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Migrations and Mobilities

Migrations and Mobilities: Citizenship, Borders, and Gender

Seyla Benhabib
Judith Resnik
Copyright Date: 2009
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 520
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  • Book Info
    Migrations and Mobilities
    Book Description:

    Publisher Description not available

    eISBN: 978-1-4798-5329-8
    Subjects: Law, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Introduction: Citizenship and Migration Theory Engendered
    (pp. 1-44)
    Seyla Benhabib and Judith Resnik

    The permeability of national borders can be seen not only by the ease with which words and images move through an internet unfettered by geographical constraints but also by the movement of people across national borders and of transnational legal and moral precepts shaping discourses around the globe.¹ In 1910, some thirty-three million of the 1.7 billion in the world’s population lived in countries as migrants.² By 2000, estimates were that about 175 million of six billion people were at some distance from their countries of origin.³ During the last three decades of the twentieth century alone, seventy-five million people...


    • 1 Citizenship and Gender in the Ancient World: The Experience of Athens and Rome
      (pp. 47-75)
      Cynthia Patterson

      In the mid-fourth century before the common era, a woman named Neaira, an ex-slave and former prostitute, stood trial in Athens on the charge ofxenia,of being an alien posing as a citizen by acting the part of the wife of an Athenian. In raking the accused over the coals of Athenian civic values, the prosecutor, a certain Apollodorus, who was himself the son of an enfranchised ex-slave, implicated Neaira’s entire household, children and Athenian “husband” alike, in a crime that he claimed had corrupted the moral integrity of the citizenship body.

      The rhetorical climax of the speech was...

    • 2 The Stateless as the Citizen’s Other: A View from the United States
      (pp. 76-124)
      Linda K. Kerber

      I begin by asking an anachronistic and playful but nevertheless deeply tragic question: What passport would the ill-fated child of Madame Butterfly and Captain Pinkerton carry? Normally, historians do not turn to an opera libretto for inspiration. Yet this story carries with it hints that help us map the landscape of statelessness in U.S. history, from the founding generation to the present.

      It is a subterranean tale that haunts the imperial imagination. The roles have been dramatized over and over again—the man whom the American military has deployed in a strange landscape in a foreign part of the globe;...


    • 3 Citizenship, Noncitizenship, and the Transnationalization of Domestic Work
      (pp. 127-156)
      Linda Bosniak

      In recent political and legal thought, “citizenship” is commonly portrayed as the most desired of conditions: as the highest fulfillment of democratic and egalitarian aspiration. Yet this romanticized portrayal of citizenship tends to obscure deeper challenges that the concept poses. Citizenship talk trades in both universalism and particularism. While the concept is commonly invoked to convey a state of democratic belonging or inclusion, this inclusion is usually premised upon a conception of a community that is bounded and exclusive. And although citizenship as an ideal is understood to embody a commitment against subordination, in fact, citizenship also represents an axis...

    • 4 A Bio-Cartography: Maids, Neo-Slavery, and NGOs
      (pp. 157-184)
      Aihwa Ong

      The underpaid, starved, and battered foreign maid, while not the statistical norm, has become the image of the new inhumanity in the Asian metropolis. The following cases illustrate the range of assaults against Indonesian maids by well-off households in neighboring countries:

      In 2002, an Indonesian maid in Malaysia was found to have been held as a “sex slave” for nearly two years by a government employee.

      In the same year, an Indonesian maid, who had been starved and repeatedly tortured by her Singaporean employer, died from a final blow. The employer was sentenced to eighteen and a half...


    • 5 The “Mere Fortuity of Birth”? Children, Mothers, Borders, and the Meaning of Citizenship
      (pp. 187-227)
      Jacqueline Bhabha

      On July 27, 2002, two contrasting immigration stories appeared in the U.S. press. Both concerned families of U.S.–citizen children⁴ and noncitizen mothers facing an identical dilemma: the choice between family separation and exile from their family home. One story reported on the British widow of a trader killed in the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, and her two U.S.–citizen children aged seven and four. In a textbook case of “family migration,” the woman had left her country and moved because of her husband’s job. As a result, her U.S. visa was dependent on that of her...

    • 6 Transnational Mothering, National Immigration Policy, and European Law: The Experience of the Netherlands
      (pp. 228-252)
      Sarah K. van Walsum

      In the summer of 1997, Joyce, a young Colombian mother, traveled to the Netherlands, leaving her six-year-old daughter, Emily, behind with family.¹ Joyce had never married Emily’s father, and their paths had separated soon after Emily’s birth. Joyce therefore had to support both herself and her daughter. Her purpose in coming to the Netherlands was to visit a sister who was already living there and to explore the possibilities that Europe might have to offer. Once she had established herself there, she hoped to have Emily come over to join her.²

      Joyce’s tourist visa expired after three months, but she...


