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Assessment for Learning

Assessment for Learning

Rita Berry
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 220
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  • Book Info
    Assessment for Learning
    Book Description:

    Assessment is an important part of effective teaching and learning. It allows achievements to be recognized and helps both teachers and learners to reflect on and review their performance and progress. While assessment has long been an end-of-learning activity to measure what learners can do, the outcome-oriented approach does not always foster learning motivation effectively. A new perspective now encourages ongoing appraisal in the classroom to improve learning. This book reflects current thinking of assessment with a stated focus on assessment for learning (AfL). It informs teachers about the latest developments and provides teachers with important tools for integrating assessment in the classroom. The discussions on assessment theories are in-depth and the examples used for illustrating the concepts are plentiful.

    eISBN: 978-988-8052-05-9
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Kerry J. Kennedy

    Teachers play a fundamental role in the social and economic development of any society. Their preparation as professionals to meet the challenges of post-modern living is a key priority for both governments and universities. Many changes have taken place in teacher education since the establishment of formal institutions of teaching training in Hong Kong over one hundred years ago. Today, the Hong Kong government is committed to an “all graduate, all trained” profession and university level institutions are now responsible for all teacher education across early childhood, primary and secondary education. It is against this background that the Hong Kong...

  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-4)

    For many students and teachers, the idea of tests, examinations, and evaluations can carry negative emotions. Tests, examinations, and evaluations may evoke bad memories of being anxious, fearing failure, and worrying about what others may think of us based on our performance. This is unfortunate, because learning depends on assessment, as learning cannot occur in the absence of the feedback which assessment provides. Equally importantly, learning cannot take place without getting students engaged in their learning. The bad experiences that some students have had with tests and examinations turn them away from learning in school. Research tells us that many...

  6. 1 Basic Concepts of Assessment
    (pp. 5-22)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand what assessment refers to, and differentiate among various assessment-related terms;

    describe the context within which many of the assessment traditions evolved, and critically examine the impact of those traditional practices on learning;

    compare and contrast three views of learning (behaviourism, constructivism, and cognitive science), and describe how each leads to a different vision of assessment;

    explain how the quality of assessments (validity and reliability) can be judged, and describe steps teachers can take to enhance the quality of their assessments;

    describe and distinguish among the various roles and...

  7. 2 Assessment in Hong Kong
    (pp. 23-44)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand the historical development of assessment in Hong Kong;

    account for the rationale for the assessment reform in Hong Kong and the vision of the Hong Kong SAR government in assessment in relation to education;

    link Basic Competency Assessment (BCA) and School-based Assessment (SBA) with assessment reform in Hong Kong;

    recognize the challenges of assessment reform;

    be familiar with teachers’ roles in assessment and the types of actions for teachers to take in realizing assessment for learning in teaching and learning.

    For decades, high-stakes examinations have been used to...

  8. 3 Assessment Approaches
    (pp. 45-60)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    recognize the different purposes of the three major approaches of assessment of/for/as learning;

    understand different types of assessment and how they connect with the three approaches;

    recognize the importance of assessment planning and its connection to instructional planning;

    understand the connection between various types of assessment and assessment activities and the assessment approaches they are associated with;

    understand the importance of connecting assessment and instruction in planning to support learning;

    develop effective assessment plans.

    There are three widely recognized assessment approaches: Assessment of Learning (AoL), Assessment for Learning (AfL)...

  9. 4 Traditional Assessment: Paper-and-Pencil Tests
    (pp. 61-80)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand the characteristics and functions of paper-and-pencil tests;

    plan the steps in preparing a paper-and-pencil test;

    prepare a set of specifications for a test;

    describe the strengths and limitations of each item type;

    make appropriate selection of what test items to use;

    construct items of each type that are well stated and relevant to important learning intentions.

    Paper-and-pencil tests have a long history in assessing student performance and are therefore labelled as traditional assessment. To write a good test, it is necessary to plan well. Understanding the steps for...

  10. 5 Alternative Assessment
    (pp. 81-104)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand what alternative assessment is and how it supports learning;

    enumerate a broad range of assessment strategies, indicating their characteristics, assessment procedures, and how they assist students in learning;

    highlight the significance of self and peer assessment and demonstrate how they are used with alternative assessment strategies;

    know how to use rubrics for helping teachers make judgements of students’ performance.

    In many educational contexts, assessment is largely used for measuring learning outcomes at the end of learning. This kind of assessment tends to have less direct effect on students’...

  11. 6 Catering for Diversity
    (pp. 105-122)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand the common types of diversity found in the classroom;

    know how to use assessment to identify diverse needs;

    acknowledge the types of diversity that have greater impact in Hong Kong classrooms;

    use assessment to accommodate students with specific needs;

    realize the relationship between self-esteem and learning success, and know how assessment can help to raise self-esteem;

    use assessment strategies to cater for diversity, and differentiate assessment tasks to serve the same purpose.

    Classrooms nowadays are exemplified by student diversity. Students differ in, for example, motivation, learning style, aptitude,...

  12. 7 Grading, Marking, and Feedback
    (pp. 123-140)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand the significance of marks, grades, and feedback in learning;

    recognize the close relationship between marks, grades, and feedback;

    describe different types of grading method and their strengths and weaknesses in supporting learning;

    give feedback verbally and in writing and describe what quality feedback entails;

    be aware of fairness issues and understand how moderation can be used as a means to ensure marking quality;

    understand how grades are assigned, based on the evidence of student learning represented in their assessments.

    Giving marks and grades to student work is teachers’...

  13. 8 Recording
    (pp. 141-162)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand the meaning of recording from educational perspectives;

    see the linkage between recording and learning;

    be aware of the methods that teachers can use to record learning outcomes, know what these methods can offer to help teachers support learning, and make good decisions on which method(s) to choose;

    make sense of the data collected to inform educational decisions.

    Teachers need to be accountable for the decisions they make about students. Recordkeeping is how teachers document the basis upon which they arrive at decisions that may be reflected in grade...

  14. 9 Reporting
    (pp. 163-182)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    describe the rationale for reporting, and associate reporting with learning;

    take the concerns of the audience into consideration when reporting;

    tell what good reporting entails, and describe the methods used for reporting;

    use report cards and conferencing for effectively communicating student learning outcomes.

    From the perspective of education, reporting is the communication of the information collected from the students through different means of assessment to the students and their parents, the school itself and the wider community. The purpose of reporting should lie in enhancing student learning rather than...

  15. 10 Case Studies
    (pp. 183-202)

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

    understand how the assessment policy of individual schools may impact on the implementation of assessment for learning;

    appreciate how the concepts of AfL of individual teachers can influence their assessment practices;

    recognize through the case studies provided the ways that AfL can shape and be reflected in the instructional and assessment practices of classroom teachers;

    relate the concepts of assessment for learning to your own teaching.

    In most educational contexts, assessment guidelines are stated and defined in the national curriculum or system for schools to refer to. In Hong...

  16. Index
    (pp. 203-210)