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Women, Men, and Gender

Women, Men, and Gender: Ongoing Debates

EDITED BY Mary Roth Walsh
Copyright Date: 1997
Published by: Yale University Press
Pages: 472
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  • Book Info
    Women, Men, and Gender
    Book Description:

    Gender controversies-about knowing and learning, conversational style, partner violence, sexuality, leadership styles, and pornography-provoke heated discussion. Now Mary Roth Walsh explores eighteen current controversies, presenting two opposing views on each subject, all from recognized experts representing psychology, psychiatry, sociolinguistics, education, sociology, law, and management science. Walsh provides an introductory essay, individual introductions to each topic, and more than 1800 bibliographical citations.The format of this book is based on Walsh'sPsychology of Women: Ongoing Debates, which was published in 1987 to great acclaim.Women, Men, and Genderpresents new issues and up-to-date articles that are of relevance to the general reader and today's students of gender studies.IntroductionI. Fundamental Questions• Should we continue to study gender differences?• Are gender differences wired into our biology?• Are race, class, and gender of comparable importance in producing inequality?II. Power and Influence Strategies• Do women and men speak different languages?• Are women's superior nonverbal skills caused by their oppression?• Do women and men have different negotiation styles?III. Sexuality• Is pornography harmful to women?• Is one's sexual orientation determined by biology?IV. Violence• Are women as likely as men to initiate physical assaults in partner relationships?• Are rape statistics exaggerated?V. Knowing and Learning• Do women and men have different ways of knowing?• Is biology the cause of gender differences in math performance?VI. The Workplace• Do women and men have different ways of leading?• Is sex stereotyping the cause of workplace discrimination?VII. Psychotherapy• Is there gender bias in the 1994Diagnostic and Statistical Manual(DSM-IV)?• Does the Stone Center's relational theory reinforce male privilege?VIII. Social Change• Do mothers harm their children when they work outside the home?• Is the mythopoetic men's movement creating new obstacles for women?

    eISBN: 978-0-300-14648-6
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-IX)
  3. Preface
    (pp. X-XII)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. XIII-XV)
  5. Publication Information
    (pp. XVI-XVIII)
  6. List of Contributors
    (pp. XIX-XXVI)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)
    Mary Roth Walsh

    The study of gender has a long and checkered history. Many of the early “scientific” studies on the subject sought to prove that women, along with people of Color and the poor, “occupy their subordinate roles by the harsh dictates of nature” (Gould, 1981, p. 74). I discovered this for myself when I began researching my first book,“Doctors Wanted: No Women Need Apply”(Walsh, 1977). Much to my surprise, male physicians, who surely should have known better, were quick to seize upon scientific arguments whenever they could to oppose the advancement of women in the medical profession.

    For example,...

  8. Part I Fundamental Questions

    • QUESTION 1 Research Priorities: Should We Continue to Study Gender Differences?
      (pp. 15-18)

      Gender comparisons have had a long and controversial history. At first their major objective was to keep women in a subordinate position. According to theBoston Medical and Surgical Journal,whose nineteenth-century editors were opposed to the education of female physicians, women could not become doctors because the strain of constant house calls would be more than their system could bear. But the same journal hailed the work of nurses who regularly went into “the slums of our city, through the dark alleys, among the ash barrels and swill, up the dark and dirty staircases of the tenements” (1897, p....

    • No: Cataloging Gender Differences: Science or Politics?
      (pp. 19-23)
      Bernice Lott

      There is little question that U.S. mainstream society, still dominated by European-American mythology, ascribes different behaviors to persons on the basis of their female or male sexual category, and that there are important consequences for behaving or not behaving in these ascribed ways under certain circumstances. The major task for scientific psychology, in my view, is to focus on the culturally selected behaviors and to study the necessary and sufficient conditions under which they are learned and under which they are practiced. This is a different agenda from one which concentrates on cataloging all the ways in which some members...

    • Yes: Comparing Women and Men: Methods, Findings, and Politics
      (pp. 24-32)
      Alice H. Eagly

      In her essay, Bernice Lott (this volume) displays profound discomfort about an activity that is common among research psychologists—comparing women and men in research data and then reporting the results of this comparison. In fact, most research psychologists record the sex of their research participants and run at least one analysis to determine whether the females and males behaved differently. Despite the common practice of examining one’s research data for sex differences, psychologists do not necessarily publish the results of these analyses. Researchers may omit a report of such analyses when they find no evidence of differences because they...

