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The Foreign Policies of Arab States

The Foreign Policies of Arab States: The Challenge of Globalization

Bahgat Korany
Ali E. Hillal Dessouki
Karen Abul Kheir
Ali E. Hillal Dessouki
Moataz A. Fattah
Hazem Kandil
Bahgat Korany
Ann M. Lesch
Abdul-Monem al-Mashat
Paul Noble
Jennifer Rosenblum
Bassel F. Salloukh
Mohamed Soffar
William Zartman
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 526
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt15m7fsx
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  • Book Info
    The Foreign Policies of Arab States
    Book Description:

    The first edition of this book was praised as “a milestone for present and future research on Arab and Third World foreign policies" (American Political Science Review), and “an indispensable aid for those studying or teaching the foreign policies of the contemporary Middle East" (International Journal of Middle East Studies). It has become a standard textbook in Middle East studies curricula all over the world. This third edition, now in paperback, with new material reflecting the earth-shaking events at the end of the Cold War and the continuation of violence and terrorism, examines foreign policies of nine Arab states in the context of globalization. The editors first establish an analytical framework for assessing foreign policy, which they and other contributors then apply chapter by chapter to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, and Iraq. Contributors: Moataz A. Fattah, Karen Abul Kheir, Ali E. Hillal Dessouki, Hazem Kandil, Bahgat Korany, Ann M. Lesch, Abdul-Monem Al-Mashat, Paul Noble, Jennifer Rosenblum, Bassel F. Salloukh, Mohamed Soffar. William Zartman. Foreign Policy Analysis in the Global Era and the World of the Arabs Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki Foreign Policy Approaches and Arab Countries: A Critical Evaluation and an Alternative Framework Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki Globalization and Arab Foreign Policies: Constraints or Marginalization? Ali E. Hillal Dessouki and Bahgat Korany From Arab System to Middle Eastern System: Regional Pressures and Constraints Paul Noble Regional leadership: Balancing off Costs and Dividends: Foreign Policy of Egypt Ali E. Hillal Dessouki Foreign Policy under Occupation: Does Iraq Need a Foreign Policy? Mohamed Soffar Does the Successor Make a Difference? The Foreign Policy of Jordan Ali E. Hillal Dessouki and Karen Abul Kheir The Art of the Impossible: The Foreign Policy of Lebanon Bassel F. Salloukh The Far West of the Near East: The Foreign Policy of Morocco Jennifer Rosenblum and William Zartman Irreconcilable Role-Partners? Saudi Foreign Policy between the Ulama and the U.S. Bahgat Korany and Moataz A. Fattah From Fragmentation to Fragmentation? Sudan’s Foreign Policy Ann M. Lesch The Challenge of Restructuring: Syrian Foreign Policy Hazem Kandil Politics of Constructive Engagement: The Foreign Policy of the United Arab Emirates Abdul-Monem Al-Mashat Conclusion: Foreign Policy, Globalization and the Arab Dilemma of Change Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki

    eISBN: 978-1-61797-387-1
    Subjects: Political Science, History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
    Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki
  4. Introduction: Foreign Policies of Arab States
    (pp. 1-8)
    Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki

    Arab states have been studied from many angles. We have books on Arab governments and politics, history and political developments, ideologies and intellectual trends, inter-Arab relations and the great powers’ policies in the region. But although excellent studies have been carried out in recent years by established as well as younger scholars, we still have relatively little field work on Arab states’ foreign policies, how these countries view the world and their role in it.

    When the first edition of this book was published in 1984, our survey of the literature on Arab foreign policies in eight languages indicated the...

  5. 1 Foreign Policy Analysis in the Global Era and the World of the Arabs
    (pp. 9-20)
    Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki

    The twenty-first century opened with two big bangs for the Arab world. It is argued that this century was in fact initiated in the early 1990s when the cold war ended and one of its superpower protagonists, the USSR, collapsed and disappeared. The veteran Egyptian journalist, Muhammad Hasanayn Haykal, called it the “Soviet earthquake.” Since the mid-1950s, Moscow had been the traditional ally of many Arab countries, from Algeria and Yemen to Syria and the PLO. The presence of the USSR gave all Arab countries an alternative to Western, and especially to US, dominance in the region. With its unexpected...

