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The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited

The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited

Edited by Ragui Assaad
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 344
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  • Book Info
    The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited
    Book Description:

    This volume is a follow-up to a 1998 publication by the Economic Research Forum (ERF). Its significance lies in the contributors’ reliance on fresh data and solid analytical techniques used to examine a wide spectrum of pertinent issues concerning the labor market in Egypt. The range of topics includes labor supply, employment and unemployment, youth labor market school-to-work transition, internal and international migration, earnings and inequality, and gender and education. The papers in this volume are the very first research available based on data collected in the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey of 2006, a follow-up to the Egypt Labor Market Survey of 1998. The panel design used for collecting data is state-of-the-art methodology in the labor field, and has never before been implemented in Egypt on this scale. Contributors: Mohamed Fotouh Abulata, Mona Amer, Ragui Assaad, Ghada Barsoum, Asmaa Elbadawi, Fatma El Hamidi, Alia El Mahdi, Ali Rashed, Rania Roushdy, Mona Said, Jackline Wahba.

    eISBN: 978-1-61797-393-2
    Subjects: Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-x)
    Ahmed Galal

    This volume is a sequel to a volume published in 2002 by the Economic Research Forum (ERF) with the same editor, Ragui Assaad. Its true significance lies in the fact that it relies on fresh data and employs solid analytical techniques to analyze a wide spectrum of issues pertinent to the Egyptian labor market. These topics include labor supply, employment and unemployment, the school-to-work transition, internal and international migration, earnings and inequality, and gender and education. The papers in this volume are the very first research available, which draws on data collected in the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Contributors
    (pp. xiii-xiii)
  6. Acronyms and Abbreviations
    (pp. xiv-xiv)
  7. Preface
    (pp. xv-xviii)
    Ragui Assaad
  8. CHAPTER 1 Labor Supply, Employment, and Unemployment in the Egyptian Economy, 1988–2006
    (pp. 1-52)
    Ragui Assaad

    The Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006 (ELMPS 2006) collected a wealth of information on employment and unemployment in Egypt, allowing for in-depth analysis of both the structure and the trend of these variables. The results reveal that the employment outlook in Egypt has broadly improved since 1998. Despite continued rapid growth of the working-age population since 1998, overall participation rates have increased, unemployment rates have decreased, and employment growth has been robust. In many instances, the levels of these variables have returned to or exceeded their 1988 levels.

    The performance of the labor market in Egypt beween 1998 and...

  9. CHAPTER 2 The Fall and Rise of Earnings and Inequality in Egypt: New Evidence from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006
    (pp. 53-86)
    Mona Said

    Since 1987, the Egyptian economy witnessed a series of partial liberalization measures, which culminated in 1991 with the signing of an agreement for a full economic reform and structural adjustment program under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Economic theory, backed by an accumulating wealth of developing countries’ empirical experiences, indicates that such comprehensive liberalization programs are bound to have a profound impact on the level and structure of labor earnings in the short and medium terms. There is less agreement, however, on the direction of the expected change in real wages and inequality,...

  10. CHAPTER 3 The Changing Economic Environment and the Development of Micro- and Small Enterprises in Egypt, 2006
    (pp. 87-116)
    Alia El Mahdi and Ali Rashed

    The Egyptian economy underwent several important changes and encountered a new set of challenges over the period spanning from 1998 to 2006. Some of these changes and challenges had a positive influence on the labor market, and others did not. The continuation of the economic reform program, which started in 1991, stressed the importance of opening the door to the development of the private sector as an investor, producer, and employer. One of the main targets of the program was to reduce the role of the government as an employer since practice had proven that the productivity of government employees...

  11. CHAPTER 4 Education at a Glance: Selected Indicators Based on the Egypt Labor Market Surveys of 1988, 1998, and 2006
    (pp. 117-156)
    Asmaa Elbadawy

    This chapter profiles the educational attainment of the Egyptian population and characterizes participation in schooling. To that end, education indicators such as the rate of literacy, educational attainment, and the rate of attendance are employed. Indicators of pupil flow rates such as dropout and repetition rates are also used. In addition, other areas covered include the distribution of pupils by school type and the extent of their reliance on private tutoring. All indicators are solely based on data from the Egypt Labor Market Surveys that were conducted in 1988, 1998, and 2006.¹

    The Labor Force Sample Survey 1988 (LFSS 1988),...

  12. CHAPTER 5 An Overview of Internal and International Migration in Egypt
    (pp. 157-176)
    Jackline Wahba

    Most developing countries experience a rapid pace of urbanization and a disproportionate expansion of their largest one or two cities. In the last century Egypt witnessed over-urbanization, and Cairo, its capital city, became the largest urban center not only in Africa but also in the Middle East. However, the 1990s showed a halt to over-urbanization and the mushrooming growth of Greater Cairo. The 1996 Census shows that urban growth slowed down in the 1990s after more than three decades of fast growth. At the same time, Egypt saw international migration take off in the 1970s and again by the 1990s,...

  13. CHAPTER 6 The Egyptian Youth Labor Market School-to-Work Transition, 1988–2006
    (pp. 177-218)
    Mona Amer

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the insertion of youth into the Egyptian labor market and to examine to what extent the school-to-work transition has changed over time (1988–2006). Young people are defined in this study as those aged between 15 and 29. The analysis of the youth labor market situation is of particular importance. Indeed, youths represent a very large share of the Egyptian population and when larger cohorts of young individuals enter into the labor market, this leads to high pressure on the market. Moreover, youths and in particular young educated women face the biggest...

  14. CHAPTER 7 Women in the Egyptian Labor Market: An Analysis of Developments, 1988–2006
    (pp. 219-258)
    Ragui Assaad and Fatma El Hamidi

    Although Egypt has made important strides in closing the gender gap in education in recent years, Egyptian women still face significant barriers to paid employment outside the home, especially in the private sector. A recent report by the World Economic Forum ranks Egypt 120th out of 128 countries in terms of the gender gap, with Egypt achieving one of its worst rankings in the women’s economic opportunity component of the gender gap index (Hausman et al. 2007). Egypt ranked 101st in educational attainment, 81st in health and survival, but 120th in women’s economic opportunity. Given this rather dismal showing in...

  15. METHODOLOGICAL APPENDIX 1 The Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006: Documentation of the Data Collection Process
    (pp. 259-284)
    Ghada Barsoum
  16. METHODOLOGICAL APPENDIX 2 Estimation of Sampling Errors for Key Indicators from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006
    (pp. 285-302)
    Mohamed F. Abulata
  17. METHODOLOGICAL APPENDIX 3 An Analysis of Sample Attrition in the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006
    (pp. 303-316)
    Ragui Assaad and Rania Roushdy
  18. Index
    (pp. 317-324)