    • QUESTION 2 Biological Causation: Are Gender Differences Wired into Our Biology?
      (pp. 33-36)

      Scholars have long debated the origin of gender differences. Although social scientists now agree that men and women are much more alike than they are dissimilar and that differences within each sex are much greater than differences between the sexes, the topic of gender differences continues to fascinate researchers. As Carol Jacklin and Laura Baker point out, in attempting to weigh the influence of nature versus nurture, “much of the research on gender differences has focused on the early years of life, even though it is the differential expectations about adult women and men that we are ultimately interested in...

    • Yes: Sex Differences Emerge during the First Year of Life
      (pp. 37-43)
      June M. Reinisch, Leonard A. Rosenblum, Donald B. Rubin and M. Fini Schulsinger

      Evidence gathered during the last two decades has established that many sexually differentiated patterns of human behavior have their origins in confluence of genetic, prenatal, and postnatal factors (De Vries, De Bruin, Uylings & Corner, 1984; Glucksmann, 1981; Hall, 1982; Hines, 1982; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974; Money, 1988; Money & Ehrhardt, 1972; Reinisch, 1981; Rubin, Reinisch & Haskett, 1981). In light of these complex interactions, investigations into the behavioral differentiation of the sexes must begin as early in the life of the individual as possible (Freedman, 1974; Jacklin, Snow & Maccoby, 1981; Maccoby, Doering, Jacklin & Kraemer, 1979; Money &...

    • No: Biology Does Not Create Gender Differences in Personality
      (pp. 44-54)
      Linda L. Carli

      June Reinisch and her colleagues argue that the origin of gender differences in personality is biological. They report the results of a study showing that boys lift their heads while on their stomachs, stand with support, and crawl earlier than girls and contend that these differences in maturation predispose boys to beagenticor self-promoting, independent, and directive and predispose girls to becommunalor warm, nurturant, and interested in relationships with others. Although there is evidence that boys and men are more likely to exhibit agentic behaviors and girls and women to exhibit communal behaviors (Eagly, 1987; Maccoby, 1990),...

    • QUESTION 3 Diversity Issues: Are Race, Class, and Gender of Comparable Importance in Producing Inequality?
      (pp. 55-57)

      One of the feminist psychologists’ earliest criticisms of mainstream psychology was that male behavior was used as the standard for all human behavior. Ironically, since the 1980s, a growing number of critics have charged that the psychology of women has similarly erred by basing its findings largely on studies that only include White women. Jean Baker Miller warns that White middle-class women should not presume to speak for all women. “Indeed, if they do,” she writes, “they are liable to fall into the same position for which they have criticized men—that is, generalizing about all people when they really...

    • Yes: Doing Difference
      (pp. 58-72)
      Candace West and Sarah Fenstermaker

      Few persons think of math as a particularly feminine pursuit. Girls are not supposed to be good at it, and women are not supposed to enjoy it. It is interesting, then, that we who do feminist scholarship have relied so heavily on mathematical metaphors to describe the relationships among gender, race, and class. For example, some of us have drawn on basic arithmetic, adding, subtracting, and dividing what we know about race and class to what we already know about gender. Some have relied on multiplication, seeming to calculate the effects of the whole from the combination of different parts....

    • No: On West and Fenstermaker’s “Doing Difference”
      (pp. 73-76)
      Patricia Hill Collins

      How wonderful it would be to possess the insight to see beyond the messy, contemporary politics of race, class, and gender in order to propose “a new way of thinking about the workings of these relations” (West and Fenstermaker, this volume). The area of race, class, and gender studies struggles with the complex question of how to think about intersections of systems of oppression of race, class, and gender. We clearly need new models that will assist us in seeing how structures of power organized around intersecting relations of race, class, and gender frame the social positions occupied by individuals;...

  9. Part II Power and Influence Strategies

    • QUESTION 4 Conversational Style: Do Women and Men Speak Different Languages?
      (pp. 79-81)

      The publication of Robin Lakoff’sLanguage and Woman’s Placein 1975 marked a turning point in the study of gender-communication differences. Lakoff argued that “women’s language” differed from “men’s language” in a number of ways, including the use of a more uncertain and deferential style, which might explain women’s relative lack of success in the corporate world.Language and Woman’s Placewas one of those rare books that touched a chord in both popular and academic circles. The need to overcome women’s language “deficiencies” became a major objective of the assertiveness-training programs that flourished in the 1970s, providing women with...

    • YES: Women and Men Talking: An Interactional Sociolinguistic Approach
      (pp. 82-90)
      Deborah Tannen

      Each person’s life is lived as a series of conversations. Analyzing everyday conversations and their effects on relationships has been the focus of my career as a sociolinguist. As I listen to the voices of women and men, I make sense of seemingly senseless misunderstandings that haunt our relationships and show that a man and a woman can interpret the same conversation differently, even when there is no apparent misunderstanding. I explain why sincere attempts to communicate are so often confounded and how we can prevent or relieve some of the frustration.

