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Futurism

Futurism: An Anthology

Lawrence Rainey
Christine Poggi
Laura Wittman
Copyright Date: 2009
Published by: Yale University Press
Pages: 640
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1nq4q3
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  • Book Info
    Futurism
    Book Description:

    In 1909, F.T. Marinetti published his incendiaryFuturist Manifesto, proclaiming, "We stand on the last promontory of the centuries!!" and "There, on the earth, the earliest dawn!" Intent on delivering Italy from "its fetid cancer of professors, archaeologists, tour guides, and antiquarians," the Futurists imagined that art, architecture, literature, and music would function like a machine, transforming the world rather than merely reflecting it. But within a decade, Futurism's utopian ambitions were being wedded to Fascist politics, an alliance that would tragically mar its reputation in the century to follow.

    Published to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the founding of Futurism, this is the most complete anthology of Futurist manifestos, poems, plays, and images ever to bepublished in English, spanning from 1909 to 1944. Now, amidst another era of unprecedented technological change and cultural crisis, is a pivotal moment to reevaluate Futurism and its haunting legacy for Western civilization.

    eISBN: 978-0-300-15659-1
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-xii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  4. INTRODUCTION: F. T. MARINETTI AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURISM
    (pp. 1-40)
    LAWRENCE RAINEY

    The concept of the “avant-garde” drove the history of twentieth-century art and culture. Nothing did more to shape that concept than Futurism, the strange phenomenon—cultural historians, groping for words, have typically labeled it a “movement”—that was unleashed by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti on 20 February 1909 when he published “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism” on the front page of the Paris newspaperLe Figaro. In subsequent decades Futurism became a paradigm for countless movements that followed, some embodying the most vital currents among the twentieth-century arts (Vorticism, Dadaism, and Surrealism are only a few of them). Already in...

  5. Part One Manifestos and Theoretical Writings

    • INTRODUCTION TO PART ONE
      (pp. 43-48)
      LAWRENCE RAINEY

      In the autumn of 1913, the painter Gino Severini sent the rough draft of a projected manifesto to F. T. Marinetti, asking him to either approve or send suggestions for revision (“whether it is OK or requires modifications”).¹ Marinetti replied promptly:

      I have read with great attention your manuscript, which contains extremely interesting things. But I must tell you that there is nothing of themanifestoin it.

      First of all, the title absolutely won’t do because it is too generic, too derivative of the titles of other manifestos. Secondly, you must take out the part in which you restate...

    • THE FOUNDING AND MANIFESTO OF FUTURISM (1909)
      (pp. 49-53)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      We had stayed up¹ all night—my friends and I—beneath mosque lamps hanging from the ceiling. Their brass domes were filigreed, starred like our souls; just as, again like our souls, they were illuminated by the imprisoned brilliance of an electric heart. On the opulent oriental rugs, we had crushed our ancestral lethargy, arguing all the way to the final frontiers of logic and blackening reams of paper with delirious writings.

      Our chests swelled with immense pride, for at that hour we alone were still awake and upright, like magnificent lighthouses or forward sentries facing an army of enemy...

    • LET’S MURDER THE MOONLIGHT!
      (pp. 54-61)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      Hail! great incendiary poets, you Futurist friends! . . . Hail! Paolo Buzzi, Federico de Maria, Enrico Cavacchioli, Corrado Govoni, Libero Altomare!¹ Let’s flee the city of Paralysis, devastate Gout, and lay the great military Railroad along the flanks of Gorisankar,² summit of the world!

      We left the city with firm and nimble strides, as if dancing in our desire to find everywhere obstacles to overcome. Around us, and within our hearts, the immense intoxication of the old European sun as it swayed between wine-colored clouds . . . That sun struck us in the face with its great torch...

    • MANIFESTO OF THE FUTURIST PAINTERS (1910)
      (pp. 62-64)
      UMBERTO BOCCIONI, CARLO CARRÀ, LUIGI RUSSOLO, GIACOMO BALLA and GINO SEVERINI

      To the Young Artists of Italy!

      The cry of rebellion that we launch, linking our ideals with those of the Futurist poets, does not originate in an aesthetic clique. It expresses the violent desire that stirs in the veins of every creative artist today.

      We want to fight implacably against the mindless, snobbish, and fanatical religion of the past, religion nurtured by the pernicious existence of museums. We rebel against the spineless admiration for old canvases, old statues, and old objects, and against the enthusiasm for everything worm-eaten, grimy, or corroded by time; and we deem it unjust and criminal...

    • FUTURIST PAINTING: TECHNICAL MANIFESTO (1910)
      (pp. 64-66)
      UMBERTO BOCCIONI, CARLO CARRÀ, LUIGI RUSSOLO, GIACOMO BALLA and GINO SEVERINI

      In the first manifesto that we launched on the 8th of March, 1910, from the stage of the Chiarella Theater in Turin,¹ we expressed our deep-rooted disgust with, our proud contempt for, and our happy rebellion against vulgarity, mediocrity, the fanatical and snobbish worship of all that is old, attitudes which are suffocating Art in our Country.

      On that occasion we were concerned with the relations between ourselves and society. Today, instead, with this second manifesto, we are resolutely abandoning contingent considerations and rising instead to higher expressions of the pictorial absolute.

      Our growing desire for truth can no longer...

    • AGAINST PASSÉIST VENICE (1910)
      (pp. 67-70)
      F. T. MARINETTI, UMBERTO BOCCIONI, CARLO CARRÀ and LUIGI RUSSOLO

      We repudiate the old Venice, enfeebled and undone by centuries of worldly pleasure, though we too once loved and possessed it in a great nostalgic dream.

      We repudiate the Venice of foreigners, a market for counterfeiting antiquarians, a magnet of snobbery and universal imbecility, a bed whose bottom has been staved in by caravans of lovers, the bejeweled hip-bath of cosmopolitan courtesans, thecloaca maximaof passéism.

      We want to cure and heal this putrefying city, this magnificent sore from the past. We want to reanimate and ennoble the Venetian people, fallen from their ancient grandeur, drugged by the morphine...

    • FUTURIST SPEECH TO THE ENGLISH (1910): GIVEN AT THE LYCEUM CLUB OF LONDON
      (pp. 70-74)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      And there, with a few picturesque abridgments, you have some of our more interesting ideas and actions.

