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Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside, with Poems and Ballads

Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside, with Poems and Ballads

George Meredith
Rebecca N. Mitchell
Criscillia Benford
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: Yale University Press
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt32bwnp
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  • Book Info
    Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside, with Poems and Ballads
    Book Description:

    Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside occupies a distinctive and somewhat notorious place within George Meredith’s already unique body of work. Modern Love is now best known for the emotionally intense sonnet cycle which Meredith’s own contemporaries dismissed as scandalously confessional and indiscreet. While individual sonnets from the work have been anthologized, the complete cycle is rarely included and the original edition has not been reprinted since its first appearance in 1862. This edition restores the original publication and supplements it with a range of accompanying materials that will re-introduce Meredith’s astonishing collection of poetry to a new generation of readers.

    eISBN: 978-0-300-18910-0
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vii)
  3. List of Plates
    (pp. viii-viii)
  4. Note on the Text
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-xv)
  7. George Meredith: A Brief Chronology
    (pp. xvi-xx)
  8. Introduction
    (pp. xxi-2)

    “They,” said George Meredith to his friend Edward Clodd, “say this or that is Meredithian; I have become an adjective.”¹ “They” were the literary critics of Meredith’s day who had, toward the end of his life, turned from writing censorious reviews of his poetry and prose to writing countless articles and even a few books praising the work of “the sage of Box Hill.”² No longer deemed a menace to Victorian morality, George Meredith was by the end of the nineteenth century a venerated elder statesman of English letters. He succeeded Alfred, Lord Tennyson as president of the Society of...

  9. Grandfather Bridgeman
    (pp. 3-18)
  10. The Meeting
    (pp. 19-20)
  11. Modern Love
    (pp. 21-72)
  12. Roadside Philosophers

  13. Poems and Ballads

  14. Contexts

    • CONTEMPORARY REACTIONS

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 175-175)

        The contemporary response to Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside, with Poems and Ballads was largely negative, mostly due to distaste for the subject matter of the volume’s titular sonnet sequence. Even Meredith’s dear friend Frederick Maxse, to whom Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside was dedicated, noted that some of the poems in the volume suffered from obscure passages. Champions and detractors alike, however, praised the “Poems of the English Roadside” and remarked upon the “vigour” of Meredith’s verse in general. Richard Holt Hutton’s review for the Spectator is typical of negative reactions, and it...

      • Unsigned Review, Parthenon (1862)
        (pp. 176-179)

        Subtitled “A Weekly Journal of Literature, Science and Art,” the Parthenon was short-lived (1862–63). This review is generally positive, admiring Meredith’s descriptive powers and reverence for nature as well as his ability to portray “the subtlest workings of . . . human hearts.” The author appears to be unaware that Modern Love is Meredith’s second book of poetry....

      • R. H. Hutton, Spectator (1862)
        (pp. 180-184)
        R. H. Hutton

        Richard Holt Hutton (1826–1897) was an English theologian, editor, and journalist. He rose to prominence thanks to his contributions to The National Review, a journal he coedited with Walter Bagehot from 1855 to 1862. By the time he wrote this scathing review of Modern Love, he had also become a coeditor and proprietor of the Spectator, a politically influential, liberal journal. Hutton scorned Meredith’s decision to write a poem about marriage and sexual desire, denounced almost all of the volume’s poems as “meretricious,” and chided Meredith for failing to bring “original imaginative power or true sentiment” to the task...

      • J. W. Marston, Athenaeum (1862)
        (pp. 185-188)
        J. W. Marston

        John Westland Marston (1819–1890) was an English critic, poet, and playwright whose intellectual circle included Charles Dickens, Robert Browning, Philip Bailey, and D. G. Rossetti. In 1856 he co-founded The National Magazine, a journal that published the work of Pre-Raphaelite and Spasmodic poets, and he wrote for the Athenaeum from 1850 to 1875. The Athenaeum was established in 1828 with the avowed aim of becoming “the resort of the distinguished philosophers, historians, and orators and poets of our day.” In its early years, it took a stand against “logrolling,” that is, publishing uncritically positive reviews of work by friends...

