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Globalization and Education

Globalization and Education: The Quest for Quality Education in Hong Kong

Joshua Ka-ho Mok
David Kin-keung Chan
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 300
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  • Book Info
    Globalization and Education
    Book Description:

    The growing impact of globalization has affected educational development in many parts of the globe. In order to maintain national competitiveness in the global marketplace, governments across the world have started to review their education systems and introduce different reform initiatives in education in order to enhance the global capacity of their citizens. This book adopts the wider perspective of globalization in order to examine and critically reflect upon the origin, evolution and development of the Quality Education Movement in Hong Kong. It pays particular attention to how Hong Kong's education has been affected by the global trend to economic rationalism and managerialism. More specifically, the major aim of this book is to examine and analyse the most recent reform measures adopted by the HKSAR in its quest for quality education in Hong Kong. This book is divided into four parts. Part One provides the theoretical/conceptual framework and historical context for the book. Part Two focuses on approaches to quality education. Part Three focuses on policy change and education reforms that are operationalized in school and higher education institutions. Part Four is a reflection and conclusion. The editors discuss the impacts and the costs of managerialism in the education sector, and suggest the kind of policy implications it might have when adopting a managerial approach in education.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-144-6
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Ruth Hayhoe

    The eyes of the world were upon Hong Kong in the lead up to its historic transition from British colony to Special Administrative Region of China at midnight, 30 June 1997. It has been both exciting and sobering to be part of the new HKSAR — exciting because of the many new possibilities, globally and in relations with the Mainland; sobering because of the daunting responsibilities associated with implementing the policy of ‘one country, two systems’.

    One of the dramatic surprises unveiled by Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa when he took up his post was the high priority he gave to...

  4. List of Contributors
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-20)
    Joshua Ka-ho Mok and David Kin-keung Chan

    In the opening paragraph of the Policy Objective for Education and Manpower Bureau of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), education is regarded as the key to the future development of Hong Kong. Like other societies, Hong Kong has to face the challenges of the twenty-first century and, therefore, there is a strong need to prepare Hong Kong for a rapidly changing, knowledge-based global society (Wong, 1997). Openly recognizing the significant role of education, not only in imparting basic knowledge and skills, but also in nurturing people to be independent thinkers and lifelong learners, the HKSAR government is committed to...

  6. Part One: Theoretical Framework and Historical Context

    • 1 Economic Rationalism, Managerialism and Structural Reform in Education
      (pp. 23-40)
      Joshua Ka-ho Mok and Anthony R. Welch

      Schools, universities and other educational institutions now encounter many challenges and are subjected to an unprecedented level of external scrutiny Stringent government budgets have inevitably created far more pressures on education institutions to search for additional funding sources. The measures adopted include a user-pay principle, generating income from university-industry contract research, engaging in consultancy services, seeking endowments or donations from the private sector and offering profit-making courses. Under a more competitive socio-economic environment, all providers of education today inhabit a more competitive world where resources are becoming scarcer, but at the same time they have to accommodate increasing demands from...

    • 2 The Quest for Quality Education: The Quality Assurance Movement in Hong Kong
      (pp. 41-66)
      Kai-ming Cheng

      The call for quality education emerged as almost a policy campaign in the 1990s in Hong Kong. Such a campaign largely followed the international trend, but perhaps with a time lag. Such a campaign for quality education was preceded by almost twenty years of quantitative emphasis. The call for quality education, however, emerged as an element in a host of reform measures, mostly borrowed from elsewhere, with little attempt to reflect on the larger context in which such measures play a part. The piecemeal approach saw little success in terms of implementation, yet has caused a general confusion among front-line...

  7. Part Two: Approaches to Quality Education

    • 3 Multi-models of Education Quality and Principal Leadership
      (pp. 69-88)
      Yin-cheong Cheng

      In the past decade, following rapid economic development, education systems of most countries or areas in the Asia Pacific region have expanded quickly. Currently, the people in this region are concerned not only with education quantity, but also education quality. For example, in Hong Kong, a number of policy efforts in the past decades have improved different aspects of education such as curriculum, language teaching, student guidance, student streaming, school management, teacher-student ratios, physical environment and teacher education (Cheng, 2000a; Education Commission, 1984-1997; Education and Manpower Branch and Education Department, 1991). Although these efforts aim at improving education quality and...

    • 4 Managerialism and ISO 9000: Its Relevance to Quality Education
      (pp. 89-122)
      David Kin-keung Chan and Patrick Lai

      The tidal force of ‘managerialism’, together with the wave of marketization, has brought to public attention the demand for quality public services, including education. By introducing more choice, competition and measurable results in schools, a more market-oriented approach to education has been adopted by the Hong Kong government. The basic beliefs behind the recent educational reforms are that the market itself is the most efficient instrument to allocate resources, that competition will enhance people’s motivation to raise their standards of performance, and that school management will not be effective if it is not held accountable to the public, even when...