  6. 2 Foreign Policy Approaches and Arab Countries: A Critical Evaluation and an Alternative Framework
    (pp. 21-44)
    Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki

    This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the critical evaluation of two major influential approaches in the analysis of foreign policy generally: at the two ends of the macro-micro spectrum the traditional realist power school, and the (behavioralist/scientific) psychological-idiosyncratic school. The former has been amply commented on in the literature, whereas the latter, perhaps because of its recent formulation and the aura of science that surrounds it, is still very much accepted as relevant mainly to the context of countries of the global south. This is why we evaluate it in greater detail here....

  7. 3 Globalization and Arab Foreign Policies: Constraints or Marginalization?
    (pp. 45-66)
    Ali E. Hillal Dessouki and Bahgat Korany

    The first (1984) version of this chapter emphasized the dialectics between the international system on the one hand and the Arab regional system and its state components on the other. In general, the relationship between the dominant system and any of its regions or subsystems is one of inclusion and subordination. But in the Arab region at that time, where memories of the 1973 oil embargo were still fresh and eagerly confirmed by the second oil shock following the Iranian Revolution, views differed. It was argued by some that the Arab region could achieve a higher degree of autonomy from...

  8. 4 From Arab System to Middle Eastern System?: Regional Pressures and Constraints
    (pp. 67-166)
    Paul Noble

    The foreign policy of states is shaped not only by their national situations and the values/perceptions of policymakers but also by the global and regional environments in which they operate. National and elite interests/concerns influence what governments would like to do (motivating causality) but systemic conditions shape what they areableto do. Systemic conditions shape state behavior² in two main ways.

    In the first place, they serve as a set of constraints or opportunities, permitting states a certain range of possible action (permissive causality). Secondly, systemic conditions generate pressures that push or pull states in certain directions (stimulus or...

  9. 5 Regional Leadership: Balancing off Costs and Dividends in the Foreign Policy of Egypt
    (pp. 167-194)
    Ali E. Hillal Dessouki

    Over the last fifty years the foreign policy of Egypt has undergone two processes of ‘restructuring,’ under presidents Gamal Abd al-Nasser (1955–1970) and Anwar Sadat (1970–1981), and a long period of stability and continuity under president Hosni Mubarak (1981– ).

    Foreign policy restructuring entails a major alteration or breakup in the orientation of an actor in favor of establishing a new set of commitments and alliances. It is more than a change in tactics or instruments of policy implementation and goes beyond the routine fluctuations and oscillations of the foreign policy behavior of developing countries. It involves a...

  10. 6 Foreign Policy under Occupation: Does Iraq Need a Foreign Policy?
    (pp. 195-252)
    Mohamed Soffar

    A chapter on Iraqi foreign policy in the post-Saddam era requires that we ask the reader to bear with a lengthy but indispensable introduction. Two problems abet each other and discourage attempts to study the case at hand. The problem of a political analyst is to immediately seize the never-lasting and ever-flowing present, to grasp the ‘now(s)’ still in the making. Or, I risk the event’s slipping into the past and belonging to another scientific discipline, namely the history of diplomacy. The problem of a philosopher is to seek the truth in Kant’s line separating the manifestation of the object...

  11. 7 Foreign Policy as a Strategic National Asset: The Case of Jordan
    (pp. 253-282)
    Ali E. Hillal Dessouki and Karen Abul Kheir

    The somewhat precarious and vulnerable nature of the Jordanian state is often illustrated by referring to Winston Churchill’s boast that he created it by a stroke of his pen on a Sunday afternoon in 1921. While Churchill marked the borders, it was up to the new Hashemite rulers to bond with the local inhabitants and to create a nation-state.¹ Their new country did not have much to offer in terms of material and human resources. Its central location in the context of the Arab–Israeli conflict however, allowed the Hashemite regime to solicit significant economic, political, and military external support....

  12. 8 The Art of the Impossible: The Foreign Policy of Lebanon
    (pp. 283-318)
    Bassel F. Salloukh

    Studying Lebanon’s foreign policy entails walking a methodological tightrope between the two positions in the opening quotes above. Indeed, can a polarized, regionally contested, and internationally entangled state have a viable foreign policy? If so, what are the parameters and uses of this foreign policy given the region’s geopolitics and a stubborn legacy of external intervention in the country’s domestic politics? On the other hand, can a small, weak country afford not to have a foreign policy proactively serving its economic and security interests? Moreover, how do domestic and foreign politics overlap in a state lacking national consensus on a...

