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Fighting the Cold War

Fighting the Cold War: A Soldier's Memoir

JOHN R. GALVIN
Foreword by DAVID H. PETRAEUS
Copyright Date: 2015
Pages: 568
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x1rz4
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    Fighting the Cold War
    Book Description:

    When four-star general John Rogers Galvin retired from the US Army after forty-four years of distinguished service in 1992, the Washington Post hailed him as a man "without peer among living generals." In Fighting the Cold War: A Soldier's Memoir, the celebrated soldier, scholar, and statesman recounts his active participation in more than sixty years of international history -- from the onset of World War II through the fall of the Berlin Wall and the post--Cold War era.

    Galvin's illustrious tenure included the rare opportunity to lead two different Department of Defense unified commands: United States Southern Command in Panama from 1985 to 1987 and United States European Command from 1987 to 1992. In his memoir, he recounts fascinating behind-the-scenes anecdotes about his interactions with world leaders, describing encounters such as his experience of watching President José Napoleón Duarte argue eloquently against US intervention in El Salvador; a private conversation with Pope John Paul II in which the pontiff spoke to him about what it means to be a man of peace; and his discussion with General William Westmoreland about soldiers' conduct in the jungles of Vietnam and Cambodia. In addition, Galvin recalls his complex negotiations with a number of often difficult foreign heads of state, including Manuel Noriega, Augusto Pinochet, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ratko Mladić.

    As NATO Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during the tumultuous five years that ended the Cold War, Galvin played a key role in shaping a new era.Fighting the Cold Warilluminates his leadership and service as one of America's premier soldier-statesmen, revealing him to be not only a brilliant strategist and consummate diplomat but also a gifted historian and writer who taught and mentored generations of students.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6103-7
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-xiv)
    David H. Petraeus

    General Jack Galvin has been many figures to many people. And beyond his exceptional accomplishments in and out of uniform, that is why he stood out from his contemporaries and was a model and an inspiration for so many of us. It is also what makes this book so special.

    Fighting the Cold Warrevisits the many fields of General Galvin’s achievements.

    He was, of course, a great soldier, highly decorated on the battlefield in Vietnam, who rose to the pinnacle of command as a Cold Warrior, and who was known for his thinking, his integrity, and his forthright advice...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. Part 1. Pleasant Street

    • 1 The Flashing Eyes “Do you mind if I say hello?”
      (pp. 3-6)

      Jo Rogers. My father saw her for the first time in the New England autumn of the year 1926, down by the shore of Lake Quannapowitt in Wakefield, Massachusetts, on the eve of Thanksgiving, at the annual carnival. Drawn there by the lights, the music, and the lazy smoke from small wood fires, he and some friends joined the crowd of townsfolk and visitors, a thousand people maybe, filling the lakeside common from the bandstand at one end to Cubberley’s Boathouse and Dance Hall on the other. Jack was twenty-three. He walked among the hanging kerosene lanterns in the tented...

    • 2 Shadows on the Ceiling “A downward spiral”
      (pp. 7-16)

      My first remembrance of my father was as a mountain. The best thing in the world for me was to climb into his bed and nestle my back against his broad back and just stay there, safe and happy. He was always the encourager and protector. When I got on the bad side of the fourthgrade bully, who condemned me to a life of bumps and pushes and threats, I turned to my father and asked him what to do. He said, “Just remember that you’re not made of ice cream.” I did that— and, miraculously, it worked. I discovered...

    • 3 The Pleasant Street Army “What was that voice saying?”
      (pp. 17-22)

      In 1941, my father bought Kate’s house for $1,200, which was what Kate had paid to replace the mansard roof after a fire. The Cronin family moved into a newly built place in another part of town. With our family together again, we shifted from one part of the duplex to another while my father converted the building into four apartments. Whenever a section was ready for rental, we relocated to an unfinished part and rented the remodeled section. In four years, we were receiving rent from three tenants and were enjoying a new apartment for ourselves.

      All the while,...

    • 4 If God Was Mad “Now there are three of us.”
      (pp. 23-28)

      My father was a bricklayer as well as a plasterer. Our job one Saturday was to take the weather-beaten chimney down from the top of a tall, three-story Victorian house tucked between the hill and the railroad tracks near Greenwood Station, clean the brick, and build the chimney back up again. We were going to try to get it done in one day—and we did.