      I don’t know whether this lively account has been able to give you a sense of what Futurism really is.

      In any case, you have already grasped one part of our philosophical, political, and artistic conception—its method of adopting the cruelest form of sincerity and the boldest kind of violence.

      I couldn’t imagine a better way of giving you an exact idea of what we are than to tell you what we think of you.

      I will express myself with complete candor,...

    • FUTURISM AND WOMAN (1910)
      (pp. 74-75)
      MARGARET WYNNE NEVINSON

      Whether she be the subject of praise or censure, woman is now, as always, man’s most interesting topic. Last year Dr. Emil Reich discoursed on her “sphere,” with Plato for his authority.¹ And now it is Signor Marinetti, the Futurist leader in Italy, who is inspired by the same theme. Neither lecturer considered it necessary to choose the language of euphemism in which to clothe his utterances upon the sex to an audience of women. To Signor Marinetti, however, must be awarded the palm for superlatively vigorous language in his address the other day at the Lyceum Club. And woman,...

    • MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST MUSICIANS
      (pp. 75-80)
      FRANCESCO BALILLA PRATELLA

      I address myself to theyoung. They alone will have to listen to me, they alone will be able to understand me. Some people are born already old, drooling specters from the past, cryptograms tumid with poisons: to them, no words or ideas except a single injunction:the end.

      I address myself to the young, who are necessarily athirst for things that are new, alive, and contemporary. Let them follow me on the paths of the future, trusting and ardent, where already my daring companions—ourcompanions, the Futurist poets and painters—are preceding us, beautiful in their violence, audacious...

    • FUTURIST MUSIC: TECHNICAL MANIFESTO (1911)
      (pp. 80-84)
      FRANCESCO BALILLA PRATELLA

      All innovators, logically speaking, have been Futurists in relation to their time. Palestrina would have thought that Bach was crazy, and Bach would have thought Beethoven the same, and Beethoven would have thought Wagner equally so.

      Rossini liked to boast that he had finally understood the music of Wagner—by reading it backward; Verdi, after listening to the overture toTannhäuser, wrote to a friend that Wagner wasmad.

      So we stand at the window of a glorious mental hospital, even while we unhesitatingly declare that counterpoint and the fugue, which even today are still considered the most important branches...

    • Selections from Le Futurisme (1911), translated as Guerra, sola igiene del mondo (1915)
      (pp. 84-104)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      And now I am obliged to tell you what it is that clearly distinguishes Futurism from anarchism.

      The latter, denying the infinite principle of human evolution, brings its forward-looking viewpoint to a halt in the ideal of universal peace, a stupid paradise of people caressing in open fields or beneath billowing palm trees.

      We, instead, affirm that one of Futurism’s absolute principles is the continuous development and unending progress, both bodily and intellectual, of man.

      We think that the hypothesis of a friendly merging of peoples is an outmoded idea, or one that can be bettered, and we acknowledge only...

    • THE EXHIBITORS TO THE PUBLIC (1912)
      (pp. 105-109)
      GIACOMO BALLA, UMBERTO BOCCIONI, CARLO CARRÀ, LUIGI RUSSOLO and GINO SEVERINI

      We may declare, without boasting, that the first Exhibition of Italian Futurist Painting, recently held in Paris and now brought to London,¹ is the most important exhibition of Italian painting which has hitherto been offered to the judgment of Europe.

      For we are young and our art is violently revolutionary.

      What we have attempted and accomplished, while attracting around us a large number of skillful imitators and as many plagiarists without talent, has placed us at the head of the European movement in painting by a road different from, yet, in a way, parallel with that followed by the Post-impressionists,...

    • MANIFESTO OF THE FUTURIST WOMAN (RESPONSE TO F. T. MARINETTI) (1912)
      (pp. 109-113)
      VALENTINE DE SAINT-POINT

      Humanity is mediocre. The majority of women are neither superior nor inferior to the majority of men. They are equal. Both merit the same disdain.

      The mass of humanity was never anything other than the cultivated field from which the geniuses and heroes of both sexes have sprung. But in humanity, as in nature, there are certain moments that are more propitious to their flourishing. In the summer of humanity, when the earth is warmed by the sun, geniuses and heroes abound. We are standing on the verge of springtime: we need an outpouring of sunlight, which is to say...

    • FUTURIST SCULPTURE (1912)
      (pp. 113-119)
      UMBERTO BOCCIONI

      The sculpture to be seen on monuments and in exhibitions in all the cities of Europe offers such a pitiable spectacle of barbarity, ineptitude, and monotonous imitation that my Futurist eyes recoil from it with the deepest disgust!

      Sculpture in every country is dominated by the blind and bovine imitation of formulas inherited from the past, imitation that is encouraged by the double cowardice of tradition and facility. Latin countries are bowed down under the opprobrious burden of the Greeks and Michelangelo, a burden borne in Belgium and France with a certain seriousness and talent, in Italy with grotesque imbecility....

    • TECHNICAL MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST LITERATURE (1912)
      (pp. 119-125)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      Sitting astride the fuel tank of an airplane, my stomach warmed by the aviator’s head,¹ I felt the ridiculous inanity of the old syntax inherited from Homer. A raging need to liberate words, dragging them out from the prison of the Latin period. Like all imbeciles, this period, naturally, has a prudent head, a stomach, two legs, and two flat feet: but it will never have two wings. Just enough to walk, take a short run, and come up short, panting!

      This is what the swirling propeller told me as I sped along at two hundred meters above the powerful...

    • A RESPONSE TO OBJECTIONS (1912)
      (pp. 125-129)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      I shall not reply to the jokes and countless ironic comments, but to the skeptical questions and important objections which have been directed by the European press against my “Technical Manifesto of Futurist Literature.”

      1. Those who have correctly understood what I meant by “to hate intelligence” have wished to discern in that expression some influence from the philosophy of Bergson.¹ But evidently they are not aware that my first epic poem, “The Conquest of the Stars” (published in 1902), contained these three verses from Dante on the first page, serving as an epigraph:

      O insane labor of mortals,

      How defective...

    • FUTURIST MANIFESTO OF LUST (1913)
      (pp. 130-133)
      VALENTINE DE SAINT-POINT

      Lust, viewed without moral prejudices and as an essential element within life’s dynamism, is a force.

