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Educational Leadership and Change

Educational Leadership and Change: An International Perspective

Wong Kam-Cheung
Cheng Kai-Ming
Angela Cheung
Alex Fung
Copyright Date: 1995
Pages: 290
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  • Book Info
    Educational Leadership and Change
    Book Description:

    This book arises from the regional conference of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration held in Hong Kong in 1992. Efforts have been made to select papers which fulfil the following objectives: . Illuminate the emerging issues in educational administration . Generate discussion and comments on these issues . Reflect how different parts of the world are responding to these issues . Guide possible administrative actions based on well informed discussion The papers selected cover the shifting role of school leaders and their preparation; the latest trend in management of devolving administrative responsibilities to schools; and the cultural dimension of educational administration. Drawing on experiences from different parts of the world, this volume explores the above issues and reflects the differences in practice. Both editors are members of the University of Hong Kong. Wong Kam-Cheung is the Head of the Department of Education; Cheng Kai-Ming is the dean of the Faculty of Education.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-116-3
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-x)
    Angela Thody

    Hong Kong hosted the regional conference of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration in 1992. The term ‘regional’ was, however, a misnomer. This was a truly INTERNATIONAL conference, symbolizing the international role which Hong Kong has developed. From that conference emerged this book.

    Readers can judge the extent of the internationalism from the countries of origin of the contributors to this book. Many more than Hong Kong’s neighbours around the Pacific Rim nations are represented. Conference participants could feel the internationalism as delegates from developed and developing countries, communist and non-communist, Commonwealth and extra-Commonwealth countries found common ground while still...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Bill Mulford
  5. Contributors
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)
    Wong Kam-Cheung and Cheng Kai-Ming

    This book is the result of the Regional Conference of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration held in Hong Kong in August 1992. However, this is not the proceedings of the Conference. Efforts have been made to select the relevant papers to form a coherent theme. We choose ‘Educational Leadership and Change: An International Perspective’ as the title to reflect our emphasis. This book contains papers on the shifting role of school leaders and their preparation; the reflection and report on the latest change in management — the devolution of responsibilities to schools; and the cultural dimension of educational administration. It...

  7. Section A Setting the Scene

    • 1 The Evolution of Change and the New Work of the Educational Leader
      (pp. 15-28)
      Michael G. Fullan

      The deliberate study of educational innovation and reform began in earnest in the 1960s. The quality and nature of leadership, of course, has always been seen as vital to the success of any change initiative. What this means in practice, however, has been elusive largely because the concept of change itself has been undergoing transformation over the past three-and-a-half decades. I see four distinct themes each of which implies different leadership. In this paper I will consider briefly the first three themes and their associated leadership, as a backdrop for considering the new work of educational leadership necessary for the...

    • 2 School-Based Management: Will It Fly?
      (pp. 29-42)
      Larry E. Sackney and Dennis J. Dibski

      The call for restructuring of schools has come from many quarters. Most would agree that schools need to be restructured to meet the challenges facing our society. Yet there is no consensus as to how this restructuring should take place. Some argue for increased autonomy for schools, others call for increased testing and standardization of curricula, and still others contend that schools should be held more accountable for their results.

      The debate about school restructuring has centred on three themes: empowerment, accountability and academic learning (also sometimes referred to as autonomy, accountability and efficiency) (Elmore, 1990). The term empowerment is...

    • 3 The Self-Managing School: A Matter of Being and of Becoming
      (pp. 43-58)
      Allan K. Beavis

      The story is told of the village barber who shaves all those in the village who do not shave themselves. The question is: Does he shave himself? Thankfully, schools are not barber shops, and the issue of schools managing themselves do not encounter this same kind of problem. Or do they?

      Let me stand that paradoxical problem aside for the time being and tell you about City Grammar School (a hypothetical school in a hypothetical city). It was a very traditional boys’ school and it only employed male staff who were called ‘masters.’ and whom the boys addressed as ‘sir’....

    • 4 Thinking About School Restructuring: A Case and Some Observations From Research in Progress
      (pp. 59-68)
      Richard Elmore

      We hear a great deal these days about the necessity for fundamental restructuring of schools, by which reformers mean changing the basic structures, work patterns, and relationships in schools in order to achieve a higher level of performance. I would like to address the relevance of school restructuring to the preparation of educational administrators, and I would like to do so in the context of a specific case drawn from research that I am doing with two colleagues, Penelope Peterson and Sarah McCarthey.

      The school I’m going to tell you about is one of three elementary schools that we have...