      My bookThat’s Not What I Meant!showed...

    • NO: Women and Men Talking: Are They Worlds Apart?
      (pp. 91-100)
      Elizabeth Aries

      Differences in the ways women and men communicate have recently been of great interest to the general public, as evidenced by the popularity of such best-sellers as Deborah Tannen’sYou Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation(1990), which promote a polarized depiction of men’s and women’s styles of interaction. Tannen argues that men approach conversation with a focus on status and independence, whereas women approach conversation with a focus on intimacy and connection, making communication between the sexes problematic.

      Tannen fails, however, to give serious consideration to the large body of research on gender and conversational interaction carried...

    • QUESTION 5 Nonverbal Behavior: Are Women’s Superior Skills Caused by Their Oppression?
      (pp. 101-103)

      Nonverbal behavior plays an important part in the way we communicate with one another. Some researchers claim that as much as 90 percent of our emotions and 65 percent of all information are transmitted through body language rather than verbal exchange (Elgin, 1993). For example, Monica Moore (1985) studied courtship patterns. Observing more than two hundred women in singles bars, she identified fifty-two different “nonverbal solicitation” behaviors. In fact, body language is so powerful that when someone’s facial expression, voice inflection, posture, or gestures conflict with the verbal message, we tend to believe the nonverbal message (Mehrabian & Ferris, 1967;...

    • YES: On Oppressing Hypotheses: Or, Differences in Nonverbal Sensitivity Revisited
      (pp. 104-119)
      Marianne Lafrance and Nancy M. Henley

      Power has figured prominently in debates surrounding why women and men differ on a host of nonverbal behaviors, including how they respond to the nonverbal behavior of other people. For example, research has shown that women are better than men at deciphering the meaning of another person’s facial expressions or vocal intonation. This superior ability of women to read accurately others’ subtle communication behavior has engendered controversy not over whether it exists but why it exists. One thesis, sometimes labeled the “oppression hypothesis,” is that women’s superior nonverbal sensitivity or decoding skill originates in their subordinate standing in society. In...

    • NO: Subordination and Nonverbal Sensitivity: A Hypothesis in Search of Support
      (pp. 120-134)
      Judith A. Hall and Amy G. Halberstadt

      Two decades ago, groundbreaking ideas were proposed that linked gender, power, and nonverbal behavior (Henley, 1973, 1977). Henley’s general thesis was that gender (and race and class) differences in nonverbal behavior parallel the power differences in nonverbal behavior in American society. Specifically, Henley (1977) argued that the behavioral styles and communication skills of women and other subordinated groups were the (often adaptive) product of their subordination and that the nonverbal cues of superior and subordinate both expressed and helped to maintain the power differences between them. Other writers have also made this argument (e.g., Frieze & Ramsey, 1976; Goffman, 1976,...

    • QUESTION 6 Negotiation Strategies: Do Women and Men Have Different Styles?
      (pp. 135-137)

      Whether at work or in our personal and social relationships, as much as 75 percent of our day is spent in interpersonal negotiations. Interest in this topic can be measured by the popularity and proliferation of negotiation books, ranging from Roger Fisher and William Ury’sGetting to Yes(1981) and Ury’sGetting Past No(1991) to such specialized guides for women as Juliet Nierenberg and Irene Ross’sWomen and the Art of Negotiating(1985) and Nicole Schapiro’sNegotiating for Your Life(1993). Because of the growing importance of international trade, a great deal of attention has also been devoted to...

    • YES: Her Place at the Table: Gender and Negotiation
      (pp. 138-144)
      Deborah M. Kolb

      A central agenda of recent feminist studies across the social sciences has been to heed the often “unheard” voices of women. They maintain that women’s experience is often treated as a variant, typically an inferior variant, of a dominant male model. Recent scholarship has tried to right the record. What has emerged is a conception of an alternative way of making sense of the world and of acting within it.

      Existing research and our own experiences suggest that the voices of women are often hushed in formal negotiation. Conflict and competition are important in formal negotiation, and therefore it may...

    • NO: Gender versus Power as a Predictor of Negotiation Behavior and Outcomes
      (pp. 145-152)
      Carol Watson

      The assumption that women are inferior simply because they are “different” from men has permeated our culture in the United States as it has many other cultures. Women’s lot in life has clearly improved dramatically in this country since the 1700s, but equally clearly, there is still significant discrimination against women in our society in the 1990s.

      Over the past ten to fifteen years, psychologists and sociologists have mounted a frontal assault on this long-standing “different and inferior” assumption in many domains. Their work has shown that the assumption is frequently inaccurate. Recent literature reviews show, for example, that there...