      For a strong race, lust is not a mortal sin, no more than pride. Like pride, it is an activating virtue, a hearth that nourishes energies.

      Lust is the expression of a being projected beyond oneself; it is the painful joy of flesh fulfilled, the joyful pain of blossoming; a fleshly union, whatever the secrets that may unite two beings; an individual’s sensory and sensual synthesis for the greater liberation of his or her own mind; the communion of a particle of humanity with...

    • THE ART OF NOISES: A FUTURIST MANIFESTO (1913)
      (pp. 133-139)
      LUIGI RUSSOLO

      Dear Balilla Pratella, great Futurist composer,

      At the crowded Costanzi Theater in Rome, while I was listening to the orchestral performance of your overwhelming Futurist music,¹ together with my Futurist friends Marinetti, Boccioni, Carrà, Balla, Soffici, Papini, and Cavacchioli, there came to my mind the idea of a new art, one that only you can create: the Art of Noises, a logical consequence of your marvelous innovations.

      In older times life was completely silent. In the nineteenth century, with the invention of machines, Noise was born. Today, Noise is triumphant and reigns supreme over the sensibility of men. For many...

    • THE PLASTIC FOUNDATIONS OF FUTURIST SCULPTURE AND PAINTING (1913)
      (pp. 139-142)
      UMBERTO BOCCIONI

      Our constructive idealism has taken its laws from the new certainties given us by science.

      Its life derives from pure plastic elements, and is illuminated by intuitions of a very recent mentality that has arisen from the new conditions of life created by scientific discoveries.

      Our task is to destroy four centuries of Italian tradition. Into the resulting void we must plant all the seeds of potential which are to be found in the examples furnished by the primitives, the barbarians of every nation, and in the raw elements of a new sensibility which are apparent in all theanti-artistic...

    • DESTRUCTION OF SYNTAX—RADIO IMAGINATION—WORDS-IN-FREEDOM (1913)
      (pp. 143-151)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      My “Technical Manifesto of Futurist Literature” (11 May 1912), in which I first inventedsynthetic and essential lyricism, wireless imagination, andwords-in-freedom, is concerned exclusively with poetic inspiration.¹

      Philosophy, the exact sciences, politics, journalism, education, business, however much they may seek synthetic forms of expression, will still have to make use of syntax and punctuation. Indeed, I myself have to make use of them in order to advance the exposition of my concepts.

      Futurism is based on the complete renewal of human sensibility that has occurred as an effect of science’s major discoveries. Those people who today make use of...

    • FUTURIST ANTI-TRADITION (1913)
      (pp. 152-154)
      GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE

      Marinetti Picasso Boccioni Apollinaire Paul Fort Mercereau Max Jacob Carrà Delaunay Henri-Mattise Braque Depaquit Séverine Severini Derain Russolo Archipenko Pratella Balla F. Divoire N. Beaduin T. Varlet Buzzi Palazzeschi Maquaire Papini Soffici Folgore Govoni Montfort R. Fry Cavacchioli D’Alba Altomare Tridon Metzinger Gleizes Jastrebzoff Royère Canudo Salmon Castiaux Laurencin Aurel Agero Léger Valentine de Saint-Point Delmarle Kandinsky Stravinsky Herbin A. Billy G. Sauvebois Picabia Marcel Duchamp B. Cendrars Jouve H. M. Barzun G. Polti Mac Orlan F. Fleuret Jaudon Mandin R. Dalize M. Brésil F. Carco Rubiner Bétuda Manzella-Frontini A. Mazza T. Derême Giannattasio Tavolato De Gonzagues-Friek C. Larronde etc....

    • THE PAINTING OF SOUNDS, NOISES, AND SMELLS (1913)
      (pp. 155-159)
      CARLO CARRÀ

      Before the nineteenth century, painting was an art of silence. The painters of antiquity, the Renaissance, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries never envisaged the possibility of rendering sounds, noises, and smells in painting, even when they chose fragrant flowers, raging seas, or stormy skies as their themes.

      The Impressionists in their daring revolution made some confused and hesitant attempts at sounds and noises in their pictures. Before them—nothing, absolutely nothing!

      But we should point out at once that there is an enormous difference between the Impressionist mumblings and our Futurist paintings of sounds, noises, and smells—as great as...

    • THE VARIETY THEATER (1913)
      (pp. 159-164)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      We have a deep distaste for the contemporary theater (verse, prose, and musical), because it oscillates stupidly between historical reconstruction (pastiche or plagiarism) and a photographic reproduction of everyday life; petty, slow, analytic, and diluted theater that is worthy, at best, of the age of the oil lamp.

      Futurism exalts the variety theater because:

      1. The Variety Theater, born as we are from electricity, is fortunate in having no traditions, no guiding lights, no dogmas, and in being nurtured by the swift pace of contemporary events.

      2. The Variety Theater is absolutely practical, for it proposes to distract and amuse the public...

    • PLASTIC ANALOGIES OF DYNAMISM: FUTURIST MANIFESTO (1913)
      (pp. 165-169)
      GINO SEVERINI

      We want to enclose the universe in the work of art. Individual objects no longer exist for us.

      We must forget exterior reality and our everyday knowledge of it in order tocreatenew dimensions, and through our artistic sensibility we will discover their order and extent in relation to the world of plastic creation.

      In this way we shall express artistic emotions which are not only related to a particular emotional environment, but connected to the whole universe; for matter, considered in its effects, encloses the universe in an enormously vast circle of analogies, which start with affinities or...

    • THE SUBJECT IN FUTURIST PAINTING (1914)
      (pp. 169-170)
      ARDENGO SOFFICI

      If we consider the matter from a conceptual viewpoint, we are obviously led to conclusions of the following sort: “Whatever art tries to represent, its object is always man. A landscape, a still-life . . . these are simply hieroglyphics into which someone’s personality has been injected, and through which the artist presents his own spiritual or intellectual being.” But if we set aside such aesthetic truisms, together with all the subtle claims that can be made concerning subjectivism and objectivism and their inevitable connection within the work of art, and if instead we focus only on the practice of...