      A day of mixing brick mortar was far easier than a day of mixing plaster. The mortar was heavier, but bricklayers used it up slowly, while plasterers went through hodful after hodful very fast....

    • 5 My Nine Lives “A sharp lesson in the purpose of the chain of command”
      (pp. 29-36)

      I’d continued to draw and sketch since the “window sketches” of the neighborhood that my mother had inspired, and eventually I became a cartoonist for my high-school-sponsored newspaper,The Lookout,and later for a renegade student paper with the misspelled nameThe New Chronical.One of my cartoons was published byScholastic Rotomagazine, and I was awarded a $25 war bond. This convinced me that I could make a living as a cartoonist. I opened an office in the basement of my uncle’s appliance repair store and, still in school, went into business. I designed posters and business cards,...

  6. Part 2. Army Life

    • 6 West Point: A Time for Testing “I want to be right where I am.”
      (pp. 39-47)

      In the early evening of the Fourth of July 1950 some of my high school friends accompanied me to Boston’s South Station, where over a beer or two they saw me off to New York. In a splurge I had acquired a Pullman car cabin. My plan was to reach West Point fresh from a good night’s sleep, but instead I arrived in New York having slept not a moment. I made my way to the Weehawken ferry, which took me and a handful of other candidates across the Hudson to another train, which carried us up alongside the river...

    • 7 Fort Benning: Just Like Artillery, Only Bigger “The arrival of nuclear weapons on the battlefield”
      (pp. 48-54)

      I signed in at Fort Benning on Monday, 9 August 1954, on a typical hot, muggy summer day in Georgia. As we began the fifteen-week Basic Infantry Officer Course, I spent the Labor Day holiday weekend driving to Atlanta to see the Civil War battlefields. I wrote to my father, “I think we ought to try to make a book of battlefields. This one [Kennesaw Battlefield] was very interesting. I did not have enough time to explore the whole distance to Kennesaw Mountain, but I did look over very closely the spot on Cheatham’s Hill where the 4th Vol. Inf....

    • 8 Puerto Rico: Schooling “The word ‘impossible’”
      (pp. 55-62)

      After Ranger School, I drove to the Brooklyn Navy Yard, turned in my car for shipment to Puerto Rico, and on the last day of March 1955 found myself looking up in awe as our troopship eased into the narrow channel between Isla de Cabras and the looming walls of the fortress San Felipe del Morro. The ever-pounding waves out of the north pushed us along through the slot and into San Juan Harbor, where we docked at Fort Buchanan.

      My orders sent me to the 65th Infantry Regimental Combat Team. I arrived at Ponce as a platoon leader just...

    • 9 Lanceros: Continuen “I realized I was thinking all of this out in Spanish.”
      (pp. 63-83)

      In October 1956, a query came to the Antilles Command headquarters from Infantry Branch: “Is Lieutenant Galvin available for transfer to the U.S. Army Mission to Colombia?” Captain Ralph Puckett had recommended me as his replacement at the Colombian Lancero School. I was elated—I felt like a lost swimmer who sees the rescue boat headed his way. It’s quite possible that some of the San Juan headquarters people felt the same sense of relief after the fiasco of the “annual” bivouac.

      Within three weeks I was in Bogotá. The Lancero School, named in honor of a small group of...

    • 10 101st Airborne Division “Khrushchev, Red China, Jordan, Lebanon, threats and counterthreats. . . . When I hear all that, I don’t mind studying my tactics.”
      (pp. 84-112)

      In May 1958 I reported to Fort Campbell and was assigned as a platoon leader in A Company, 501st Airborne Battle Group, 101st Airborne Division. When I arrived, everyone was still talking about the mass parachute jump at Campbell a few days earlier, in which several soldiers were killed. A strong gust of wind had slammed the jumpers to the ground and dragged them, some unconscious, over a rough field. Only the first airplanes dropped their troops; the rest, on seeing the danger, returned to the airfield, where the commanding general, William Westmoreland, waited for the wind to die down,...

    • 11 Fort Knox and Ginny “We took up the study of tactical nuclear weapons.”
      (pp. 113-122)

      In early 1960, I was at the Armor School at Fort Knox, among the young leaders of heavy forces. I learned about tank gunnery on the old M-48. I still have sketches of tanks on the range. I took a great interest in the armor course, which was focused on armor’s roles and tactics, with a good bit of emphasis on maintenance and gunnery. Map reading at thirty miles per hour, rather than infantry’s three miles per hour; and assembling task forces to meet situations and react quickly—this perspective really contributed, I thought, to my development as a soldier....