  10. Part III Sexuality

    • QUESTION 7 Pornography: Is It Harmful to Women?
      (pp. 155-157)

      The question of whether pornography has adverse effects on women usually arouses very strong personal opinions. Nevertheless, until President Lyndon B. Johnson established the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography in January 1968, relatively little was known about the effects of pornography on behavior. The commission’s summary report (1970) and the nine volumes containing the studies it sponsored (Committee on Obscenity and Pornography 1971) record the first phase of research in this area (Byrne & Kelley, 1984). The commission concluded that there was no evidence that the easy availability of pornography played a significant role in sexual crimes.

      Not surprisingly, those...

    • YES: Pornography Causes Harm to Women
      (pp. 158-169)
      Diana E. H. Russell

      The sociologist David Finkelhor (1984) has developed a very useful multicausal theory to explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse. According to Finkelhor’s model, in order for child sexual abuse to occur, four conditions have to be met. First, someone has towantto abuse a child sexually. Second, this person’s internal inhibitions against acting out this desire have to be undermined. Third, this person’s social inhibitions against acting out this desire (e.g., fear of being caught and punished) have to be undermined. Fourth, the would-be perpetrator has to undermine or overcome his or her chosen victim’s capacity to avoid...

    • NO: Why Censoring Pornography Would Not Reduce Discrimination or Violence against Women
      (pp. 170-180)
      Nadine Strossen

      Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin advocate the adoption of laws that would allow women to take civil action against anyone involved in the production, sale, or distribution of pornography on the grounds that they had been hurt by such material. Contrary to MacKinnon and Dworkin’s assertions, these laws would undermine rather than advance important women’s rights and human rights causes. For the sake of argument let’s make the purely hypothetical assumption that we could fix social problems: let’s pretend we could wave a magic wand that would miraculously make the laws do what they are supposed to without trampling on...

    • QUESTION 8 Sexual Orientation: Is It Determined by Biology?
      (pp. 181-183)

      One of the most dramatic changes in psychology and psychiatry in the past thirty years has been the movement away from viewing lesbianism and homosexuality as deviant. Until mid-century, the traditional approach was to treat homosexuals and lesbians as deeply disturbed deviants in need of treatment. Bonnie Strickland, one of the pioneers in fashioning a new view of homosexuality, says she feels privileged to be part of a new wave of psychologists who are documenting that “gay and lesbian people are not diseased and perverted” (1995, p. 139).

      The shift in the attitude toward homosexuality may have begun with the...

    • YES: The Innateness of Homosexuality
      (pp. 184-187)
      J. Michael Bailey and Richard C. Pillard

      Scientists and the public have become increasingly interested in the question of why some people are homosexual and others heterosexual, partly because several scientific studies of different types have supported the theory that sexual orientation is largely innate. The political and social implications of this research have been hotly debated.

      The most consistent evidence for the innateness of sexual orientation comes from genetic studies. Both male and female sexual orientation run in families; gay men have more gay brothers (Pillard & Weinrich 1986; Bailey et al., 1991) and lesbians more lesbian sisters than average (Pillard 1990; Bailey & Benishay 1993)....

    • NO: Transitions from Heterosexuality to Lesbianism: The Discursive Production of Lesbian Identities
      (pp. 188-204)
      Celia Kitzinger and Sue Wilkinson

      After more than two decades of social constructionist approaches to sexual identity (e.g., Gagnon & Simon, 1973; C. Kitzinger, 1987; McIntosh, 1968/1992; Plummer, 1981,1992; Weeks, 1977), biological models of lesbianism and male homosexuality are becoming increasingly popular, both in the scientific literature (e.g., Ellis & Ames, 1987; LeVay, 1991) and in the media. Although biological and early socialization models may present homosexuality as either a natural variation or an unnatural deviation from the “norm” of heterosexuality, “caused” variously by brain structure or function, genetic or hormonal influences, or early childhood experiences, they invariably assume heterosexuality as a natural, unproblematic category...

  11. Part IV Violence

    • QUESTION 9 Domestic Violence: Are Women as Likely as Men to Initiate Physical Assaults in Partner Relationships?
      (pp. 207-209)

      Domestic violence, an all but ignored topic twenty-five years ago, is now recognized as a major problem in American life. David Buss and Neil Malamuth write: “At no other time in history have issues of conflict between the sexes become so salient in social science and public discourse” (1996, p. 3). The first shelter for battered women and their children was established in Pasadena, California, in 1964, the result of an effort by the local Alanon chapter to provide for the families of abusive alcoholics (Barnett & LaViolette, 1993). A feminist analysis of the problem began with books like Erin...