    • DOWN WITH THE TANGO AND PARSIFAL! (1914) A Futurist Letter Circulated Among Cosmopolitan Women Friends Who Give Tango-teas and Parsifalize Themselves
      (pp. 171-172)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      About a year ago I replied to a questionnaire sent out byGil Blas, denouncing the enfeebling poisons of the tango.¹ Yet little by little this epidemic oscillation has been spreading throughout the entire world, threatening to putrefy all the races of man, agglutinizing them. Once again, therefore, we see that we have to hurl ourselves against the imbecility of fashion and deter the sheeplike movement of snobbery.

      Monotony of romantic thighs, amid the flashing eyes and Spanish daggers of de Musset, Hugo, and Gautier.² Industrialization of Baudelaire,Fleurs du malundulating amid the taverns of Jean Lorrain for impotent...

    • THE CIRCLE IS CLOSING (1914)
      (pp. 173-175)
      GIOVANNI PAPINI

      I think it’s actually happening. The circle of the creative mind. That human addition— one characterized by will—to natural reality. Art was born as imitation, but it has made progress through distortion. Thought was originally born as interpretation, but in fields such as pure metaphysics it has become autonomous.

      On one hand, there was concrete practice, and on the other hand imaginative lyricism; on one hand, an active sensibility, and on the other hand, art as a concept existing in disinterested freedom. The two worlds have skirted one another, yet always remained distinct. But today, in the most advanced...

    • GEOMETRICAL AND MECHANICAL SPLENDOR AND THE NUMERICAL SENSIBILITY (1914)
      (pp. 175-180)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      We are briskly arranging the grotesque funeral of passéist Beauty (romantic, symbolist, and decadent) whose essential elements were memory, nostalgia, the mist of legend produced by distant times, the exotic fascination produced by distant places, the picturesque, the vague, the rustic, wild solitude, multicolored disorder, shadowy twilight, decay, weariness, the soiled traces of the years, the crumbling of ruins, mold, the taste for putrescence, pessimism, consumptive diseases, suicide, the blandishments of suffering, the aesthetics of failure, the adoration of death.

      Today, from the chaos of contradictory new sensibilities a new beauty is being born, one that we Futurists will substitute...

    • WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND PRICES OF ARTISTIC GENIUS: FUTURIST MANIFESTO (1914)
      (pp. 181-186)
      BRUNO CORRA and EMILIO SETTIMELLI

      Criticism has never existed, and does not exist. The passéist pseudocriticism which has nauseated us until recently has been no more than a solitary vice of impotent individuals, bilious outbursts of failed artists, pointless chit-chat, conceited dogmatism in the name of nonexistent authorities. We Futurists have always denied that this amphibious, uterine, and imbecile activity had any right to issue judgements. Our era is witnessing the birth of the first real criticism in Italy, the achievement of Futurism. But since the words “critic” and “criticism” are already dishonored by the filthy use that has been made of them, we Futurists...

    • ABSOLUTE MOTION + RELATIVE MOTION = DYNAMISM (1914)
      (pp. 187-194)
      UMBERTO BOCCIONI

      Absolute motion is a dynamic law that is inherent in an object. The plastic construction of the object, then, has to be concerned with the motion which an object has within itself, whether it be at rest or in movement. I’ve made this distinction between rest and movement so that I may make myself clear, although, in fact, there is no such thing as rest, only motion (rest being merely relative, a matter of appearance). This plastic construction obeys a law of motion which characterizes the body in question, a law that is the plastic potential which the object contains...

    • FUTURIST MEN’S CLOTHING: A MANIFESTO (1914)
      (pp. 194-195)
      GIACOMO BALLA

      Humanity has always dressed itself in mourning clothes, or heavy armor, or the hieratic cape, or the trailing mantle. Man’s body has always been saddened with black, or imprisoned with belts, or stifled with draperies.

      During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, clothing almost always had colors and shapes that were static, heavy, draped or puffed out, somber, priestly, uncomfortable, and cumbersome. They were expressions of melancholy, slavery, or terror. It was a negation of muscular life, suffocating under an antihygienic passéism of heavy fabrics and boring, effeminate, or decadent half-colors.

      That is why today, just as long ago, the...

    • FUTURISM AND ENGLISH ART (1914)
      (pp. 196-198)
      F. T. MARINETTI and CHRISTOPHER NEVINSON

      Signor Marinetti, who has acquired so much notoriety as the apostle of Futurism, has issued the following “manifesto” to the English public:—

      I am an Italian Futurist poet, and a passionate admirer of England. I wish, however, to cure English Art of that most grave of all maladies—passéism. I have the right to speak plainly and without compromise, and together with my friend Nevinson, an English Futurist painter, to give the signal for battle.

      1. —The worship of tradition and conservatism of Academies, the commercial acquiescence of English artists, the effeminacy of their art and their complete absorption towards a...

    • FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE (1914)
      (pp. 198-202)
      ANTONIO SANT’ELIA

      Architecture has not existed since the year 700. A foolish motley of the most heterogenous elements of style, used only to mask the skeleton of the modern house, goes under the name of modern architecture. The new beauty of cement and iron is profaned by the superimposition of carnivalesque decorative encrustations that are justified neither by structural necessity nor by our tastes, encrustations that take their origins from Egyptian, Byzantine, or Indian antiquities, or from that stupefying efflorescence of idiocy and impotence that has taken the name ofneo-classicism.

      Such architectural panderings are warmly received in Italy, and the rapacious...

    • THE ANTINEUTRAL SUIT: FUTURIST MANIFESTO (1914)
      (pp. 202-204)
      GIACOMO BALLA

      Humanity has always dressed itself with modesty, fear, caution, or indecision, forever wearing the mourning suit, the cape, or the cloak. The male body has been habitually diminished by neutral shades and colors, degraded by black, stifled by belts, and imprisoned by folds of fabric.

      Until now men have worn suits of static colors and shapes, draped, solemn, heavy, uncomfortable, and priestly. They were expressions of timidness, melancholia, and slavery, a negation of the muscular life, which was suffocated by the antihygienic passéism of heavy fabrics and boring, effeminate, or decadent half-colors. The mood and rhythms of saddening peace, funereal...

    • THE FUTURIST SYNTHETIC THEATER (1915)
      (pp. 204-209)
      F. T. MARINETTI, EMILIO SETTIMELLI and BRUNO CORRA

      While we await the great war that we have so often invoked, we Futurists have alternated between two forms of activity, violent antineutralist actions that have taken place in city piazzas and universities, and artistic actions that are reshaping the Italian sensibility, preparing it for the great hour of maximum danger. Italy must be fearless, tenacious, as swift and elastic as a fencer, as indifferent to blows as a boxer, impassive at the news of a victory that may have cost fifty thousand dead, imperturbable at the news of a defeat.