  7. Part 3. War

    • 12 First Vietnam “It’s not working out.”
      (pp. 125-157)

      10 July 1966. Early morning. I gave my bag to the driver at Vails Gate and climbed into a Greyhound bus headed for New York City. Never again would I pass through that crossroads without feeling a sense of loneliness. The driver cranked the door closed and we pulled away. Standing in the aisle, I looked out a window and got a glimpse of Ginny in the Plymouth. She had put on her large reddish sunglasses and was staring straight ahead.

      After our year at the staff college, and with me now off to Vietnam, Ginny wanted to return to...

    • 13 Pentagon: The Papers “Some highly classified work”
      (pp. 158-174)

      Ginny had rented a house for us, a split-level on a hillside road in Springfield, Virginia. The place was just right, although I didn’t see much of it. While we—which is to say, Ginny—moved in and put the girls into schools, I reported to the Pentagon, where I had been assigned to the staff of the Chief of Information, Major General Keith Ware. There I met my boss, Colonel Phil Stevens, head of the current news section. I was to be Phil’s assistant. We teamed together well. He was a good editor, a precise writer, and a kind...

    • 14 Second Vietnam: All Roads Lead to Rang Rang “I resolved never to forget.”
      (pp. 175-216)

      5 November 1969. I was going back (I thought) to the 1st Cavalry Division, earmarked for command of a battalion. This time getting through the Fort Dix bureaucracy and onto an airplane was somewhat different from my experience of two years earlier. The war had changed, and my country had changed. The main gate of the Army post was just across the street from McGuire Air Force Base, our departure airfield, but the move from Dix to McGuire had a new twist. At the appointed time we walked toward our bus—which was easy enough to find, illuminated as it...

  8. Part 4. Mixed Command and Staff Assignments

    • 15 The Fletcher School “Things were falling into place.”
      (pp. 219-224)

      Some weeks before I left the 1st Cav in Vietnam in 1970, Colonel Edward C. “Shy” Meyer, then chief of staff of the division, told me about an Army program in which battalion commanders coming back from Vietnam were selected for a move to Europe for a second tour in command of one of our battalions stationed in the European Command. He asked me if I was interested, and I jumped at the chance. He later told me that I had been accepted. As I headed home, I happily envisioned this new opportunity. Nothing could have been better, more exciting,...

    • 16 Stuttgart: The Big Staffs “No takers. Not our problem.”
      (pp. 225-233)

      After the year at Fletcher, and the two summers flanking Fletcher at the Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, I was sent to the headquarters of the U.S. European Command, in Patch Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany, where I served in the front office of the chief of staff. My immediate boss was Colonel Charles Hayward, the secretary of the Joint Staff. The American forces stationed in Europe at that time (Army, Navy, and Air Force) totaled 326,414, and their mission was broad: to help defend Western Europe against attack from the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. There was...

    • 17 Belgium: Supreme Commanders Goodpaster and Haig “A study in contrasts”
      (pp. 234-238)

      South of Brussels, in the flat beet fields of French-speaking Belgium, twenty-five miles from Waterloo, there is a sleepy airfield that once played a key role in Hermann Goering’s strategy for stopping the British and American bombers that overflew the field in many of their attack routes into central Germany in 1944. During World War II, German construction engineers had gathered up a small army of local Belgians to build widely dispersed runways, taxiways, and revetted parking spaces for scores of Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf fighter interceptors. This enlargement work did not stop until the airfield was overrun near the end...

    • 18 3rd Infantry Division “Jack, you don’t like it here, do you?”
      (pp. 239-248)

      On 4 February 1975 my name came out on the command list. I was surprised by my promotion to colonel and assignment as commander of Support Command of 3rd Infantry Division, and both surprised and elated to find I would be working with Major General “Shy” Meyer in the Marne Division, headquartered in Würzburg, Germany. General Meyer and I had been company commanders together in the 501st Battle Group of the 101st Airborne Division, and we were together in the 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam in my two tours. “I chose you because you’re an infantryman,” Meyer told me, “...