    • YES: Physical Assaults by Women Partners: A Major Social Problem
      (pp. 210-221)
      Murray A. Straus

      The first purpose of this chapter is to review research that shows that women initiate and carry out physical assaults on their partners as often as men do. A second purpose is to show that, despite the much lower probability of physical injury resulting from attacks by women, assaults by women are a serious social problem, just as it would be if men “only” slapped their wives or “only” slapped female fellow employees and produced no injury. One of the main reasons “minor” assaults by women are such an important problem is that they put women in danger of much...

    • NO: Physical Assaults by Male Partners: A Major Social Problem
      (pp. 222-232)
      Demie Kurz

      Are women violent toward men? This question has been asked repeatedly, particularly in recent years, as the issue of domestic violence has gained national recognition. The women’s movement, which brought the issue of battered women to public attention in the late 1970s, claims that it is men who are violent (Dobash & Dobash, 1992; Jones, 1994). Currently advocates for battered women in many professions and organizations accept this analysis and use it to promote change in the legal, medical, and social service responses to battered women (American Medical Association, 1992; Buzawa & Buzawa, 1996; Dobash and Dobash, 1992; Jones, 1994;...

    • QUESTION 10 Rape: Are Rape Statistics Exaggerated?
      (pp. 233-235)

      In 1991, date rape, which had been widely discussed on college campuses during the previous decade, attracted national attention when a woman claimed that she had been raped by William Kennedy Smith, a nephew of Senator Ted Kennedy. The couple met in a Florida bar and went for a walk on the beach at the Kennedy estate. She claimed she had been raped; he claimed it was consensual sex. Millions saw the trial on television, and the case became a media event. The six-person jury, four of whom were women, eventually found Smith not guilty (Friedman, 1993). The fact that...

    • YES: Advocacy Research Exaggerates Rape Statistics
      (pp. 236-242)
      Neil Gilbert

      Over the past decade, problems like stranger abduction, child abuse, elder abuse, and homelessness have been magnified by advocacy research. But these efforts are modest in comparison with the remarkably powerful campaign of advocacy research inspired by the rape crisis movement of the early 1990s.¹ According to the alarming accounts routinely voiced by radical feminist groups, about one in every two women will be a victim of rape or attempted rape an average of two times in her life, and many more will suffer other forms of sexual molestation. These claims are based on figures from several studies, among which...

    • NO: Rape Statistics Are Not Exaggerated
      (pp. 243-246)
      Charlene L. Muehlenhard, Barrie J. Highby, Joi L. Phelps and Susie C. Sympson

      Since the early 1970s, feminists concerned about women’s welfare have worked hard to make our social and legal systems more sensitive to victims of rape and other forms of sexual coercion. In the past twenty-five years, rape crisis centers have been established, rape laws have been reformed, and research on rape has proliferated and moved away from the victim-blaming theories that were prominent even into the 1970s (Estrich, 1987; Muehlenhard, Harney, & Jones, 1992). Recently, however, feminist research and political action have been disparaged by critics who have charged, among other things, that rape statistics have been exaggerated. In this...

  12. Part V Knowing and Learning

    • QUESTION 11 Ways of Knowing: Do Women and Men Have Different Ways of Knowing?
      (pp. 249-251)

      Women’s Ways of Knowing (WWK)(1986), one of the most widely cited books on women’s intellectual development, won the Distinguished Publication Award of the Association for Women in Psychology in 1987. Mary Belenky, Blythe Clinchy, Nancy Goldberger, and Jill Tarule built on the theories of Carol Gilligan, outlined in her groundbreaking bookIn a Different Voice(1982). Working within a feminist framework, Gilligan challenged Lawrence Kohlberg’s model of moral reasoning, which tended to locate women at level 3, characterized by a “regard for pleasing others,” while placing men at a higher level of development, distinguished by a concern with law...

    • YES: Ways of Knowing: Does Gender Matter?
      (pp. 252-260)
      Nancy Goldberger

      In a large interview-based study on ways of knowing (Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule, 1986) my colleagues and I asked women the following questions: How do you know what you know? Where does your knowledge come from? To whom or to what do you turn when you want answers? Is there such a thing as “truth” or “right answers”? What makes an expert? We wanted to understand and describe the variety of ways women go about making meaning for themselves in a world that devalues women’s authority and voices. Although William Perry in an important earlier study (1970) had explored...