      Books and journals are not wanted to teach Italy...

    • FUTURIST RECONSTRUCTION OF THE UNIVERSE (1915)
      (pp. 209-212)
      GIACOMO BALLA and FORTUNATO DEPERO

      With “The Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting” and the “Preface” to the catalogue of the Futurist Exhibition in Paris, both signed by Boccioni, Carrà, Russolo, Balla, and Severini; with “The Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture,” signed by Boccioni; with the manifesto, “The Painting of Sounds, Noises, and Smells,” signed by Boccioni; and with Boccioni’s book onFuturist Painting and Sculptureand Carrà’s volume onWarpainting,¹ pictorial Futurism, as it has developed over six years, has solidified and surpassed impressionism, has proposed plastic dynamism, atmospheric modeling, and the interpenetration of planes and states of mind. The lyrical evaluation of the universe, by...

    • FUTURIST STAGE DESIGN (1915)
      (pp. 212-215)
      ENRICO PRAMPOLINI

      To admit, to believe that stage design exists in the present, or that it has ever existed up till now, would be equivalent to affirming the absolute artistic blindness of man.

      The stage is not a photographic enlargement of a rectangle of reality, nor even a relative synthesis of it; it is the replacement of reality with a theoretical and material system of subjective stage design, as distinct from the ostensibly objective scenography of today.

      It is no longer a matter of reforming only the structural concept of stage design, but of creating an abstract entity that can be identifiable...

    • THE FUTURIST POLITICAL MOVEMENT (1915)
      (pp. 216-219)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      The first Manifesto of Futurism was published byLe Figaroon 20 February 1909, which is to say, some two years before the Italian Nationalists’ Association was founded and some three years before the Libyan War.¹ Already then we proclaimed ourselves Futurist Nationalists, which is to say, antitraditionalists. We glorified patriotism, the army, and war; we launched an anticlerical and antisocialist campaign in order to prepare a greater, stronger, more advanced, more innovative Italy, an Italy freed from its illustrious past and therefore ready to create an immense future.

      To awaken sentiments against the Triple Alliance and in favor of...

    • DYNAMIC AND SYNOPTIC DECLAMATION (1916)
      (pp. 219-224)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      While we wait the honor-pleasure of returning to the front, we Futurists are renewing, accelerating, and virilizing the genius of our race.

      Our activity is continually expanding. A great Futurist exhibition of Balla at Rome.¹ A lecture by Boccioni on Futurist painting at the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples. The “Manifesto to Southern Painters” by Boccioni. Another lecture by Boccioni on Futurist painting at Mantua.² A lecture-declamation on words-in-freedom by Marinetti, Cangiullo, Janelli, and Bruno Corra again at the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples.³ The Futurist pages in the journalLateen Sail, edited by Francesco Cangiullo.⁴ Eight Futurist...

    • THE NEW RELIGION-MORALITY OF SPEED (1916)
      (pp. 224-229)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      In my first manifesto (20 February 1909) I declared: “the beauty of the world has been enriched by a new form of beauty: thebeauty of speed.”¹ Following the birth of dynamic art, now the new religion-morality of speed is being born in this Futurist year of our great liberating war. Christian morality served to develop the inner life of man. But today it has lost its reason for existing, since life has been completely emptied of the Divine.

      Christian moralityprotected man’s physiological structure against the excesses of sensuality. It blunted and counterbalanced his instincts.Futurist moralitywill protect...

    • THE FUTURIST CINEMA (1916)
      (pp. 229-233)
      F. T. MARINETTI, BRUNO CORRA, EMILIO SETTIMELLI, ARNALDO GINNA, GICACOMO BALLA and REMO CHITI

      For a long time the book, an utterly passéist means of preserving and communicating thought, has been fated to disappear, along with cathedrals, towers, crenelated walls, museums, and the pacifist ideal. A static companion to those who are sedentary, nostalgic, and neutralist, the book cannot entertain or exalt the new Futurist generations intoxicated with revolutionary and bellicose dynamism.

      The current conflagration is increasingly streamlining European sensibility. Our great hygienic war, which must result in the satisfaction ofallour national aspirations, multiplies by a hundredfold the innovative power of the Italian race. The Futurist cinema that we are preparing—a...

    • WOMEN OF THE NEAR FUTURE [1] (1917)
      (pp. 233-234)
      ROSA ROSÀ

      People are writing about women. One will always write too much and never enough on this subject. On what she is for men, on what she is with respect to herself.

      But perhaps nobody has thought about one aspect of her that is marvelous (you understand, I’ve deliberately chosen this slightly exaggerated predicate, for I myself am a woman)—nobody has thought to focus on her worldwide importanceafterthe war.

      The war has shaken us as much as it has men.

      It’s pointless to reiterate that at this moment millions of women have replaced men in jobs which it...

    • MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST DANCE (1917)
      (pp. 234-239)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      Dance has always abstracted its rhythms and forms from life. The fear and amazement that stirred prehistoric man in the face of an incomprehensible and extraordinarily complex universe found their counterpart in his earliest dances, which were inevitably sacred.

      The earliest oriental dances, pervaded by religious terror, were rhythmic and symbolic pantomimes that naively reproduced the rotating movements of the stars. Whence, for example, the roundel. The various steps and movements of the Catholic priest who celebrates the mass derive from these earliest dances and have the same astronomical symbolism.

      Cambodian and Javanese dances are distinguished by their architectural elegance...

    • VARIATIONS ON THE THEME OF “WOMAN.” TO SAVE WOMAN??!! (1917)
      (pp. 240-241)
      GIOVANNI FIORENTINO

      Whatever one’s view of them, the ideas expressed by Morosello in his recent article are beautiful and laudable;¹ yet it’s also necessary to recognize that they postulate utopias which will forever remain utopias, or which will consume the vain efforts of a handful of people but lead to no result. False chimeras, illusions more fragile than a cloud! To save woman?! . . . And how can that be done, when she herself is always seeking, with every possible means (at times perhaps unconsciously, due to her innate stupidity; at other times fully conscious of what she’s doing)—when she...

