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Peoples and Crafts in Period IVB at Hasanlu, Iran

Peoples and Crafts in Period IVB at Hasanlu, Iran

Maude de Schauensee Volume Editor
Robert H. Dyson General Editor
Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 248
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  • Book Info
    Peoples and Crafts in Period IVB at Hasanlu, Iran
    Book Description:

    The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has had a long-standing interest in the archaeology of Iran. In 1956, Robert H. Dyson, Jr., began excavations south of Lake Urmia at the large mounded site of Hasanlu. Although the results of these excavations await final publication, theHasanlu Special Studiesseriesof which this monograph is the fourth volumedescribes and analyzes specific aspects of technology, style, and iconography. This volume describes a group of ongoing research projects, most of which provide new information on Iron Age technology. A theme that runs through these studies is the degree to which ancient workers varied the composition of their products to create desirable colors and textures.

    The book begins with a description of the wooden furniture fragments along with fittings and decorative elements for furniture. It presents the first detailed description of the charred textiles, and places these textiles in their archaeological contexts, suggesting the roles that textiles may have played in daily life. Later chapters assess the significance of Hasanlu in the history of glassmaking, describe the archaeometallurgy of the Hasanlu IVB bronzes, and present a catalog of the bladed weapons. Also, the book presents the evidence for deliberate violence against individuals as indicated by their skeletal injuries and the results of a project undertaken to determine whether DNA could be used to obtain a better understanding of the population history at Hasanlu.

    Content on the book's DVD-ROM may be found online at this location:

    eISBN: 978-1-934536-38-4
    Subjects: Archaeology, Anthropology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-xx)
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  5. Notes on Terminology
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxv-xxv)
  7. [Illustrations]
    (pp. xxvi-xxviii)
  8. Foreword
    (pp. xxix-xxxiv)
    Mary M. Voigt and Robert H. Dyson Jr.

    The University of Pennsylvania Museum has had a long-standing interest in the archaeology of Iran which began with Eric Schmidt’s excavations at Tepe Hissar in 1931 and continued with Carleton Coon’s research on the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods which began in 1949. When Robert Dyson joined the staff of the Museum on July 1st, 1954, he brought with him an interest in the definition of regional archaeological sequences based on stratigraphy. This strategy had been advocated by Lauristan Ward, Dyson’s teacher and mentor while he was a student at Harvard; the emphasis on stratigraphy was reinforced by Kathleen Kenyon, under...

  9. 1 Furniture Remains and Furniture Ornaments from the Period IVB Buildings at Hasanlu
    (pp. 1-42)
    Maude de Schauensee

    The settlement of Hasanlu, sacked and burned at the end of the 9th century BC, is unusual in that so much was preserved within it by the very fire that destroyed it (Dyson 1989a,b). The furniture and furniture decorations that are the subject of this chapter are only a small part of the contents belonging to daily life carried out within the buildings, but they are important because actual furniture is only rarely recovered in archaeological contexts in the Near East.¹

    Hasanlu lay either just beyond the borders of two 1st millennium polities, Urartu and Assyria (Rothman 2003:109), or inside...

  10. 2 The Analysis and Conservation of the Hasanlu Period IVB Textiles
    (pp. 43-56)
    Nancy Love

    The Iron Age site of Hasanlu in northwestern Iran yielded many textile remains. They were excavated between 1958 and 1974 in the Burned Buildings of Period IVB (ca. 1100 to 800 BC) destruction level on the High Mound of Hasanlu Tepe. Most of the samples had been preserved by charring (de Schauensee, Chapter 3, this volume). Seventy-five samples were recorded and assigned field numbers, packed on site, and shipped to the University of Pennsylvania Museum. Some of the samples were examined by Harold Burnham, Royal Museum of Ontario, in 1961 and 1962. Later studies were begun by Louisa Bellinger of...

