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The New Continentalism

The New Continentalism: Energy and Twenty-First-Century Eurasian Geopolitics

Kent E. Calder
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: Yale University Press
Pages: 416
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  • Book Info
    The New Continentalism
    Book Description:

    In this groundbreaking book Kent E. Calder argues that a new transnational configuration is emerging in Asia, driven by economic growth, rising energy demand, and the erosion of longstanding geopolitical divisions. What Calder calls the New Silk Road-with a strengthening multi-faceted relationship between East Asia and the Middle East at its core-could eventually emerge as one of the world's most important multilateral configurations. Straddling the border between comparative politics and international relations theory, this important book will stimulate debate and discussion in both fields.

    eISBN: 978-0-300-18331-3
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  6. A Note on Conventions
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  7. Preface
    (pp. xix-xxii)
    Kent Calder
  8. Introduction
    (pp. xxiii-xxxiv)

    A generation ago, as the Berlin Wall went down, the world stood on the cusp of a new era. The Soviet Union was collapsing, while global market forces and Western democracy waxed triumphant. For a brief, shining moment, we seemed to stand at the end of history—with challenging dialectics no more.

    Two decades on, the world confronts palpably more complex challenges. Powerful new engines of growth have arisen in China and India, the great beneficiaries of globalization, lifting hundreds of millions from poverty. Yet that same liberating growth has also brought new shadows, including resource shortages and new leverage...

  9. Chapter 1 The Challenge of a New World Emerging
    (pp. 1-14)

    Energy is to the New Silk Road what silk was to its ancestors. Along that long and winding road, stretching in our figurative definition from the Persian Gulf to China, Korea, and Japan, traversing Central Asia and Russia along the way, with a spur to India, lie the largest energy producers, and the most ravenous consumers, on earth. The Gulf alone produces more than 30 percent of the world’s oil. Its role can only grow in future, with just three countries—Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq—cornering nearly half the world’s entire proven reserves of oil. Meanwhile, Russia, with nearly...

  10. Chapter 2 Where Geography Still Matters
    (pp. 15-46)

    Geography, and particularly the study of interrelationships among people, the state, and territory, was for centuries an avidly studied and debated subject in both the academy and the realm of practical affairs. Creative faculty like Nicholas John Spykman of Yale taught large and enthusiastic courses at major universities and wielded personal influence in international relations. Geographers and geostrategists were a fixture in diplomatic and military institutes throughout the major nations of the world. And geographical considerations cast a long shadow over world politics for three full centuries, from the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and Vienna (1814) to the Treaty of...

  11. Chapter 3 Six Critical Junctures and Eurasia’s Transformation
    (pp. 47-99)

    The nations of Eurasia in recent years have been backdoor neighbors to one another, at best. Centuries ago, in the pre-Columbian era, they had vigorous transcontinental commercial ties that lay at the core of the global political economy of the day. And many of these states, as some of the world’s most consequential energy producers and consumers, share important complementarities today with respect to oil, natural gas, and uranium also.

    Given these important potential synergies and their direct propinquity, why did the Silk Road states remain strangers to one another for so long? Why, suddenly, in the twilight years of...

  12. Chapter 4 Comparative Energy Producer Profiles
    (pp. 100-113)

    The new energy Silk Road is not only a figurative highway, bounded by geography and animated by the still-living shadows of a venerable 2,000-year history. It is also a series of physical way stations, with definable boundaries and clear functional roles. Preeminent among these, of course, is the production of energy itself.

    This chapter reviews, in comparative perspective, the oil and gas reserves, the production and export capabilities, and the production proclivities of the major exporting nations of Eurasia. It details the extraordinary concentration of reserves, and ultimately production also, within that sprawling continent. The impact of rising energy income...

  13. Chapter 5 The Comparative Political Economy of Eurasian Petrostates
    (pp. 114-150)

    The major energy producers and energy consumers of Eurasia, as we have seen, are arrayed in remarkable geographical proximity to one another. Mere proximity, of course, does not necessarily imply economic interdependence, cooperation, or solidarity. Prospects for deeper cohesion and for reducing inevitable conflict are greatly enhanced, however, by domestic political-economic complementarity among the nations of the region.

    This book seeks to understand the prospect for that deeper cohesion and the sort of world that deepening energy linkages across the Eurasian continent are creating. It argues that those transnational energy relationships, both maritime and overland, are more than mere arms-length,...

  14. Chapter 6 Energy-Insecure Asian Capitalist Consumers
    (pp. 151-198)

    The major producing nations of the Middle East and the former Soviet Union, as we have seen, are a distinctive set of petrostates—heavily dependent on hydrocarbon exports, energy ineffcient, intent on diversifying, authoritarian, and increasingly oriented to the East. The world may be globalizing and flat, in its financial and industrial dimensions, but in energy geographic logic still matters. Dealing in oil and gas with neighbors is often easier than working with those who are continents removed, if the underlying producer/consumer relationships are complementary. And for Eurasia’s producers— concentrated in the Land of the Two Seas (the Persian Gulf...

  15. Chapter 7 Emerging Ententes Amid Complex Continentalism
    (pp. 199-246)

    Clearly there are important complementarities between the petrostates and the energy-insecure consumers of Eurasia, as we have seen in the past two chapters. The petrostates need markets for their hydrocarbons—readily available and geographically accessible to the East, in Asia. The petrostates need technical assistance and manpower to assist their development—also accessible in Asia. And many of the most chronic inefficiencies of the petrostates, as we have seen, are in energy usage, construction, and mass transport—all areas of Japanese, Korean, Chinese, and Indian technical as well as industrial strength.

    For many years, despite the latent complementarities that so...

  16. Chapter 8 Strategic Implications
    (pp. 247-273)

    The economies of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the former Soviet Union have changed sharply of late and have grown markedly more interactive, as we have seen, under the impact of historic critical junctures. Virtually every nation along the vast continental expanse from Beijing to Tehran and beyond is much wealthier now—both absolutely and relative to virtually every other global region—than a decade ago, the recent succession of financial crises notwithstanding. The growth explosion that began with critical junctures in China (1978) and India (1991) broadened further to Central Asia in the late 1990s, following...

  17. Chapter 9 Prospects and Policy Implications
    (pp. 274-298)

    Energy and geopolitics, as we have seen in this volume, are coming into an increasingly intimate relationship with one another globally, with developments in Eurasia being the crucial nexus. That sprawling continent is growing explosively and will likely continue to grow rapidly for another generation, with China and India as the drivers. Their simultaneous expansion is provoking huge energy demand increases—likely to exceed half the increment in global consumption over the coming two decades. Given the immense magnitude of these prospective flows, they can only be supplied adequately in the end by the Middle East and the former Soviet...

  18. Appendix A: Profiles of Eurasian Growth
    (pp. 299-302)
  19. Appendix B: Eurasian Continentalist Organizations
    (pp. 303-304)
  20. Notes
    (pp. 305-352)
  21. Bibliography
    (pp. 353-366)
  22. Index
    (pp. 367-377)