    • A TRANQUIL THOUGHT (1917)
      (pp. 242-243)
      ENIF ROBERT

      It’s only right that the feminine problem should arouse such passion among men exasperated at having to think about it so much without resolving it; just as it’s equally human that women, especially those who can kindly furnish some new insight to the curiosity of males, insight that could help them in their difficult task, should talk about themselves, about what concerns them or conceals them.

      There is great interest, then, in the recent essays whichL’Italia futuristahas been publishing on this inexhaustible subject, taking as its starting point Marinetti’s new book,How to Seduce Women.¹ The views of...

    • WOMEN OF THE NEAR FUTURE [2] (1917)
      (pp. 244-246)
      ROSA ROSÀ

      The mother, for every sensibility which has not been degraded by an amoral pathological condition, will always be an object of passionate living and beautiful love.

      But mutual understanding between mothers and sons is extremely rare and has nothing to do with what is crudely called “filial affection.”

      Whoever dispassionately analyzes his own instincts will grant that often it is the mother who is dead or absent who is loved more greatly than the mother who is still alive, active, present, who is not an abstract symbol but a reality of flesh and blood.

      This demonstrates that the present generation...

    • MANIFESTO OF THE ITALIAN FUTURIST PARTY (1918)
      (pp. 247-251)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      1. The Futurist political party which we establish today wants a strong, free Italy, one no longer subservient to its great Past, to foreigners who are beloved too much, or priests who’ve been tolerated too long: an Italy no longer kept in custody, absolutely master of its own energies and looking forward toward its great future.

      2. Italy, the only sovereign. Revolutionary nationalism for the freedom, the well-being, the physical and intellectual betterment, the strength, progress, grandeur, and pride of the entire Italian people.

      3. Patriotic education of the proletariat. Campaign against illiteracy. Transportation. Construction of new roads and railroads. Secular elementary schools...

    • THE VOTE FOR WOMEN (1919)
      (pp. 251-252)
      FUTURLUCE

      Feminism, considered in itself, is certainly not a modern creation.

      Recent research informs us that it has existed since prehistoric times; during the Middle Ages noblewomen obtained political rights that had been denied them in ancient times; subsequently, the salubrious French Revolution acknowledged equality between the sexes: and continuing up to modern times, woman has been able to place herself alongside man in almost all nations. The recent war: a hundredfold multiplication of forces; the recognition of new energies; a magnificent contest of courage and boldness, a revolution in all old pedantic, cultural systems has been the chief driving force...

    • FUTURIST MANIFESTO OF WOMEN’S FASHION
      (pp. 253-254)
      VOLT

      Women’s fashion has always been more or less Futurist. Fashion: the female equivalent of Futurism. Speed, novelty, courageous creation. Greenish yellow bile of professors against Futurism, old bags against style. For the moment, they can rejoice! Fashion is going through a period of stagnation and boredom. Mediocrity and wretchedness weave gray spider webs upon the colored flower beds of fashion and art.

      Current styles (the blouse and chemise) try in vain to hide their basic poverty of conception under the false labels of distinction and sobriety. There is a complete lack of originality, a withering of fantasy. The imagination of...

    • BEYOND COMMUNISM (1920)
      (pp. 254-264)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      We Italian Futurists have torn apart all ideologies and everywhere imposed our new conception of life, our formulas for spiritual hygiene, our aesthetic and social dynamism, the sincere expression of our temperaments as creative and revolutionary Italians.

      After having struggled for ten years to rejuvenate Italy, after having dismantled the ultrapasséist Austro-Hungarian Empire at Vittorio Veneto,¹ we were jailed and charged with criminal assault against the security of the state;² in reality, we were guilty of making Italian Futurism.

      We are more audacious than ever, tireless and rich in ideas. We have been prodigal of ideas and will continue to...

    • TACTILISM (1921)
      (pp. 264-269)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      Period. And once again from the top.

      Futurism, launched by us in 1909 in Milan, has given the world a hatred of Museums, Academies, and Sentimentalism; it has given us Art-action, the defense of youth against senility, the glorification of illogical and insane innovative genius, the artistic sensibility of machinism, speed, the Variety Theater, and the simultaneous interpenetrations of modern life, words-in-freedom, plastic dynamism, noise-tuners, and the synthetic theater. Today, Futurism is redoubling its creative efforts.

      Last summer, at Antignano, where the Amerigo Vespucci Road (named after the discoverer of America) curves around as it follows the seacoast,¹ I discovered...

    • THE THEATER OF SURPRISE (1921) (SYNTHETIC THEATER BODY-MADNESS WORDS-IN-FREEDOM ONSTAGE DYNAMIC AND SYNOPTIC DECLAMATION THEATER-NEWSPAPER THEATER-GALLERY OF PAINTINGS IMPROVISED DISCUSSIONS OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, ETC.)
      (pp. 270-272)
      F. T. MARINETTI and FRANCESCO CANGIULLO

      We have praised and renewed theVariety Theater. WithSynthetic Theaterwe have destroyed all concern with technique, verisimilitude, logical continuity, and dramatic build-up.¹

      In Synthetic Theater we have created utterly new mixtures of the serious and the comic, real and unreal characters, interpenetrations and simultaneities of time and space, the drama of objects and dissonances, images onstage, shopwindows of ideas and gestures. If today there exists a young Italian theater with grotesque seriocomic mixtures, unreal characters in real environments, simultaneities and interpenetrations of space and time, then it is due to ourSynthetic Theater.

      Today we are demanding that...

    • MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST MECHANICAL ART (1922)
      (pp. 272-273)
      IVO PANNAGGI and VINICIO PALADINI

      Many years have passed since the time when the first Futurist manifestos were launched, years filled with struggles, with imminent victories that flagged and then soared again, or with the poignancy of solitude. We have struggled. Some, having acquired some celebrity, have betrayed us; others are dead (Boccioni is the greatest of them, a warm and shining memory); and new activities have continued to awaken, new needs have been perceived.

      Now we are gripped by a compelling need to free ourselves from the last ruins of old literature, symbolism, decadence, in order to reach new starting points for revolt that...

    • THE ITALIAN EMPIRE (1923)
      (pp. 273-275)
      F. T. MARINETTI, MARIO CARLI and EMILIO SETTIMELLI

      Fourteen years ago we first taught Italian pride, courage, boldness, love of danger, the habit of energetic action and audacity, a religion of the new and of speed. Aggressive movement, feverish wakefulness, the pace of a racer, the mortal leap, the slap, and the fist.