    • Photographs
      (pp. None)
    • 19 8th Infantry Division “The new boss is a little nutty, but he’ll be OK.”
      (pp. 249-261)

      Word came that I would be reassigned somewhere in the United States, since I had by then spent five years in Germany and Belgium. I told the Pentagon staffers that, from my point of view, there was no need to send me back home; my family was happy in Europe, the two younger girls were in German kindergarten, and the older two were also content to stay. Many of us, officers and NCOs, had spent long tours in Germany and had come to love the country. We jokingly called ourselves “The B Cadre,” the castoffs who were never invited back...

    • 20 24th Infantry Division “Heavy-light operations”
      (pp. 262-277)

      In the summer of 1980, it was hard for the family to pack up and leave Mainz for a new assignment. Our new station was Fort Monroe, Virginia, which was once a fortress guarding the mouth of the James River across from Norfolk—but in 1980 was the beautiful headquarters of the Army’s school system. I was assigned to the training department, where my boss, Brigadier General Howard Crowell, generously awarded me half of his responsibilities, saying, “There’s enough work here for both of us, so let’s just split it.” Five years earlier I had followed him into command of...

    • 21 VII Corps: Warrior Preparation “Dusting off our procedures”
      (pp. 278-292)

      In early July 1983, I took command of VII Corps. It was my second assignment in Stuttgart, and it took me back to areas of Germany I knew well; I had friends there in and outside the military. My mission was: defend the West German border with East Germany and Czechoslovakia along the mountains of the Thuringerwald with both conventional and nuclear weapons. On the other side of the Gaps at Meiningen, Coburg, Hof, and Cheb were Soviet, East German, and Czech forces that I knew from my Fulda Gap days three years earlier.

      I had thought all along about...

  9. Part 5. Southern Command

    • 22 Southern Command, Panama “Four countries in the area were facing insurgencies.”
      (pp. 295-311)

      Coming out of VII Corps I was promoted to four stars and assigned to Southern Command, with headquarters in the Panama Canal Zone. I landed in Washington on 23 February 1985, with the family. The day was an usually warm and sunny one, with a hint of spring, so we decided to drive out to Mount Vernon. We had lived close by between 1969 and 1972, in Stratford Landing, in a little ranch house that I discovered was on land once owned by George Washington, the part called “the south farm.”

      The day after we arrived, I spoke to the...

    • 23 Honduras “Maybe a fresh face will help.”
      (pp. 312-318)

      For Honduras in the mid-1980s, the most likely trouble spot was Nicaragua: a threat fueled in part by our military investment and strategy. The Soviet Union was supporting the Sandinistas in Nicaragua via Cuba as part of its strategy for gaining ideological ground in Latin America; the United States was calling for stable democracy but was backing the status quo throughout the hemisphere in the name of anticommunism—without much regard for conditions among indigenous peoples, which were the source in great part of the unrest. I asked to be present at the meetings of the U.S. interagency group tasked...

    • 24 El Salvador “Do what’s right. You don’t need a lawyer for that. Your heart will tell you.”
      (pp. 319-330)

      2 March 1985. Before our first meeting with President José Napoleón Duarte, Paul Gorman and I had talked over the situation, and my notes say this: “El Salvador is building, and hopefully sustaining, a national military force of about 50,000.” I compared this with what information I could collect about the Salvadoran military’s opponents, and they looked like a loose organization of trouble. Foremost among them was the FMLN, 10,000 fighters under the name of a revolutionary hero of the past, Augustín Farabundo Martí, whose aim was national liberation. Members of the FMLN were everywhere, and they had plenty of...

    • 25 Colombia “Homecoming to tierra Colombiana.”
      (pp. 331-338)

      I think big cities have their own collective smell. Manhattan has the smell of a steel mill. San Juan has the smell of the endless wind off the sea. Even in the rain, Berlin smells dusty, maybe because of Teufelsberg and other hills of war debris. (The “devil’s hill,” Teufelsberg is a gigantic artificial mound composed of the rubble created by the pounding of bombs and shells in World War II. To say that the city “fell” would be an understatement. Virtually all the city’s structures came down in ruins that, as was the case in all of the many...

  10. Part 6. Supreme Commander

    • 26 Buttressing “Reykjavik made the unthinkable thinkable.”
      (pp. 341-354)

      After we knew that the Soviets could produce nuclear weapons, and especially after the successful launch of Sputnik, the question “How many nuclear weapons are enough?” was answered by the slogan, “No gaps.” Our national strategy was to be rendered in terms of numbers.

