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Comics and Narration

Comics and Narration

Thierry Groensteen
Translated by Ann Miller
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 192
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  • Book Info
    Comics and Narration
    Book Description:

    This book is the follow-up to Thierry Groensteen's ground-breakingThe System of Comics, in which the leading French-language comics theorist set out to investigate how the medium functions, introducing the principle of iconic solidarity, and showing the systems that underlie the articulation between panels at three levels: page layout, linear sequence, and nonsequential links woven through the comic book as a whole. He now develops that analysis further, using examples from a very wide range of comics, including the work of American artists such as Chris Ware and Robert Crumb. He tests out his theoretical framework by bringing it up against cases that challenge it, such as abstract comics, digital comics and sh?jo manga, and offers insightful reflections on these innovations.

    In addition, he includes lengthy chapters on three areas not covered in the first book. First, he explores the role of the narrator, both verbal and visual, and the particular issues that arise out of narration in autobiographical comics. Second, Groensteen tackles the question of rhythm in comics, and the skill demonstrated by virtuoso artists in intertwining different rhythms over and above the basic beat provided by the discontinuity of the panels. And third he resets the relationship of comics to contemporary art, conditioned by cultural history and aesthetic traditions but evolving recently as comics artists move onto avant-garde terrain.

    eISBN: 978-1-62103-939-6
    Subjects: Language & Literature, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-2)

    Bande dessinée et narration: Système de la bande dessinée 2,¹ published in the original French in 2011, is the long-awaited follow-up to Thierry Groensteen’s seminalSystème de la bande dessinée, written in 1999,² in which he embarked on the project of defining the fundamental resources deployed by comics for the production of meaning and aesthetic effects. By making underlying systems visible, Groensteen was able to shed light on the spatial operations of layout and articulation that conditioned the activity of the reader. He now builds on and expands that analysis, refining the concepts set out inSystème 1by bringing...

    (pp. 3-8)

    The System of Comics, published in the original French in 1999 and in English translation in 2007, set out to theorize the foundations of the language of comics. This theory was macrosemiotic in its scope: it was not concerned with the details of single images, but with the articulation of images within the space of the page and across that of the book as a whole. The principle oficonic solidaritywas shown to be applicable to three major operations: breakdown, page layout, and braiding. The book had the further aim of describing the formal apparatus through which meaning is...

  5. CHAPTER ONE Comics and the Test of Abstraction
    (pp. 9-20)

    It is in the nature of experimental works that they shift the boundaries or contest the usual definition of the medium to which they belong. This general rule is particularly applicable to comics, and I have already discussed the difficulties it poses for researchers (seeSystème 1, 17–21;System 1, 14–17).

    In that first volume, I did in fact refuse to give a complete and analytical definition of comics, confining myself to the observation that a comic consists necessarily of a finite collection of separate and interdependent iconic elements. In more recent texts, I have taken to quoting...

  6. CHAPTER TWO New Insights into Sequentiality
    (pp. 21-42)

    Several authors who have tried to apply the concepts defined inSystem 1to a particular comic or to a larger corpus have taken me to task for the fact that they could not find in it adequate tools to describe certain specific mechanisms that had caught their attention. This does not surprise me asSystem 1was never intended to be a textbook offering a ready-to-use analytical grid. And neither did it offer a research methodology. Its goal was to interrogate the basic principles of the language of the medium, to identify its functions, to study its articulations, at...

  7. CHAPTER THREE On a Few Theories of Page Layout
    (pp. 43-50)

    It was established inSystem 1that page layout is, along with breakdown, one of the two fundamental operations of the language of comics—it comes into force at the level of the panels, defining their surface area, their shape, and their placement on the page. In other words, it establishes the relative position and proportions of panels that are co-present on the same page and assigns compatible shapes to them.

    Layout in comics has accommodated, and still does accommodate, many kinds of configuration. There is, nonetheless, an objective criterion that makes it possible to classify all existing and possible...

  8. CHAPTER FOUR An Extension of Some Theoretical Propositions
    (pp. 51-78)

    InSystem 1, I devoted myself at some length to the description and examination of the basic units of comics language: the balloon, the panel, the strip, and the page, analyzing how they are deployed and interact with each other; the actualization of these units in the spaces, frames and sites of the album makes up what I have proposed to call a spatio-topical system. When I drew out those observations, I claimed only that they applied to comics, more specifically to Western comics, and to comics appearing in the sole format that we were familiar with at that time,...

  9. CHAPTER FIVE The Question of the Narrator
    (pp. 79-120)

    I consciously and deliberately left aside the question of “different instances of enunciation” in the first volume ofThe System of Comics.² I will now introduce it here.

    Moreover, it has to be said that up until now, comics theory has had very little to say on the subject. This near-silence may be read either as an acknowledgement of the difficulty of the question when applied to the Ninth Art, or as a sign that it has not so far been deemed to be of primary importance.

    It is well-known that the narrator—the teller of the story, the source...

  10. CHAPTER SIX The Subjectivity of the Character
    (pp. 121-132)

    We usually describe as “behaviorist” a narrative in which the knowledge that we can have of characters is limited to their actions and their words and in which we are denied access to their thoughts and feelings. As the Finnish researcher Mikkonen has observed, this is still the most common type of narrative in comics—and he citesTintinandCorto Malteseas examples.¹ We should not forget, though, that words (in the form of direct speech) emphasized by the expressivity of the body are already, in themselves, a privileged means of access to the subjectivity of a character, be...

  11. CHAPTER SEVEN The Rhythms of Comics
    (pp. 133-158)

    Everything that has duration contains music, just as everything that is visible contains graphic design and everything that moves contains dance.

    Duration, whether short (a three- or four-panel strip) or long (a 300-page graphic novel), is a natural dimension of comics narrative, as it is of any other narrative.

    Consequently, so is “music.” And since comic art is distinguished by its capacity for converting time into space,¹ the rhythmic scansion of the narrative necessarily implies certain ways of occupying space.

    The importance of rhythm as a structuring element of the narrative discourse of comics was already emphasized inSystem 1,...

  12. CHAPTER EIGHT Is Comics a Branch of Contemporary Art?
    (pp. 159-176)

    In this final chapter, we are going to leave the domain of semiotic or narratological analysis and move onto the terrain of sociology of art, art history, and cultural history. It would undoubtedly be worth developing the following reflections into a full-length essay. However, it seems appropriate to include them in the present volume, since, as we shall see, they will ultimately lead us back, by another route, to the question of narration.

    In general terms, the art world and the comics world have long kept their distance from each other, to the point of seeming irreconcilable. And in high-cultural...

  13. NOTES
    (pp. 177-196)
    (pp. 197-200)
    (pp. 201-205)