      War as the only hygiene of the world, militarism, patriotism. The conviction of our superiority as a race. Obedience to Italy, our absolute sovereign.

      Defense of the creative Italian genius against passéism in all its forms: archaeology, academicism, quietism, senility, cowardice, pacifism, pessimism, nostalgia, sentimentalism, erotic obsessions, tourism for foreigners. Youth coming to power against...

    • FASCISM AND FUTURISM (1923)
      (pp. 275-279)
      GIUSEPPE PREZZOLINI

      G. K. Chesterton has recently written that there’s a great deal of Futurism to be found in Fascism.¹ Most likely the English writer proposed this idea without knowing about the friendly relations that exist between Mussolini and Marinetti. Like a good musician, he has just listened to the symphony and promptly isolated the harmony of one instrument with another.

      It is plain enough that Fascism has contained some elements of Futurism. I say that without any denigratory intention. Futurism has faithfully mirrored certain contemporary needs and a certain Milanese environment. The cult of speed, the attraction to violent solutions, the...

    • FUTURIST SENSIBILITY (1927)
      (pp. 279-281)
      BENEDETTA

      Futurists are the primitives of a new sensibility. This claim has been recently repeated and discussed at the first Futurist Congress, and it’s exactly true.¹

      For the Futurist, the pictorial problem, like every other problem, appears under a new and special viewpoint: what is this Futurist sensibility, what does it involve, what does it grasp, what does it discover, what does it render, what does it reveal, what does it create?

      Futurist sensibility is characterized and nourished by four passions:

      1. Passion fordepth. Which is to say, we must always push ourselves beyond the perceptible, superficial, apparent, traditional, logical plane....

    • ELECTRICAL ADVERTISING SIGNS: AN OPEN LETTER TO HIS EXCELLENCY MUSSOLINI (1927)
      (pp. 282-282)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      It has recently been reported that clergymen and more traditional critics seriously think that they can preserve the aesthetics of the piazza facing the Cathedral in Milan by abolishing electrical advertising signs.

      Setting aside the concerns of certain believers who know how to pray only when among Shadows and who can’t recognize God in the divine electric Light which reigns today in all the churches of Europe, I persist in declaring that electrical advertisements in general and those in the piazza facing the Cathedral in particular constitute an indispensable beauty of the city of Milan.

      One does not have to...

    • MANIFESTO OF AEROPAINTING (1929)
      (pp. 283-286)
      GIACOMO BALLA, BENEDETTA, FORTUNATO DEPERO, GERARDO DOTTORI, FILLIA, F. T. MARINETTI, ENRICO PRAMPOLINI, MINO SOMENZI and TATO

      In 1908, F. T. Marinetti publishedThe Pope’s Airplane, the first lyrical free-verse exaltation of flight and the aerial prospects of our peninsula from Etna to Roma Milan Trieste. Aeropoetry was further developed in Paolo Buzzi’s bookAirplanesand Luciano Folgore’sBridges over the Oceanand Mario Carli’sGoats

      In 1926 the Futurist painter and aviator Azari created the first work of aeropainting,Perspectives of Flight, exhibited in the Futurist Great Hall at the Venice Biennale.

      In 1929 the painter Gerardo Dottori executed a miraculous Futurist aviator decoration for the airport at Ostia, depicting the impetuous thrust of airplanes in...

    • MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST SACRED ART (1931)
      (pp. 286-288)
      F. T. MARINETTI and FILLIA

      Assuming that it hasn’t always been necessary to practice the Catholic religion to create masterpieces of Sacred Art, and assuming as well that an art that doesn’t develop is doomed, Futurism, an energy distributor, poses the following challenge to Sacred Art: either it should renounce any attempt to inspire the faithful or it should completely renew itself through synthesis, transfiguration, dynamism, spatiotemporal interpenetration, simultaneous states of mind, and the geometric splendor of machine aesthetics.

      The use of electric light to decorate churches, with their blue-white radiance which is superior in celestial purity to the carnal lecherous red-yellow of candles; the...

    • FUTURISM AND ADVERTISING ART (1931)
      (pp. 288-291)
      FORTUNATO DEPERO

      the art of the future will be largely advertising—

      that bold and unimpeachable lesson I have learned from museums and great works from the past—

      all art for centuries past has been marked by advertising purposes: the exaltation of the warrior, the saint; documentation of deeds, ceremonies, and historical personages depicted at their victories, with their symbols, in the regalia of command and splendor—

      even their highest products were simultaneously meant to glorify something: architecture, royal palaces, thrones, drapery, halberds, standards, heraldry and arms of every sort—

      there is scarcely an ancient work that doesn’t have advertising motifs, a garland...

    • THE RADIA: FUTURIST MANIFESTO (1933)
      (pp. 292-295)
      F. T. MARINETTI and PINO MASNATA

      Futurism has radically transformed literature with words-in-freedom aeropoetry and the swift simultaneous free-word style has swept away boredom in the theater with its alogical surprising synthesis and object-dramas has immensely expanded the range of sculpture with its antirealism its plastic dynamism and aeropainting has created the geometric splendor of a dynamic architecture which uses new construction materials lyrically and without decorativism has created abstract film and abstract photography Futurism in its Second National Congress¹ has decided that the following things must be overcome

      To overcome the love of woman “with a more intense love of woman against the erotic-sentimental deviations...

    • BAS-RELIEF MURALS (1934)
      (pp. 295-297)
      FILLIA

      Everybody recognizes the decisive revolution which has been brought about in the construction industry because of new materials and new technical means. And it is widely conceded that in our era, as in all other eras, these possess their own particular style and beauty. Why, then, shouldn’t mural reliefs also be consistent with this revolution, when a picture on the wall of a house is the open window to the landscapes of the mind. In all the more significant historical periods the relationship between architecture and art has been clear: Gothic and barqoue buildings had paintings and sculptures of their...

    • RESPONSE TO HITLER (1937)
      (pp. 297-298)
      F. T. MARINETTI

      After the attacks that have been launched by Hitler against Futurism, Cubism, and Dadaism, French newspapers have asked me to issue a response as the creator of Futurism, and hence as someone with a greater responsibility for modern art.