      • A. C. Swinburne, Spectator (1862)
        (pp. 189-192)
        A. C. Swinburne

        Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837–1909) was a cosmopolitan poet, playwright, and literary critic who wrote for the Fortnightly Review, the Athenaeum, and the Spectator—among other periodicals. His poetry, starting with his Poems and Ballads (1866), is associated with the Decadent and Art for Art’s Sake movements. A friend of D. G. Rossetti’s since their Oxford days, Swinburne shared a house in London with him, William Michael Rossetti, and Meredith from 1862 to 1863. A direct response to Hutton’s Spectator review (provided earlier), Swinburne’s passionate defense of Modern Love asks readers to judge the quality of Meredith’s verse for themselves...

      • Frederick Maxse, Morning Post (1862)
        (pp. 193-198)
        Frederick Maxse

        Although he dedicated Modern Love to his friend Frederick Maxse, Meredith nevertheless asked the young captain to review the volume for the Morning Post. Maxse’s review was based upon a partial manuscript of the volume, and despite minor criticisms, is little more than a puff piece. “You should have whipped me on the score of the absurdities, obscurities, and what not. I feel you have been sparing me, and though I don’t love the rod, I don’t cry for mercy,” Meredith wrote to Maxse after reading it.²...

      • From Unsigned Review, Westminster Review (1862)
        (pp. 199-200)

        The Westminster Review was a radical quarterly journal edited by a variety of luminaries, such as Jeremy Bentham, George Eliot, John Stuart Mill, and Mark Pattison. From the latter half of 1857 through January 1858, Meredith himself wrote the “Belles Lettres” column, taking it over from Eliot. This review begins with a discussion about meter in modern translations of ancient poetry before comparing Modern Love with the recent work of several other English poets. The author praises Meredith’s poetic technique but laments his evident interest in “guilt and sin.”...

      • Unsigned Review, Saturday Review (1863)
        (pp. 201-205)

        Founded in 1855 just after the repeal of the Newspaper Stamp Act, which by reducing per-page taxes on newspapers lowered the costs of production and subscriptions, the politically conservative Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art soon gained a large readership. Known for its misogyny and elitist, caustic tone, it was nicknamed the “Saturday Reviler.” This review opens by praising the “obvious and simple design” of “The Old Chartist,” yet ultimately finds the more “ambitious” poems in the volume—particularly “Modern Love” and the usually admired “Ode to the Spirit of Earth in Autumn”—to be pretentious and in...

      • William Sharp, from Sonnets of This Century (1886)
        (pp. 206-207)
        William Sharp

        Scottish poet William Sharp’s (1855–1905) Sonnets of This Century is an anthology introduced with an essay on the nature and structure of the sonnet, with particular emphasis on the English sonnet. Given that Sharp offers a list of “ten commandments” of the sonnet, a list that includes a length of fourteen lines and an octave/sestet organization, it does not surprise that he selects Meredith’s “Lucifer in Starlight,” from Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth, over any of the “Modern Love” sonnets for inclusion in the main text of his volume. The excerpt that follows is drawn from...

      • Arthur Symons, from Westminster Review (1887)
        (pp. 208-210)
        Arthur Symons

        Arthur Symons (1865–1945), a British poet and literary critic, was a longtime admirer of Meredith’s work. His own poetry was deeply influenced by the French symbolists, including Charles Baudelaire. Toward the end of the century, Symons emerged as a key figure in the Art for Art’s Sake movement. His influential 1893 essay, “The Decadent Movement in Literature,” is often anthologized. The excerpted review that follows was occasioned by the 1887 publication of Meredith’s Ballads and Poems of Tragic Life. Here Symons praises the originality and intensity of Meredith’s verse....

      • From Unsigned Review, Travelers Record (1892)
        (pp. 211-214)

        Debuting in 1865 with a print run of 50,000 and published by Travelers Insurance, the Travelers Record was one of the world’s first industrial in-house magazines. It featured letters purportedly from satisfied customers, articles about the dangers of modern life, literary and fine-arts reviews, and poetry, some of which was reprinted in British periodicals. This review addresses the 1891 pirated edition of “Modern Love,” published by Thomas Mosher, which included a foreword by the poet Elizabeth Cavazza. Only 400 copies of this edition were printed. Critical of Meredith’s peculiar variation on the sonnet form, this review is largely negative. It...