  13. 9 The Far West of the Near East: The Foreign Policy of Morocco
    (pp. 319-342)
    Jennifer Rosenblum and William Zartman

    Morocco is a historic kingdom on the northwest corner of Africa, the westernmost extension of the Arab-Muslim world and a major north–south bridge from Africa and the Arab world to Europe. Overrun successively by the Berbers, Carthaginians/Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs (but not the Ottomans), and French, all of whom left their traces, it reemerged independent in the modern era in 1956 as a multiparty monarchy, shaking off its heavy traditional garb but seeking a careful evolutionary path to modernization and avoiding the revolutions that had destabilized the other Arab countries. Since Morocco has few natural resources except for phosphates,...

  14. 10 Irreconcilable Role-Partners?: Saudi Foreign Policy between the Ulama and the US
    (pp. 343-396)
    Bahgat Korany and Moataz A. Fattah

    In the month of Ramadan 2003, when television programming was at its height afteriftar(breaking the fast at sunset), viewers were glued to their screens to watch Egypt’s popular soap opera about Hajj Mutwalli, a middle-aged businessman who lived happily with his four wives. This soap opera was so successful not only in Egypt but also across the Middle East, that there was talk of a sequel in Ramadan 2004. An important element in the debate is that the polygamous Hajj Mutwalli was acting according to assumed Islamic rules. Many feminists, however, protested at its falsely idyllic portrayal of...

  15. 11 From Fragmentation to Fragmentation?: Sudanʹs Foreign Policy
    (pp. 397-420)
    Ann M. Lesch

    This volume proposes to assess the foreign policy of countries in the Middle East and North Africa according to two fundamental dimensions: role conception and role performance. Role conception encompasses the general objectives, orientation, and strategy of a country. Role performance focuses on the specific behaviors of the country in relation to its policies. Thus, it becomes possible to assess the ‘fit’ or the disparity between declared objectives and actual behavior and to examine why a disparity exists. Presumably a country in which there is a close fit between conception and performance has the potential for a relatively effective foreign...

  16. 12 The Challenge of Restructuring: Syrian Foreign Policy
    (pp. 421-456)
    Hazem Kandil

    Syrian foreign policy has remained markedly consistent throughout the rule of the al-Assad family (1970–present). While other Arab countries undertook major foreign policy restructuring, Syria managed to survive far-reaching transformations in its external environment with only a few cosmetic changes. Its foreign policy constants have outlived the cold war, the 9/11 attacks, three devastating Gulf wars, a handful of Arab civil wars, and the protracted Arab–Israeli struggle. Neither the loss of allies nor the ever-increasing list of enemies seemed to impinge on Syria’s decision makers. Three factors today make it difficult for Syria to continue resisting change: first,...

  17. 13 Politics of Constructive Engagement: The Foreign Policy of the United Arab Emirates
    (pp. 457-480)
    Abdul-Monem al-Mashat

    A microstate established only on December 2, 1971, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the only federal state in the Arab and Middle East region, was quickly required to make foreign policy decisions in a troubled region. With its valuable natural resource, oil, its unique historical and charismatic leadership, in Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahyan, and its strategic location along the southern approaches to the Strait of Hormuz, a critical transit point for world crude oil, was it able to make and implement constructive foreign policy? The analysis of the UAE’s foreign policy decisions reveals that from the outset of the...

  18. 14 Conclusion: Foreign Policy, Globalization, and the Arab Dilemma of Change
    (pp. 481-492)
    Bahgat Korany and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki

    After this journey through thirteen chapters concerning Foreign Policies of Arab States in the global era, where are we?

    The four general chapters and the nine case studies offer us a wealth of information. This information deals not only with relatively underresearched foreign policies of some countries (for example, al-Mashat’s study of the UAE, or Rosenblum and Zartman’s study of Morocco) but also with underresearched aspects like the making of foreign policy. For instance, Salloukh’s table documenting the eighty-four entries to the post of Lebanon’s foreign minister from 1944–2007 raises relevant questions about the dynamics of the Lebanese system...

  19. About the Contributors
    (pp. 493-494)
  20. Index
    (pp. 495-515)