      The newspapers published the following comment: “We Frenchmen can defend and vindicate Cubism and Dadaism, which itself is no small task, but Futurism, the progenitor of those movements, is an essentially Italian movement, and its creator Marinetti is one of the columns of support for Mussolini’s Fascism. What does Marinetti make of it all?”

      1) I think that for some time...

    • QUALITATIVE IMAGINATIVE FUTURIST MATHEMATICS (1941)
      (pp. 298-302)
      F. T. MARINETTI, MARCELLO PUMA and PINO MASNATA

      Whether veterans or twenty-year-olds we Futurist aeropoets and aeropainters are ready and willing to fight for the Great Italy of Mussolini

      As we wait for our orders we continue to fulfill our inventive and innovative literary artistic mission to achieve Italian intellectual records and we recall the poetic hypothesis advanced by Marinetti in his volume of poemsDestruction¹ some thirty years ago that the earth is not round but cubical or polyhedrical or like a solid fissure in an empty flowing liquid

      Thirty years ago in Marinetti’s poemThe Pope’s Airplane² one finds longer and shorter kilometers and longer and...

  6. Part Two Visual Repertoire

    • INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO
      (pp. 305-330)
      CHRISTINE POGGI

      In February 1909, the poet F. T. Marinetti published his incendiary “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism” in a number of Italian and foreign newspapers and journals, most famously on the front page of the Parisian dailyLe Figaro(49–53, Fig. 1).¹ As the international diffusion of his manifesto through both elite and mass media channels demonstrates, Marinetti’s ambition was not merely to launch a new literary school. Rather he aspired to found a utopian, revolutionary movement of both national and global dimensions. Unlike traditional patriotic movements, whose rhetoric emphasized continuity with history and the need for a stable...

    • DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHS AND MATERIALS
      (pp. 331-335)
    • SELECTION OF FUTURIST JOURNALS
      (pp. 336-337)
    • WORKS BY ARTISTS
      (pp. 338-406)
  7. Part Three Creative Works

    • INTRODUCTION TO PART THREE: STARS-IN-FREEDOM AND THE DARK NIGHT OF FUTURISM
      (pp. 409-418)
      LAURA WITTMAN

      At their best the creative works of Italian Futurism are humorously corrosive—yet also artistically and philosophically explosive—with respect to the codification of Futurism as a movement. While Futurism is perhaps better known for attempting a systematic reinvention of all aspects of modern life through the theoretical principles articulated in the manifestos, Futurist literature is an assault on the systematic, in which imagery gives the lie to theory. Futurist poetics—the “wireless imagination” as Marinetti called it, freed from the conventions of rhetoric, history, or society—thus transforms what might have been seen as the eclecticism or self-contradiction of...

    • The Simultaneous City
      (pp. 419-430)

      On the melancholy mirrors of the sidewalks

      slip

      the wandering shadows of the last insomniacs

      whom the pale taverns still make eyes at

      breathing venom like unkempt

      prostitutes

      at crossroad corners.

      Rain leaps like the clashing of shields,

      breaks our sleep.

      The houses perspiring

      release their tired smell,

      their thoughts and their doleful dreams,

      and shake in the frozen gusts,

      and in vain console themselves

      with the lanterns’ yellow tears.

      From the sepulchral blind alleys

      emerge

      the footfalls of drunks quenching their ardent fever

      beneath the loud showers of the gutters;

      while cats creeping out of holes,

      skirmish, mad with...

    • Words-in-Freedom War
      (pp. 431-453)

      important against Marasch weak point Bulgarian objective solar impassibility of Shukri Pasha supplications of 3,000 starving people tumtumturn tza tza axe blows assault on ovens stores emptied immediate execution the solders that assaulted the tobacco headquarters hunger desperation terror of the Turks retreat to the forts Kavkaz Aivaz Bata

      selling arms for piece of bread smashing shops Shukri Shukri Shukri Advance of the Futurist bombing colossus-leitmotif-mallet-genius-innovation-optimism-hunger-ambition(terrible absolute solemn heroic weighty implacable fecund)zang-tooooomb-toomb-toomb

      defense of Adrianopole passéism minarets of skepticism cupola-bellies of indolence cowardice we’ll-worry-about-that-tomorrow there-is-no-danger it’s-not-possible what’s-the-point after-all-I-don’t-care delivery of the whole stock to a single-station = cemetery...

    • The Metamorphoses of the Moon
      (pp. 454-471)

      . . . “I” took the podium: “Allow me, respected colleagues, briefly to summarize the general outlines of your hypotheses. The fact that these, though conceived separately by all of us, agree in every way, seems to me decisive proof that they are objectively correct.

      We can thus affirm that we have succeeded in identifying those mysterious elements which on that night landed fortuitously in my lab.

      We are dealing with—to borrow your precise expression my dear “Y”—materialized abstractions of time:—diaphanous astral chips, torn from the spinning block of time: fragments of eras destined to future spaces....

    • Technical War
      (pp. 471-486)

      Mountainous lake in Umbria

      Silken deep azure lake friend of the clouds I feel you as though you were alternatively my white skin veined by sapphires and my mirror powdered with light fog in this intimate spring morning that confuses dreams with the fragrance of honeysuckle mint and lemon verbena

      Mountainous lake I am stretched out like you like your suave powerful liquid mass anxious to press with new strength on Umbria whose wisdom of genteel elegance and soft cadences invites me to graceful folly

      Is it your turbines or my arteries that in amassing calories and crushing avalanches of...

    • Theater, Aeropoetry, and Tactilism
      (pp. 487-506)

      Center stage is a richly appointed toilette dresser, with a mirror, in front of which a very elegant woman, already dressed to go out, is applying the last touches to her makeup. — To the right, the critic, an ambiguous being, neither filthy nor clean, neither young nor old, completely neutral, is sitting at a table that is bending under the weight of tomes and papers; on the table, a large paperweight sparkles, neither modern nor antique. The Critic’s shoulders are turned to the dresser. — To the left, the artist, young and elegant, rummages though a large portfolio, and...

  8. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES
    (pp. 507-520)
  9. NOTES
    (pp. 521-576)
  10. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 577-588)
  11. INDEX
    (pp. 589-603)
  12. TEXT CREDITS
    (pp. 604-604)