      This mathematical approach was nothing new. It had served us well in terms of conventional (non-nuclear) military forces, with respect to which we counted and compared soldiers, tanks, ships, and aircraft. This is where we were in 1977, when the Soviet Union deployed a new and more powerful missile, the SS-20. This was a weapon for...

    • 27 The White House and Nuclear Arms Reduction “The faster the better.”
      (pp. 355-360)

      About noon on Sunday, 9 August 1987, I left for Washington via Keflavik. Flying with me were two of my staff officers, Colonels Tom Neary and Tom Lenny, who had helped me work up the charts I would show the president. As usual, I sent them to see their counterparts on the Joint Chiefs staff as soon as we got to Washington. Various staffs in the Pentagon took the gathering at CEPS (the Centre for European Policy Studies) as an informational rather than decision-making meeting, and they were OK with that. In the afternoon I met with the chiefs in...

    • 28 Conventional Forces in Europe “When they are all trying to get your attention, it’s time to listen.”
      (pp. 361-371)

      Talks on the reduction of conventional forces in Europe began in November 1987. As I looked into the questions that were bound to surface in those negotiations, I knew I had the support of the staff of Allied Command Europe and also the staff of U.S. European Command, as well as the help of the generals and admirals of the Northern, Central, and Southern Commands, along with their staffs. No one fully recognized the complexity inherent in coming to an agreement on the details of a massive reduction of opposing forces—and as it turned out, we worked for twenty...

    • 29 WINTEX, the War Game “Everything was changing.”
      (pp. 372-378)

      The main purpose of the biannual series of “WINTEX-CIMEX” (Winter Exercise, Civil-Military Exercise) war games was to make sure that all senior political and military leaders of the Alliance were familiar with what would happen in the event, far-fetched or not, that nuclear weapons might be employed. There would be hundreds of decisions made up and down the chain of command that would affect the final decision at the highest levels to use or not use these weapons. But as long as we possessed these weapons, we had to be able to control them.

      A secondary purpose of the war...

    • 30 Change: The Right Mix “Don’t make it harder for them.”
      (pp. 379-386)

      WINTEX had its effect on much else that followed. It opened our eyes, broadened our understanding, took away much of our posturing, changed our mechanical approaches, and broke through the groupthink that bound us. We recognized that we were all out of touch with each other. In the spring of 1989, everything turned to the management of change. The alliance ambassadors called me to a special session to demand, “How did we get to wherever we are now?” In a meeting of ambassadors on 10 March, I showed how bureaucratic we all had been in ignoring our many opportunities to...

    • 31 The Wall “The Wall has a morality of its own that does not say good things about the East.”
      (pp. 387-391)

      To understand the events leading up to the breaching of the Berlin Wall, we need to go back to the end of World War II, when Germany was divided into four sectors: British, French, American, and Soviet. Berlin, the capital, lay in the Soviet zone of occupation, and to resolve the awkward situation the city was divided into four zones. The Allies were afforded free access across the Soviet zone to and from the city. This worked all right until 1962, when the Soviets decided to block the Allies’ access to Berlin. Why? Because living in East Berlin was dreary...

    • 32 A Strategy for Change “Deployed where? And to do what?”
      (pp. 392-403)

      “Strategy” has become a word of many meanings. It was for a long time linked with military thinking, but in the past fifty years its uses have grown far wider, so that these days everyone needs a strategy for everything. The old word now needs the help of more precise definition; we have to apply an adjective: “military,” or “national,” or “global.” Nevertheless, the word still retains its old meaning some of the time. Political leaders argue about strategy, with opponents often accusing each other of having none.

      So what is a strategy? I can call it a plan to...

    • 33 The First Gulf War “It takes friends.”
      (pp. 404-413)

      With the results of the London summit in hand, I had all the support I needed to work up recommendations for a new operational concept for Allied Command Europe, one that would guide our work on the changing structure of our forces—along with the supporting budget. Without the agreements from the London meeting, the command would have been cast adrift. Even though I knew we had a hard road ahead, I was ready to celebrate.

      I was scheduled to see Colin Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in Washington in mid-summer 1990 to tie up loose ends...