    • No: What We Do Not Know about Women’s Ways of Knowing
      (pp. 261-270)
      Mary M. Brabeck and Ann G. Larned

      There is much in Nancy Goldberger’s essay with which we agree. We agree that epistemologies—ways of knowing and making meaning—result from experience as well as maturation. We agree that epistemologies change over time and with socialization, and are related to other developmental constructs such as identity, conceptions of self, and morality. We also agree that for many women socialization into cultural norms is problematic; frequently because of socialization women do not develop to their full potential. We agree that knowledge and ways of knowing are valued differently in different historical times and cultures, and we agree that across...

    • QUESTION 12 Mathematics: Is Biology the Cause of Gender Differences in Performance?
      (pp. 271-273)

      A great deal of research has been devoted to the debate over gender similarities and differences in mathematics achievement. One of the major reasons for the continuing interest in this topic is the significant role that mathematics plays in academic and career success. A study done by Lucy Sells at the University of California at Berkeley in the early 1970s showed that whereas 57 percent of the incoming male students had four years of high school math, this was true of only 8 percent of the female students. Thus 92 percent of the first-year female students could not enroll in...

    • YES: Psychological Profiles of the Mathematically Talented: Some Sex Differences and Evidence Supporting Their Biological Basis
      (pp. 274-282)
      Camilla Persson Benbow and David Lubinski

      Ever since its founding by Julian C. Stanley at Johns Hopkins University in 1971, the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth’s (SMPY’s) research and educational programming has focused on exceptional achievements in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, and on the young individuals with the potential to produce them. These were fortuitous choices, given that our increasingly technological society requires many well-trained scientists in just these areas. Furthermore, the importance of mathematical ability for scientific achievement and creativity has become more evident with time. Krutetskii (1976, p. 6), for example, noted that “the development of the sciences has been characterized recently...

    • NO: Gender Differences in Math Performance: Not Big, Not Biological
      (pp. 283-288)
      Janet Shibley Hyde

      More than two decades ago, Julian Stanley initiated a program of research at Johns Hopkins University, focusing on seventh and eighth graders whose test scores showed that they had exceptional mathematical talent (see, for example, Stanley et al., 1974). The project is called the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY). Camilla Benbow, now at Iowa State University, and David Lubinski have continued this research (Benbow & Lubinski, this volume). What are the claims of these researchers? Do these claims hold up under scrutiny?

      The SMPY researchers make two assertions that are relevant to our consideration of gender and mathematics (Benbow...

  13. Part VI The Workplace

    • QUESTION 13 Leadership: Do Women and Men Have Different Ways of Leading?
      (pp. 291-293)

      Most of the research on women’s leadership in the 1970s and 1980s focused on the question of why women were less likely than men to be leaders. Any number of reasons, in addition to job discrimination, have been used to explain the relatively small number of female leaders: fear of success (M. Horner, 1972), fear of failure (A. Horner, 1989), low self-confidence (Hancock, 1989), career-family conflict (Schwartz, 1989), and low-status aspirations (Hannah & Kahn, 1989). Recently, Powell and Butterfield (1994) added the speculation that women are less likely to apply for leadership positions because they anticipate being blocked by a...

    • YES: Leadership and the Paradox of Gender
      (pp. 294-297)
      Judy B. Rosener

      In the context of American management, the one best model has traditionally been the command-and-control model. Organizations using this model are hierarchical and have clear lines of authority. Decisions are made from the top down, and it is assumed that those at the top know best. Performance is judged on individual rather than group contribution, and criteria for advancement have as much to do with fitting in as with competence. As its name suggests, the command-and-control model strongly resembles the military. It is no surprise that books about military leaders like Norman Schwarzkopf and Colin Powell, and corporate CEOs like...

    • NO: Leadership and Gender: Vive la Difference?
      (pp. 298-306)
      Gary N. Powell

      There has been a dramatic change in the face of management over the past two decades. That face is now female more than one-third of the time. What are the implications for the practice of management? Most of us are aware of traditional stereotypes about male-female differences, but how well do these stereotypes apply to the managerial ranks? Do female and male managers differ in their basic responses to work situations and in their overall effectiveness (and if so, in what ways?), or are they really quite similar?

      If you believe recent books and articles in business magazines, female and...

    • QUESTION 14 Discrimination: Is Sex Stereotyping the Cause of Workplace Discrimination?
      (pp. 307-309)

      Early in 1988 Brenda Taylor, an assistant state attorney in Broward County, Florida, was criticized by her supervisor because of the way she dressed. He told Taylor, who favors designer blouses, ornate jewelry, tight-fitting skirts, and spike heels, that she looked like a “bimbo” (Lacayo, 1988). When Taylor complained to the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), she was fired. Taylor charged discrimination; the state attorney’s office claimed that she had been dismissed for poor performance. Ironically, the Taylor episode occurred at a time when another discrimination case,Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins,was on its way to the U.S. Supreme...