    • 5 Management of Educational Innovations: The ‘Six-A’ Process Model
      (pp. 69-86)
      Alex Fung

      Studies and research on educational change between the 1960s and 1970s were mainly analytical with efforts concentrated on identifying factors pertinent to change, on categorizing different change models, and on implementation strategies. In the 1980s a number of studies on excellence and success in business firms, as well as in public services like the NHS (National Health Services, UK), has shifted the emphasis to the instrumental side of managing organizational changes. In the evolution of the study and practice of planned educational change, Fullan (1991) discerns four phases which he labels adoption (1960s), implementation failure (1970-77), implementation success (1978-82), and...

    • 6 The Neglected Dimension: Cultural Comparison in Educational Administration
      (pp. 87-102)
      Cheng Kai-Ming

      In this presentation, I will start by relaying to you a summary of my observations or ‘hunch’ about the cultural characteristics of education in East Asian societies. It started as a side product of my attention to education policies in Western Europe, and is reinforced by my recent research in mainland China. I will start with how the ‘hunch’ took shape. Then I will try to approach educational practices in Eastern Asian societies and attempt a cultural explanation. I will then argue that if such a cultural dimension does exist, its implications for studies in educational administration could be far-reaching....

  8. Section B Devolving Responsibility to Schools

    • 7 School-Community Relations: The Principal’s Role
      (pp. 105-114)
      Akhila Nand Sharma

      Considerable attention has been devoted to the understanding of leadership in school settings. Historically, studies of leadership first concentrated on identifying leadership qualities then shifted to an exploration of various identified leadership styles. More recently the focus has been on the study of leadership styles within specific areas or situations, for example educational leadership in small island states. Evidently, such research is potentially of enormous value, but there has been a narrowing of emphasis towards the role of principals in relation to their subordinates and pupils within a school. There has been a general lack of integrated theory development and...

    • 8 Roles and Functioning of Boards of Governors of Provincial High Schools in Papua New Guinea
      (pp. 115-130)
      Api C. Maha

      The 1970 Education Act made possible, among other things, the provision for the establishment of governing bodies for each educational institution. This provision was reaffirmed in the 1983 Education act which superseded the previous Act. For Provincial High Schools (offering grades 7 to 10) these governing bodies are called Boards of Governors (hereafter referred to as the ‘Boards’).

      The Board system was a deliberate attempt to involve the community in school decision making and taking responsibility for those decisions. The Boards have nine functions legislated for in section 68 of the Education Act (Government of Papua New Guinea, 1983). These...

    • 9 Challenges of the Future to School-Based Management: The Indian Context
      (pp. 131-140)
      C.L. Sapra

      ‘School-based management’ as a concept is a manifestation of decentralization and also a means of school reform. It implies greater flexibility and autonomy in decision making at the school level, keeping in view the actual needs and available resources, changes in role accountability for the school principal, participatory approach to the management of school affairs and the potential enhancement of school efficiency and productiry.

      School-based management, as defined above, is a relatively new concept which has been tried in the West during the last decade (Brown, 1990). In India too, some interest has been observed in this concept in recent...

    • 10 School Management Initiative in Hong Kong — The Devolution of Power to Schools, Real or Rhetoric?
      (pp. 141-154)
      Wong Kam-Cheung

      Like many parts of the world, the provision of education for children and youth has been a major endeavour of the Hong Kong government.¹ In 1992-93, the proposed expenditure in education takes up 16.8%² of the government budget, of which close to 70% is spent on schools.

      Ever since the introduction of free and compulsory education in 1979 in Hong Kong, the education system has been inundated with problems. The élitist, grammar oriented schooling which used English as a medium of instruction before 1979 suddenly became inadequate in coping with the massive expansion. In the late 1980s, ten years after...

    • 11 Parental Choice and School Decision Making: Operating in a Market-like Environment
      (pp. 155-172)
      Ron Glatter and Philip Woods

      In this chapter we shall describe and present some results from a pilot study of the interaction between parental choice and school decision making (the Parental and School Choice Interaction (PASCI) Study) being conducted in England and Wales with support from the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).¹ We shall frame the discussion of this research with a few general observations and analyses about current trends towards greater school autonomy and the introduction of market-like systems, concluding with the identification of some key issues for future research and policy.

      The many, diverse and far-reaching changes introduced into the educational...

    • 12 Educative School Executive Teams and the Productivity of Schools: An Applied Research Project Proposal
      (pp. 173-186)
      R.J.S. Macpherson

      Could it be time to progressively refine Tasmanian state schools’ evaluation policies and performance management practices by developing an innovative management education programme for cohorts of school executive teams and measure and evaluate the outcomes in classrooms? Apart from the practical benefits, the significance of the proposal lies in its potential to produce a sophisticated causal story of school productivity.