    • 5 Culture and Quality Education: Ethical Leadership and School Organization
      (pp. 123-140)
      Kam-cheung Wong

      In recent decades, we have observed an increasingly popular trend emerging in the field of education policy and management, that is, policy and management practice transfer across countries. Hong Kong, having been a British colony for more than 150 years before the handover to the People’s Republic of China in 1997, has been significantly affected by the practices of its ex-sovereign state. As a meeting point for the West and the East, many practices and ideas from the West have influenced Hong Kong. And as one of the most dynamic and economically prosperous international cities in the world, Hong Kong...

  8. Part Three: Policy Change and Education Reform

    • 6 A Critical Review of the Quality Education Movement in Hong Kong
      (pp. 143-170)
      Thomas Kwan-choi Tse

      Hong Kong has experienced a number of education reforms since the implementation of universal nine-year education in 1978. These reforms are large in scale and have made a tremendous impact. This chapter presents a critical review of the quality education movement in Hong Kong. First, it examines the background to the advent of the quality education movement in Hong Kong. Then it analyses the orientation and key features of the education reforms. Finally, it discusses the implications and influence of these reforms on social development in Hong Kong.

      As mentioned in Chapter 2 by Cheng, after the implementation of nine-year...

    • 7 Towards ‘School Management Reform’: Organizational Values of Government Schools in Hong Kong
      (pp. 171-194)
      Nicholas Sun-keung Pang

      There has been a quest for quality school education in Hong Kong since the 1990s (Education and Manpower Branch and Education Department, 1991; Education Commission, 1997; Pang, 1999a). The quality school movement happened in two phases: the first being started with the publication of the School Management Initiative (SMI) by the government in 1991 and the second with the Education Commission Report No. 7 (ECR7), Quality School Education, in 1997 (Pang, 1998a). The first phase was to reform school management on the lines of the School-Based Management (SBM) model. The government anticipated that the SMI scheme with its full implementation...

    • 8 Student Learning and the Quest for Quality Education: A Case Study of Secondary Schools in Hong Kong
      (pp. 195-212)
      Ho-mun Chan, Joan Yin-hung Leung and Norman Flynn

      In the past few years, education reform has become an increasingly prominent theme in public policy not only in the West but also in the East. When Tony Blair, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom came to assume his duty as Prime Minister in 1997, he emphasized the importance of education. Like Blair, President George W. Bush of the United States has placed education at a very strategic position in his public policy platform. Similarly, the role of education has been stressed by leaders in East Asia. For instance, Goh Chok Tong, the Prime Minister of Singapore, stressed the...

    • 9 A Reflection on Quality Assurance in Hong Kong’s Higher Education
      (pp. 213-240)
      Joshua Ka-ho Mok and Hiu-hong Lee

      Higher education in Hong Kong is undergoing a process of reform. In recent years, the focus of reform has changed from quantitative expansion to developing a quality assurance system in Hong Kong’s higher education sector Quality assurance is a fashionable and powerful notion that causes changes in the academic culture. In order to search for better performance in the public service sectors, fashionable terms such as ‘accountability’, ‘competitiveness’, ‘devolution, ‘economy’, ‘effectiveness’, ‘efficiency’, ‘productivity’ and ‘relevance’ are becoming increasingly popular. In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the public sector, a number of strategies such as internal audit, quality...

  9. Part Four: Reflection and Conclusion

    • 10 Policy Implications of Adopting a Managerial Approach in Education
      (pp. 243-258)
      David Kin-keung Chan

      Confronted by the new world order of information and communications technologies, the network society, diasporic movements linked to globalization, cultural politics connected to postmodernity, and educational developments such as multiculturalism and critical pedagogy, educators of the twenty-first century face daunting challenges. Because more and more nation states are using market principles to organize their educational systems due to an increase in global competitiveness, and utilizing managerialist ideology to administer these new systems, the combination of these factors has led to a situation where work on educational initiatives is hampered by a lack of enthusiasm at the policy level, by a...

    • 11 Reflections on the Impact of Globalization on Educational Restructuring in Hong Kong
      (pp. 259-278)
      Joshua Ka-ho Mok and Janice Currie

      Since the cold war ended in the late 1980s, people have begun to talk about the impact of globalization on the economic, social, political and cultural fronts Some globalists argue that the external constraints upon states have significantly reduced state capacity in responding to the changing and far more complicated socio-political-economic environments, thus pointing out the limitations of a state-centred approach in analysing socio-economic developments. For those radical globalists, the increasing interdependence and connectedness of nation states have made the state a declining autonomous decision-making body; while local policies are increasingly shaped by global trends (O’Brien, 1992; Ohmae, 1995).


  10. Index
    (pp. 279-288)