    • NO: The American Psychological Association’s Amicus Curiae Brief in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins
      (pp. 310-320)
      Gerald V. Barrett and Scott B. Morris

      On several occasions, the American Psychological Association (APA) has submitted amicus curiae briefs to the Supreme Court. Through these briefs, the APA can inform the courts of the scientific evidence pertaining to a particular issue. These briefs represent an important service that the APA can provide to the courts and thereby to society.

      A problem arises from a difference in the style of writing a legal brief versus a scientific review. Legal briefs are designed to present convincing arguments and evidence to support these arguments. Presenting alternative evidence is the responsibility of the opposing party. A scientific review, on the...

    • YES: What Constitutes a Scientific Review? A Majority Retort to Barrett and Morri
      (pp. 321-334)
      Susan T. Fiske, Donald N. Bersoff, Eugene Borgida, Kay Deaux and Madeline E. Heilman

      Barrett and Morris (in this volume) attack the American Psychological Associationamicusbrief inPrice Waterhouse v. Hopkinsas failing to adhere to the values of science in three respects. First, they claim that the amicus used theories in convenient but logically inconsistent ways. A straightforward reading of the theories indicates that Barrett and Morris simply confuse the descriptive (e.g., “women typically are incompetent”) and prescriptive (e.g., “women should be nice”) aspects of gender stereotypes. Second, Barrett and Morris claim that the APA used facts disputed by the employer, thereby biasing the brief. However, these facts were accepted at all...

  14. Part VII Psychotherapy

    • QUESTION 15 Diagnosis: Is There Gender Bias in the 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV)?
      (pp. 337-339)

      The question of whether there is gender bias in psychotherapy is a highly charged issue dating back to the beginning of the current women’s movement. The classic study by Inge Broverman and her colleagues (1970), which suggested that therapists have different standards of mental health for men and women, provided ammunition to those critics who charged psychotherapy with sexism. The Broverman study has been faulted for flawed methodology (Widiger & Settle, 1987), and subsequent replications have not found the same sex bias (Phillips & Gilroy, 1985). This may indicate that sexism has declined among mental health professionals. However, there is...

    • YES: The Politics of Psychiatry: Gender and Sexual Preference in DSM-IV
      (pp. 340-347)
      Terry A. Kupers

      The fourth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1994, contains the official list of diagnostic categories. It is touted as an improvement over previous editions, more precise in its descriptions of mental disorders, more rigorous in its criteria for establishing diagnoses. There is some effort to take gender and sexual orientation into consideration, as well as race and ethnicity. And there are claims of greater objectivity on account of the improvements, the detail, and the attention to cultural contexts. But is the new edition really an improvement,...

    • NO: Gender Issues in DSM-IV
      (pp. 348-358)
      Ruth Ross, Allen Frances and Thomas A. Widiger

      A number of psychiatric disorders have markedly different rates of occurrence in women and men. It is not clear whether these differences are inherent to actual differences in psychopathology between women and men or are the artifactual result of biases in ascertainment, definition, or assessment (Brown 1986; Davidson and Abramovitz 1980; Deaux 1985; Earls 1987; Hamilton et al. 1986; Kaplan 1983; Lewine et al. 1984; Loring and Powell 1988; Russell 1985; Sherman 1980; Smith 1980; Snyder et al. 1985; Widiger and Nietzel 1984; Widiger and Settle 1987; Widiger and Spitzer 1991; Widom 1984; Zeldow 1984). Gender differences in treatment seeking...

    • QUESTION 16 Relational Therapy: Is the Stone Center’s Relational Theory a Source of Empowerment for Women?
      (pp. 359-361)

      In the 1970s, feminists challenged psychology’s perception of women’s role. Germaine Greer, after describing how psychologists tried to persuade women that they were mentally ill, concluded, “Psychologists cannot fix the world, so they fix women” (1970, p. 83). Phyllis Chester, inWomen and Madness(1972), saw it all as a power play: women were being driven mad by men who were trying to keep them in their place.

      Old ideas gave way as a new psychology of women was born. This explosion of knowledge followed several paths. While some researchers believed that their work would degenderize behavior, others, like Jean...

    • NO: On the New Psychology of Women: A Cautionary View
      (pp. 362-372)
      Marcia C. Westkott

      For nearly two decades writers on the psychology of women have questioned the male bias in theories of psychological health and development. In 1970 Broverman et al. charted the terms of what was to become the new feminist critique: their findings showed that clinicians implicitly associated psychological maturity and health with stereotypical male characteristics, but identified normal female traits as the same as those they associated with psychological immaturity or dysfunctioning. The feminist agenda has since been to question and redefine this culturally rooted, professionally accepted equation. The following essay describes the new paradigm that has emerged from this feminist...

