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Egypt’s Political Economy

Egypt’s Political Economy: Power Relations in Development

Nadia Ramsis Farah
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 204
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  • Book Info
    Egypt’s Political Economy
    Book Description:

    This new study deals with the unfolding of the great political and economic transformations of the modern Egyptian state from the appointment of Muhammad Ali as governor of Egypt in 1805 to the era of President Mubarak, with a special focus on the period 1990–2005, which witnessed a rigorous implementation of structural adjustment policies, the acceleration of economic privatization and liberalization, the emergence of a group of neoliberals within the ruling National Democratic Party, and the consolidation of business interests and representation in parliament and government. The author asserts that the modernization process in Egypt over the last two centuries has been determined by power relations and their articulation, and so she investigates in depth the impact of power relations on development strategies, on political liberalization, on politicized Islam as a hegemonic ideology adopted by the state since the beginning of the 1970s, and on gender relations in development.

    eISBN: 978-1-61797-382-6
    Subjects: Political Science, Business

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 1-16)

    This study deals with the unfolding of the great political and economic transformations of the modern state of Egypt, from the appointment of Muhammad ‘Ali aswali(governor) in 1805 to the period of President Mubarak.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of power relations in economic and political development or transformation by tracing the development of the modern state in Egypt (1805–2005), but also by focusing on the period 1990–2005. This latter period witnessed a more rigorous implementation of structural adjustment policies; the acceleration of economic privatization and liberalization; the emergence of a...

  4. 1 The Role of the State in Development
    (pp. 17-52)

    With the rise of neoliberalismin themid-1970s, the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, and the increasing globalization of international production and international trade, development strategies began to converge around the ideal of the free-market economy. The overwhelming new consensus (The Washington Consensus) is for the state to withdraw from the economy and to leave an unfettered market mechanism to determine production and income distribution.

    The Washington Consensus threatens the survival of development theory itself. If the market is to reign supreme, there is no need for a development theory to foster economic growth in post-colonial countries. Development,...

  5. 2 The State, Democracy, and Development
    (pp. 53-86)

    Modernization and the traditional Marxist theories have both asserted that economic development leads to democracy. The neoliberal school challenges this assumption, claiming that it is democracy that leads to economic growth and not the other way around.

    A plethora of empirical studies has tried to prove the hypothesis of democracy as a pre-condition for economic growth, but themain empirical results indicate that democracy can only survive in a country with a certain level of per capita income. Low levels of per capita income do not guarantee the sustainability of democracy, and democracies are said to be more likely to survive...

  6. 3 Politicized Religion, Conflict, and Development: The Islamists and the State
    (pp. 87-122)

    Recent studies of the relationship between religion and development have neglected the use of religion as a political tool (see Introduction). This is of particular interest for Egypt, where politicized Islam has always played a major role in the constitution of national ideologies. The modernization of Egypt that began under Muhammad ‘Ali created a conflict between a conservative ideology based usually on religion and an ideology of secularization and modernization. Successive ruling regimes have manipulated Islam to support their policies and to fight competing elites.

    The transition crisis of the 1970s led anti-Nasserist elites to use Islam as a tool...

  7. 4 Gender and Development: Womenʹs Rights, State, and Society
    (pp. 123-152)

    The relationship between gender inequalities and development is complex and rarely unidirectional. Gender intersects with social class, ethnicity, and race in the determination of societal power relations, which in turn impact development. Development itself, by restructuring social and therefore power relations, affects gender inequalities.

    A growing body of literature on gender and development indicates that the persistence of gender inequalities hampers development through its impact on the development of human capital, employment opportunities, the flow of direct foreign investment, and the rate of savings.

    A major constituent of human capital is investment in education. Gender inequality in education can affect...

  8. Notes
    (pp. 153-172)
  9. Bibliography
    (pp. 173-188)
  10. Index
    (pp. 189-198)