    • 7 Global Feminism, Citizenship, and the State: Negotiating Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa
      (pp. 255-275)
      Valentine M. Moghadam

      Globalization is a complex economic, political, cultural, and social process in which the mobility of capital, organizations, ideas, discourses, and peoples has taken on an increasingly global or transnational form. Much has been written about the economic, political, and cultural dimensions of globalization, and many debates revolve around the nature and capacity of the state in an era of globalization. The growing literature on the globalization of women’s rights movements includes attention to “global feminism” and its participation in, and contribution to, a transnational public sphere. Not all feminist theorists are comfortable with the term “global feminism”; some prefer “transnational...

    • 8 Particularized Citizenship: Encultured Women and the Public Sphere
      (pp. 276-303)
      Audrey Macklin

      Borders are gendered: most women and girls admitted as permanent immigrants to the global north still enter on the basis of their relationship to a man (typically a husband or father) and would not otherwise qualify as independent immigrants.¹ Gender is bordered: enforcement of the boundaries of gender identity is sufficiently strict that crossing these borders is not called migration, but transgression. In multicultural societies of the global north, it is not uncommon to seize upon immigrant women who belong to diasporic communities as victims of illegitimate gender discipline by minority cultures or faiths. The bordering of gender in the...

    • 9 Multiculturalism, Gender, and Rights
      (pp. 304-330)
      David Jacobson

      The status of women has loomed large in recent times in immigration matters in the courts and in public opinion. Honor killings, forced arranged marriages, female genital mutilation, “ritualized” rape, and other such matters now mark contemporary discussion on immigration and immigrant communities, especially in Europe. Much as ethnic and ideological criteria framed debates about immigration in the past, so questions about gendered practices do today; and much as issues of ethnicity and ideology reflected then-present global fissures, so gendered practices today tell a story of deeper global, cultural, and religious fault lines.

      This intersection of immigration and women’s rights...


    • 10 Globalizing Fragmentation: New Pressures on Women Caught in the Immigration Law–Citizenship Law Dichotomy
      (pp. 333-355)
      Catherine Dauvergne

      The advancing forces of globalization have pushed citizenship discourses in new directions. Within the discourse of formal legal citizenship, challenges to the traditional coupling of citizen and nation have come from the marked increases in provisions of dual citizenship, as well as from the innovation of an aggregated citizenship status in the European Union. On the plane of substantive citizenship, globalization has ushered in a debate about whether the emerging structures of global civil society are a boon for participatory governance or whether the increased importance of the international realm for significant policy making has generated a growing democratic deficit....

    • 11 Status Quo or Sixth Ground? Adjudicating Gender Asylum Claims
      (pp. 356-379)
      Talia Inlender

      Sofia Campos-Guardado was forced to watch as her uncle and cousin were hacked to death with machetes in retaliation for their opposition to a controversial agrarian reform proposal in El Salvador. She was then raped, while political slogans were chanted in the background.¹ Olimpia Lazo-Majano was forced to work as a domestic, washing the clothes of a military commander in El Salvador. During the course of her work, she was beaten and raped. The commander threatened that if she defied him he would denounce her as a subversive and would “have her tongue cut off, her nails removed one by...

    • 12 Intercultural Political Identity: Are We There Yet?
      (pp. 380-409)
      Angelia K. Means

      Before Nicholas Sarkozy was elected president of France, he was the “famous” minister of the interior, who suppressed riots in which immigrants from North Africa set cars ablaze in the suburbs of Paris. He called the protestors “scum” and insisted that France needed a “Ministry of Immigration and Identity” to facilitate assimilation. According to Sarkozy, both Europeanization and immigration have put pressure on French national identity: Europe has expanded so much that it is threatening its own identity (if Turkey joins the European Union “Asia” will be a part of “Europe”), while immigration (by non-Europeans) is threatening to destroy whatever...

    • 13 Mobility, Migrants, and Solidarity: Towards an Emerging European Citizenship Regime
      (pp. 410-438)
      Patrizia Nanz

      Citizenship has traditionally been regarded as exclusive—as defining who belongs to the people of a particular state—with territory and national authority as its hallmarks.¹ However, contemporary states have become increasingly porous and open to transborder population movements. Migration across states and, in particular, across states within Europe, poses unique challenges to traditional notions of citizenship. Cooperation among European countries around economic practices began in the 1950s. Over the last half of the twentieth century, cooperation expanded, culminating in the formation of the European Union (EU) in 1992, with member countries working to harmonize laws around trade, social welfare,...

    • 14 Citizenships, Federalisms, and Gender
      (pp. 439-486)
      Vicki C. Jackson

      Though often thought of in terms of rights (political, civil, social) or of membership (affiliation, belonging, exclusion), citizenship also entails relationships among citizens, between citizens and governments, and between levels of governments. Citizenship and governance have both grown considerably more complex in recent decades. Migrations across nation-states, along with modern transportation and communications technologies, now yield multigenerational communities that retain close ties to the original country of emigration.¹ Members of these communities may experience themselves as citizens of both states, seeking to retain their original-country-of-origin citizenship while also obtaining recognition as citizens of the state to which they or their...

  9. About the Contributors
    (pp. 487-490)
  10. Index
    (pp. 491-505)