    • YES: The Relational Model Is a Source of Empowerment for Women
      (pp. 373-380)
      Judith V. Jordan

      Marcia Westkott argues that the relational model is “grounded in and perpetuates a context of male privilege, and advocates an oppressive ideal for women” (this volume). My goal in this article is to challenge Westkott’s assertion and to demonstrate that the relational model developed at the Stone Center at Wellesley College validates women’s unique experiences and conflicts, especially in a cultural milieu that often invalidates or challenges this mode of being in the world; further, this very validation is a source of empowerment for women. This discussion will recast and reformulate notions of women’s development, focusing on aspects that reflect...

  15. Part VIII Social Change

    • QUESTION 17 Women’s Behavior: Do Mothers Harm Their Children When They Work Outside the Home?
      (pp. 383-385)

      Each new report on the increasing number of working mothers touches off another round in the debate over whether this phenomenon has negative effects on children. A double standard is clear; it is rarely, if ever, charged that working fathers cause problems for their children. In a sense, this topic is just one chapter in the voluminous literature on the effects of mothering on infants and children. Even a glance at some of the publications on this subject indicates the narrow line mothers have to tread. On the one hand, they must avoid providing too little mothering, which could cause...

    • YES: Nurseries and Daycare Centers Do Not Meet Infant Needs
      (pp. 386-390)
      Penelope Leach

      Older babies and toddlers do not need their mothers every minute; the necessity for “full-time exclusive mothering” has been exposed as a myth of the postwar West. We know that having their care shared between parents and other adults is not damaging to children and in fact may be enriching; that shared care—albeit of many different kinds—has been the norm in every time and place and remains so in many. And we know that lack of people with whom to share childcare is a major problem in western maternity. Daycareisshared care, so why is it not...

    • NO: There Is No Evidence That Mothers Harm Their Infants and Toddlers by Working Outside the Home
      (pp. 391-398)
      Diane E. Eyer

      Is there scientific evidence that mothers harm their infants and toddlers by working outside the home? In two words: absolutely not. Penelope Leach articulates quite clearly, however, what mothers have been told by expert advisors since the 1830s—mothers are the critical influence on their young children, and the virtuous mother enjoys remaining at home with her charges. The unique influence of the Victorian mother on her children was not an empirical discovery, of course, but rather the product of a social and an economic revolution. Prior to the 1830s, fatherhood in America was accorded all the character-forming importance we...

    • QUESTION 18 Men’s Behavior: Is the Mythopoetic Men’s Movement Creating New Obstacles for Women?
      (pp. 399-401)

      Freud once asked, “What do women want?” The question might be asked today of men. The questions are, in fact, interrelated. As stereotypes of women’s roles began to crumble in the face of the feminist movement, men were compelled to contemplate the possibility of change in their own attitudes and behavior. It has not been easy. As Terry Kupers notes, men have difficulty discussing what they feel or what they hope to gain from therapy, other than relief of their symptoms. Women, on the other hand, do not have as much trouble “since they share a common oppression” (1995a, p....

    • NO: We’ve Come a Long Way, Too, Baby. And We’ve Still Got a Ways to Go. So Give Us a Break!
      (pp. 402-405)
      Marvin Allen

      I find it distressing that feminism and the media have given such rapt attention to the enigmatic, mythological aspects of the men’s movement while ignoring the more grounded and psychologically efficacious elements. A movement rich with diversity, leaders, and goals has been, in the eyes of the media and feminism, reduced to a cult of white-collar drum bangers with visions of kings, warriors, and wild, hairy men dancing in their heads. According to countless newspaper and magazine articles, these seekers of the “deep masculine” were followers of the poet Robert Bly. Whatever Bly said, whether it made sense or not,...

    • YES: Weekend Warriors: The New Men’s Movement
      (pp. 406-420)
      Michael S. Kimmel and Michael Kaufman

      Across the United States and Canada, men have been gathering in search of their manhood. Inspired and led by poet Robert Bly, theéminence griseof this new men’s movement—and whose book,Iron John,topped the bestseller lists for more than thirty-five weeks in 1991—dozens of therapists and “mythopoetic” journeymen currently offer workshops, retreats, and seminars to facilitate their “gender journey,” to “heal their father wounds” so that they may retrieve the “inner king,” the “warrior within,” or the “wildman.”¹ And hundreds of thousands of men have heeded the call of the wildman, embraced this new masculinity, and...

  16. Index
    (pp. 421-445)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 446-446)