. The only group we found that is relatively less oriented to traditional political behavior...

  15. APPENDIX A Pegasus Sample Design and Questionnaire
    (pp. 155-173)
  16. APPENDIX B Factor Analysis Data Base
    (pp. 174-180)
  17. APPENDIX C Congressional Questionnaire
    (pp. 181-183)
  18. APPENDIX D Estimates of National Income
    (pp. 184-201)
  19. APPENDIX E Interviews of Economists
    (pp. 202-206)
    (pp. 207-224)
  21. Index
    (pp. 225-234)
  22. Back Matter
    (pp. 235-236)