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Governing Through Markets

Governing Through Markets: Forest Certification and the Emergence of Non-State Authority

Copyright Date: 2004
Published by: Yale University Press
Pages: 352
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  • Book Info
    Governing Through Markets
    Book Description:

    In recent years a startling policy innovation has emerged within global and domestic environmental governance: certification systems that promote socially responsible business practices by turning to the market, rather than the state, for rule-making authority. This book documents five cases in which the Forest Stewardship Council, a forest certification program backed by leading environmental groups, has competed with industry and landowner-sponsored certification systems for legitimacy.The authors compare the politics behind forest certification in five countries. They reflect on why there are differences regionally, discuss the impact the Forest Stewardship Council has had on other certification programs, and assess the ability of private forest certification to address global forest deterioration.

    eISBN: 978-0-300-13311-0
    Subjects: General Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xi)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xii-xvi)
  5. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  6. I. The Transformation of Global Environmental Governance

    • 1 The Emergence of Non-State Market-Driven Authority
      (pp. 3-30)

      Hubert Kwisthout made bagpipes. He practiced his craft for over twenty years and, through hard work and perseverance, established a reputation for creating exquisite instruments capable of producing beautiful music. For Kwisthout, his bagpipes were much more than a product for sale—they represented to his customers an extension of himself and his art. It was for these reasons that Hubert Kwisthout became increasingly concerned about a moral dilemma that he could not rationalize away. Kwisthout relied on tropical hardwood imports to produce the wood components of his bagpipes, and during the 1980s, evidence accumulated indicating that the wood was...

    • 2 The Research Design: Toward an Analytical and Explanatory Framework
      (pp. 31-56)

      The presentation in chapter 1 of forest certification as an emerging form of global and domestic non-state market-driven governance immediately presents a comparative policy analyst with important analytical and methodological decisions. We must first develop an analytical framework, appropriate and applicableacrosscases, that permits us to uncover and classify the phenomenon we seek to study. This analytical framework must also facilitate broader reflections on the nature of the new phenomenon and facilitate the development of explanations for noted differences.

      This chapter proceeds in three steps. First, we present an analytical framework designed to both classify and highlight differences in...

  7. II. North America

    • 3 British Columbia, Canada
      (pp. 59-87)

      Arguably no greater interest has been shown in forest certification as a policy instrument for addressing sustainable forestry than in British Columbia, Canada, where longstanding environmental forestry conflicts have garnered the attention of activists far beyond the province’s borders (Bernstein and Cashore 2000). The combination of domestic and international pressures on BC to preserve more of its forestland base and to develop environmentally sensitive harvesting practices resulted in a series of policy changes in the 1990s (van Kooten, Wilson, and Vertinsky 1999; Stanbury 2000; Wilson 1998). The New Democratic Party government doubled the amount of protected areas, introduced a Forest...

    • 4 The United States
      (pp. 88-126)

      Widespread interest in the use of forest certification as a key instrument to promote sustainable forest management arrived relatively late in the US, where, until the mid-1990s, those championing the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) had most of their successes in niche markets whose supply came from a relatively limited number of forest management companies and nonindustrial forestland owners. However, by the late 1990s, forest certification had caught the attention of most forest companies, environmental groups, professional foresters, and many non-industrial private forest landowners. The FSC, which was supported by almost all mainstream environmental groups in the US as well as...

  8. III. Europe

    • 5 The United Kingdom
      (pp. 129-159)

      Forest certification came to the UK earlier than any other case reviewed in this book, as Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) supporters made a strategic calculation that pursuing certification of the UK’s own domestic forestlands would give enhanced credibility to their efforts to promote the FSC internationally. Initial efforts to promote the FSC not only gained the interest of UK companies down the supply chain, but the lumber retailer B&Q helpedcreatethe FSC, following its efforts to address whether lumber products they purchased came from sustainable sources. Yet key forest management interests, including timber growers, woodland management firms, and even...

    • 6 Germany
      (pp. 160-188)

      Although those concerned about tropical and temperate rainforest destruction had long targeted German importers of wood products from these regions, the debate over forest certification on Germany’s own forestland arrived relatively late. However, once certification did emerge as an important theme for the domestic forest policy community, the competition for legitimacy developed into one of the fiercest struggles examined in this book. As the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) began to gain incremental support from some forest owners in the mid-1990s, forest landowner associations responded aggressively with the Pan European Forest Certification system (PEFC), which, as of winter 2003, was emerging...

    • 7 Sweden
      (pp. 189-216)

      Interest in the use of forest certification as the route for developing domestic sustainable forestry standards emerged early in Sweden, when support for the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) began gaining momentum in some of the country’s key foreign export markets. The early entry of certification was important because it meant that, in the absence of any alternative program, the initial dynamics facing forest companies and forest landowners were either to support FSC certification, or not support certification at all. Like other cases reviewed in this book, forest certification was promoted by key environmental groups, who saw certification as a faster...

  9. IV. Private Authority and Sustainability

    • 8 Competing for Legitimacy
      (pp. 219-248)

      Forest certification programs have presented the world of policy analysis with one of the most provocative and startling institutional designs since governments the world over first began addressing the impacts of human activity on the natural environment. Traditional political struggles over the use of the world’s forest resources have not been subsumed by these institutional designs but they have changed the arena and the rules of the game through which these struggles occur. This book has carefully documented five different cases where the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), an international forest certification program with widespread environmental group support, has competed with...

  10. Appendixes
    (pp. 249-262)
  11. Notes
    (pp. 263-285)
  12. Glossary of Terms
    (pp. 286-289)
  13. References
    (pp. 290-316)
  14. Index
    (pp. 317-327)