    • 34 Red Square “Let each go crazy in his own way.”
      (pp. 414-426)

      11 November 1990. Norwegian general Vigleik Eide, chairman of the NATO Military Committee, and I were flying from Belgium to Moscow, invited by USSR President Gorbachev and Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov. We were at a critical point in the midst of an enormous sweep of change, at a time when all was dependent on the continuing stability of Russia—which in turn meant the strength of the tie between the Russian political class and the Russian military (or, perhaps better put, between the Russian people and their soldiers). We wondered how far we could go to show our own willingness...

    • 35 The Rescue of the Kurds “Exodus from the mountains”
      (pp. 427-441)

      In late March 1991, as the first Gulf War came to an end, it was followed by two short internal uprisings in Iraq. A defeated and weakened Saddam Hussein found himself beset not only by the Shiite Muslim factions in the south of the country but—even more infuriatingly to him—by the Kurds in the north, who, encouraged by the United States, seized the opportunity to throw themselves into a battle for autonomy, convinced that their moment had (finally) come.

      This ancient coalition of tribes, the Carduchi, had battled for centuries to gain autonomy for Kurdistan, a territory encompassing...

    • 36 The New Force Structure “The road ahead”
      (pp. 442-452)

      The work of creating the new force structure brought me close to NATO Secretary General Manfred Wörner. He came to meetings with two small but well-thumbed paperback German dictionaries, French and English, propped up in front of him and often in use. I liked this habit of his. No one else does that, I thought, but we all should. He was methodical—even with his tea bag, taking it from the cup and carefully wrapping the string tight around it, squeezing it into a figure eight, then placing it on the saucer the same way each time, as if he...

    • 37 The Coup “Stand fast.”
      (pp. 453-456)

      The Russian armed forces were in a deepening quandary, and there was little that anyone in the Western alliance wanted to do about it—except for the Germans, who quietly financed the construction of quarters for the troops departing East Germany for Russia and also supplied the rolling stock to return the troops and equipment. There was talk at Brussels about the possibility of sending a fact-finding committee to examine the living conditions in the army of our former antagonist, but this sputtered out. I discussed the option with the secretary general, who was among those who thought something could...

  11. Part 7. Global Perspective

    • 38 Back to West Point—by Way of Bosnia “It was hard to put aside other interests.”
      (pp. 459-475)

      In the summer of 1991, nuclear weapons were being drawn down on schedule. Soviet forces had backed out of Eastern Europe and were destroying tanks and other fighting vehicles, also on schedule, and we were cutting back on our ground and air units. Both sides had sent all chemical weapons to be destroyed. Our new Alliance strategy was in place, ready for acceptance. It was tempting to say, “We’re on track, heading out of the Cold War.” Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney said to me, “Jack, we’re going to extend you in your position for another two years. Is that...

    • 39 Ohio State University and Global Strategy Seminars “Bringing together the cogitators and the agitators”
      (pp. 476-479)

      In 1994, I left West Point after an eventful two years to join the Mershon Center, a think tank at the Ohio State University, keeping a promise I had made before retiring. There I created, along with John Lewis Gaddis, Paul Kennedy, and Francis Fukuyama, a traveling team called the Global Strategy Seminar, dedicated to building a closer connection between university professors and senior political decision makers. We set up the Seminar with the help of the Smith Richardson Foundation, founders of the Center for Creative Leadership, where I was for some nine years a member of the board of...

    • 40 Back to Fletcher: Leading and Teaching Leadership “If leadership can’t be taught, it can be improved.”
      (pp. 480-490)

      In the late fall of 1994, I was asked to help look for a new dean for the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. I was happy to join in the search. After my fellowship at Fletcher I had served nineteen more years in the Army, eighteen of them outside the United States. I had kept in touch with the school, and it had had much to do with formulating my outlook on the wide world. While I was in the process of compiling a list of possible candidates for the deanship, I was surprised to receive...

  12. Epilogue
    (pp. 491-492)

    We are inhabitants of a changing world that will continue to surprise us in all kinds of ways. There is one aspect, however, that we can depend on: change itself. This book carries that message, I trust, along with some ways to respond to it. Most of the relationships that I have called to mind here are person to person, but the reader will, I hope, have seen in these pages that the words apply nation to nation as well. I therefore consider both perspectives together as defining a vision that allows us to see the workings of our daily...

  13. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 493-494)
  14. Index
    (pp. 495-520)