      Educative leadership has been shown to improve the quality of teaching in a strikingly effective manner, when delivered as management education for whole executive teams (Duignan and Macpherson, 1992a). The link between educative leadership and high quality teaching has, however,...

    • 13 Three Possibilities for Progress in Educational Administration: Reform, Techno-Science Rationality, Research
      (pp. 187-198)
      Brian O. Cusack

      During the 1980s major changes occurred in the field of educational administration and management. A multiplicity of factors constituted the contexts for change, not the least of which were interests exterior to practice. Political and economic concerns in particular hosted sweeping changes in the management of states across the world. With surprising similarity, state and national governments chose to intervene in public sector administration to reform the structure of organizations and, subsequently, to limit government interest in the provision of services. Therefore, governments chose to reposition the interest in education from that of a provider-of-services to that of a purchaser-of-services....

  9. Section C Preparing School Leaders

    • 14 The Teaching Profession in an Uncertain World
      (pp. 201-212)
      Eric Hoyle

      The argument of this paper is that the traditional concept of a profession has for some time been under attack and the term professional has become de-coupled from profession to connote, as an adjective, the process by which the directives of others are carried out skilfully and efficiently, and as a noun a person whose work can be characterized in this way. The traditional concept of a profession is still to some degree valuable in that it embraces the notion of exercising judgement in uncertain situations. Traditionally this has been the basis of the case for practitioner autonomy. Increasingly, the...

    • 15 Professional Leadership and Quality Education
      (pp. 213-224)
      Neville H. Fry

      Many major reports published in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States over recent years have stressed the critical importance of education for the future social and economic well-being of society in the twenty-first century. Some focus on the need for a well-educated work force to enable economic development to continue in an age of high technology. Others emphasize the need for education to promote the appreciation and advancement of human’s cultural heritage. The importance of global and environmental awareness for the future of our planet has also been noted. The American reports are particularly emphatic about the need...

    • 16 A Professional Council for Teachers
      (pp. 225-232)
      Tom Bone

      It is often argued that if teachers are to be regarded as full members of a profession, they should have a Professional Council which lays down standards for their work, and which is responsible for admission to the profession in the country concerned. Such arrangements are well-established in most countries in the world for professions like medicine and law, and are thought to have contributed considerably to the high standing in which these professions are held. The suggestion that there should be such a Council for teachers is one that has been commonly heard in a number of countries over...

    • 17 School Principals — Entrepreneurial Professionals
      (pp. 233-246)
      Hugh O. Jenkins

      This paper examines the ways in which a small number of school principals in England and Wales are making changes to their management structures and processes to cope with an increasingly turbulent environment. Using evidence on a comparative basis from organizations outside education, the paper looks at the way in which a number of principals are adopting radically new approaches to leadership and to organizational design. Evidence is presented from detailed case studies undertaken in six secondary schools which are known to have made significant changes in their management structures and systems. The six schools are situated in England and...

    • 18 Training of Educational Administrators in China
      (pp. 247-254)
      Jiang Ming

      The Chinese government attaches great importance to the training of personnel in educational administration. As early as 1954, the State Council passed a decision to the effect that education departments at central, provincial and district levels should be responsible for the training in turn of leading members of various educational administrative bodies and schools. However, our educational cause was seriously damaged by the so-called Cultural Revolution and the training of educational administration was at a standstill.

      After the Cultural Revolution, China’s first priority is to develop the economy. But economic development depends on the upgrading of the cultural level of...

    • 19 The Professional Training and Development of Educational Managers in the Republic of South Africa
      (pp. 255-268)
      Louis P. Calitz

      Today management, whether in an industrial, commercial, government or educational establishment, has to meet many new challenges that did not face supervisors or educational managers in the past. The really effective educational manager meets these challenges, while planning for future ones. The day-to-day routine of an educational manager might be described by this poster, published in 1976 by Superior Management magazine:

      Everything we read, everywhere we look, we are confronted by the fact that change is a major part of our lives. Change is not easy, but one consolation is that it is affecting everyone: bankers, industrialists, business people, politicions,...

    • 20 Some Theoretical and Practical Implications of an Assessment and Development Centre for Headteachers
      (pp. 269-276)
      Geoffrey Lyons

      While the school system of England and Wales has always placed a heavy burden of responsibility on those who lead it, the situation currently experienced indicates that the effective performance of the headteacher may be even more critical than was previously the case. The variety and complexity of tasks and functions now being handled by the headteacher (often for the first time), the direct intervention of central government into the classroom, that continuous educational change is probably a permanent feature of our educational system for many years to come, are some of the indicators.

      Therefore a process which enables the...