  11. 3 Contexts of Textiles from the Hasanlu IVB Destruction Level
    (pp. 57-86)
    Maude de Schauensee

    The Period IVB burned level at Hasanlu is one of the few archaeological contexts from the Middle East to have produced textiles preserved in any quantity. This large and varied sample is the result of two factors. The first is that the settlement was destroyed by a surprise attack, leaving intact a record of daily life activities. The second is that the very fire that destroyed the settlement also preserved the textiles by charring them; a very few fragments were preserved by proximity to metal.

    While textiles have been found at sites in the Middle East dating from Neolithic times,...

  12. 4 Glass and Glaze Analysis and Technology from Hasanlu, Period IVB
    (pp. 87-102)
    Colleen P. Stapleton

    The careful excavations of Hasanlu that yielded numerous objects made of glass and other glassy materials have made this site a valuable source of information for glass history. The phrase “glassmaking hiatus” is often used to describe the glass industry during the transition between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in the Near East, mainly because of the lack of glassmaking sites and of significantly large archaeological finds of glass objects. Sites from which there is evidence of manufacture of glass from raw materials around this period include 14th century BC Amarna (Shortland and Tite 2000), 13th century BC...

  13. 5 The Archaeometallurgy of Period IVB Bronzes at Hasanlu
    (pp. 103-134)
    Stuart J. Fleming, Samuel K. Nash and Charles P. Swann

    In all, well over two thousand copper and bronze artifacts were recovered during the excavations of Period IVB contexts at Hasanlu (de Schauensee 1988). One hundred and six of these were analyzed for their main alloying constituents and several minor impurities, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry (see Fleming and Swann 1993; Swann, Fleming, and Jaksic 1992), while the microstructure of 11 of them were studied using standard metallographic microscopy to determine the manner and extent to which their metal had been manipulated after casting (see Scott 1991:5–29 and appendix G; Fleming et al. 2005). With the exception of...

  14. 6 Blade-type Weaponry of Hasanlu Period IVB
    (pp. 135-182)
    Christopher P. Thornton and Vincent C. Pigott

    The destruction level of Hasanlu Period IVB has provided archaeologists with a rare glimpse of a specific moment in time—a Pompeian horizon from which surrounding chronological and spatial contexts can be deduced. The thousands of artifacts that have been extracted from this layer provide many possibilities for understanding the behavioral and socio-political history of northwestern Iran in the late 9th century BC. Given the violent nature of the sacking of Hasanlu at the hands of a still-unidentified foe or foes, it is not surprising that weaponry makes up a large part of the archaeological assemblage. Previous studies of this...

  15. 7 A Life of Violence: When Warfare and Interpersonal Violence Intertwine at Hasanlu, Period IVB
    (pp. 183-194)
    Janet Monge and Colleen McCarthy

    In the modern and in the archaeological worlds, the pattern of violence and trauma must be interpreted from the social and cultural context of the peoples and populations represented. Walker (1997:165) summarized this: “Cultural-historic factors clearly influence patterns of violence and this could account for some of the variation in the skeletal collections.” The interpretation of trauma and violence in the lives of peoples in the past is based both on the archaeological context and the life history of trauma recorded in the skeletal structures of the inhabitants. Violence is defined here as trauma delivered by one human onto the...

  16. 8 Hasanlu IVB: An Ancient DNA Pilot Project
    (pp. 195-200)
    Matthew C. Dulik, Joseph G. Lorenz and Theodore G. Schurr

    Throughout the periods of Hasanlu’s history, patterns emerge which suggest both a persistence of cultural elements (architectural features, ceramic types, etc.) and, at times, a discordance marking the boundaries of historical periods (Dyson 1989). This discontinuity, especially as it exists with the spatial changes between Periods IV and III, indicates a possible change in the community residing at the site. This change may have resulted in the complete displacement of an earlier population by a new group of individuals, or merely a shift in the authority presiding over the region.

    Evidence of such a change (or lack of change) in...

  17. Author Biographies
    (pp. 201-204)
  18. Index
    (pp. 205-214)