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Spanish Rome, 1500-1700

Spanish Rome, 1500-1700

THOMAS JAMES DANDELET
Copyright Date: 2001
Published by: Yale University Press
Pages: 288
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1npr0m
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  • Book Info
    Spanish Rome, 1500-1700
    Book Description:

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Rome was an aged but still vigorous power while Spain was a rising giant on track toward becoming the world's most powerful and first truly global empire. This book tells the fascinating story of the meeting of these two great empires at a critical moment in European history. Thomas Dandelet explores for the first time the close relationship between the Spanish Empire and Papal Rome that developed in the dynamic period of the Italian Renaissance and the Spanish Golden Age. The author examines on the one hand the role the Spanish Empire played in shaping Roman politics, economics, culture, society, and religion and on the other the role the papacy played in Spanish imperial politics and the development of Spanish absolutism and monarchical power.Reconstructing the large Spanish community in Rome during this period, the book reveals the strategies used by the Spanish monarchs and their agents that successfully brought Rome and the papacy under their control. Spanish ambassadors, courtiers, and merchants in Rome carried out a subtle but effective conquest by means of a distinctive "informal" imperialism, which relied largely on patronage politics. As Spain's power grew, Rome enjoyed enormous gains as well, and the close relations they developed became a powerful influence on the political, social, economic, and religious life not only of the Iberian and Italian peninsulas but also of Catholic Reformation Europe as a whole.

    eISBN: 978-0-300-13377-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-vii)
  3. List of Maps
    (pp. viii-viii)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-ix)
  5. A NOTE ON CURRENCY
    (pp. x-x)
  6. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-15)

    In the Jubilee year of 1500, with the Italian Renaissance in full bloom, two events took place in Rome that served as omens of a fundamental transformation that would occur in the city over the next two centuries. As was often the case with Renaissance omens, the events were not without their ambiguity and contradiction: one signaled the arrival of a powerful and generous new patron while the other spoke of a potentially destructive new force on the Roman scene. Both came from the same distant shore.

    To begin with the bright omen, it was in 1500 that Pope Alexander...

  7. CHAPTER 1 FOUNDATIONS
    (pp. 16-33)

    Long before Alexander VI was elected pope in 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella had been consolidating their power in southern Italy and insinuating themselves into the political life of Naples and Rome. More specifically, from 1480, the time they began supporting the church of San Pietro in Montorio, the young monarchs were also creating an image of themselves as strong allies of Naples and defenders of Rome.

    That year the Turkish threat to Rhodes and southern Italy helped establish the primary overlap between the interests of the Catholic Kings and those of Italy and the popes. Ferdinand wanted to protect his...

  8. CHAPTER 2 CHARLES V AND THE SPANISH MYTH OF ROME
    (pp. 34-52)

    When the young grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles I of Spain and Charles V of Germany, came to power in 1516, he and his ministers pursued a policy toward Naples and Rome that sought to preserve the victories and alliances won by the Catholic Kings. During the four long decades of his rule, however, there was no distinctly Spanish agenda toward Rome but rather an imperial policy in which Spain took part. Charles, who gained the title of Holy Roman emperor in 1530, ruled an empire that included territories in Germany, the Netherlands, Burgundy, Italy, and the New World....

  9. CHAPTER 3 THE ROMAN WORLD IN THE AGE OF PHILIP II
    (pp. 53-108)

    Just as Charles V had faced a war against the pope early in his reign, so too did Philip II. The so-called Caraffa War, named after the Caraffa pope Paul IV (1555–1559), was far more important in establishing the Spanish hegemony in Rome than any earlier event had been, including the sack of 1527. Ironically, it has received little historical attention, perhaps because it was quick and quiet and left the city unscathed physically. Nonetheless, it led to the increasing Spanish domination of Rome over the next sixty years.

    Again it was the pope who precipitated the war. Paul...

  10. CHAPTER 4 THE PEOPLE OF SPANISH ROME
    (pp. 109-159)

    The domination of Rome, the center of the Old World, by the Spanish Empire from the time of Ferdinand and Isabella through the reign of Philip III paralleled and ran simultaneously with the conquest and consolidation of Spanish power in the New World. Indeed, the two theaters of Spanish imperialism shared many features: large-scale literary production, military operations, and economic exchange. In both the New World and Rome, moreover, Spanish imperialism also relied on another practice that has most often been associated only with the New World, namely, colonization. In Rome, too, the Catholic Kings encouraged, directly or indirectly, the...

  11. CHAPTER 5 THE PIETY OF SPANISH ROME
    (pp. 160-187)

    As Spanish writers, monarchs, and the Spanish faction in Rome appropriated the history of the ancient city and empire, won a dominant political and economic role in the papal court, and staked a claim to the streets and institutions of Rome itself, they also sought to capture one last major prize that the papacy had the unique right to control and dispense: the spiritual rewards and reputation of Roman Catholicism—most particularly, the celestial city of the saints whose gates the Roman canon controlled. Just as the struggle for political influence, control, and spoils in Rome was largely conducted within...

  12. CHAPTER 6 URBAN VIII AND THE DECLINE OF SPANISH ROME
    (pp. 188-201)

    In June 1624, less than a year after the election of Pope Urban VIII, the Spanish ambassador sought to present him with the annual tribute from Naples, along with the chinea, on the feast of Saint Peter. The pope, however, did not wish to receive the dues on the feast day itself. Rather, he instructed that they be presented on the day before the vigil and that the papal treasurer (camerlengo) accept the money and horse in his name. This effectively removed the Spaniards from the central role they had enjoyed during the feast of Saint Peter for almost sixty...

  13. CHAPTER 7 SPANISH REVIVAL AND RESILIENCE, 1650–1700
    (pp. 202-214)

    In 1662 the Piazza Navona was once again decorated for a Spanish festival, this time to celebrate the birth of a successor to Philip IV, Prince Charles. With the revolutions of the disastrous 1640s past, and following the signing of the Peace of the Pyrenees with France in 1659, the Spain of Philip IV finally had cause to celebrate. For many Spaniards both in Iberia and Rome, the birth of a healthy prince seemed almost miraculous, and it was taken as a sign of rebirth for a family and an empire that many thought were on the brink of extinction....

  14. CONCLUSION
    (pp. 215-218)

    The death of Charles II in 1700, and the expulsion of all remaining Spaniards from Rome during the War of the Spanish Succession, marked the end of Spanish Rome. With no monarch to guide policy and no colony to enact it, the elaborate set of political and institutional practices collapsed. Imperialism in the age of absolutism depended on a strong monarch, and for Spain the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy meant an end to the old imperialism. The Bourbon dynasty of Philip V that followed quickly adopted a more Gallican approach to the church and deferred to the stronger French...

  15. EPILOGUE
    (pp. 219-220)

    In the spring of Jubilee year 2000, the Bourbon king of Spain, Juan Carlos, visited Rome. At the church of San Pietro in Montorio, he would have seen numerous plaques on the walls next to Bramante’sTempietto commemorating the role of his ancestors in building and restoring the monument. The most recent inscription, dated 2000, noted his own generosity in providing the funding for the modern restoration of the Renaissance masterpiece. Next to the church and convent stand the Spanish Academy of Art, the Spanish embassy to the Italian government, and the Spanish grammar school, all built on that section of...

  16. NOTES
    (pp. 221-264)
  17. INDEX
    (pp. 265-278)