    • ADVICE MANUALS AND SOCIAL COMMENTARY

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 215-216)

        Many of the central emotive themes of “Modern Love”—the angst and frustration of disconnection, the jealousy precipitated by adultery or fear of adultery, the desire to assign blame in the aftermath of the breakdown of a relationship—are so universally familiar that they can be immediately appreciated. Understanding the particular social context of the middle- and upper-class Victorian couple nevertheless helps to account for the strength and intensity of those emotive themes. Sarah Stickney Ellis’s conduct manual articulates some of the expectations the Victorian bride faced, and frames the wife’s proper role as one of constant self-effacement in support...

      • Sarah Stickney Ellis, from The Wives of England (1843)
        (pp. 217-225)
        Sarah Stickney Ellis

        Sarah Stickney Ellis (1799–1862) is widely known for her instruction manuals, most of which are directed to young women. Here, she offers a meditation on the nature of marriage, first bemoaning the fact that many enter into marriage with little awareness about the actual experience. She encourages women to tend to their relationships, cultivating them like a garden, and she condemns women’s desire for public attention. Ellis’s vision of the ideal Victorian wife helped establish expectations for both women and the men they would marry. In light of these expectations, one can better understand the ambivalence manifested by the...

      • William Cobbett, from Advice to Young Men, and (Incidentally) to Young Women, in the Middle and Higher Ranks of Life (1862)
        (pp. 226-233)
        William Cobbett

        William Cobbett (1763–1835), an agitator for radical parliamentary reform, was an English farmer and prolific writer who lived and worked in Britain and the United States. First published in 1829, his Advice to Young Men went through a number of editions and was reissued in 1862. Cobbett’s advice on the subject of adultery, excerpted here, is notable for its account of shared responsibility. Although Cobbett insists that infidelity is “much worse in the wife” than in the husband, he nevertheless concedes that husbands must work to avoid being “the cause of temptation to the wife to be unfaithful” or...

      • John Paget, from “The English Law of Divorce” (1856)
        (pp. 234-240)
        John Paget

        John Paget (1811–1898) was a police magistrate, barrister, and author. This selection offers insight into the logistical reasons why a Victorian husband who suspected his wife of adultery might choose to remain married to her, despite the fact that a wife’s infidelity was the only legal basis for divorce at the time. In this review article, Paget purports to present his readers with a “concise and intelligible summary” of the English court’s position on divorce. The difficulty, which the article points to with regular sarcasm, is that the laws are so convoluted and self-contradictory, that composing a “concise and...

      • John Ruskin, from Sesame and Lilies (1865)
        (pp. 241-246)
        John Ruskin

        John Ruskin (1819–1900) is a major figure of Victorian letters, writing widely as a critic of art, literature, and culture. In Sesame and Lilies, he offers a series of lectures describing education’s role in man’s life and—as follows—in woman’s; along the way, he articulates what he considers to be the essential nature of the sexes. In this excerpt, perhaps the best known from the lectures, Ruskin depends on binary oppositions: he concludes that a “man’s power is active, progressive, defensive” and that man is “the doer, the creator, the discoverer, the defender,” while a woman’s power and...

      • John Stuart Mill, from The Subjection of Women (1869)
        (pp. 247-250)
        John Stuart Mill

        Social theorist and political philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) offers here an impassioned, utilitarian argument for the value of a marriage based on notions of personal and legal equality. The text made a strong impression on Meredith: John Morley writes in Recollections that Meredith “eagerly seized [The Subjection of Women], fell to devouring it in settled silence, and could not be torn from it all day.”² In the section excerpted here, Mill outlines reasons for redressing structural imbalances regarding the rights and expectations of husbands and wives, arguing, for example, that a woman’s contributions to household duties should be...

    • ON THE SENSES

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 251-252)

        Is poetry, as John Stuart Mill suggested, the “logical opposite” of science? While the methods and goals of each discipline may be very different, the influence of nineteenth-century science on the literary arts cannot be underestimated. It is clear from the excerpts that follow that the ways in which Victorian scientists and physiologists understood sensory experience directly influenced the ways in which poets composed verse and readers conceived of their encounters with poetry.

        Victorian treatises on the material processes of sensory perception are particularly relevant with regard to Meredith’s poetry. As detractors and devotees alike noted, Meredith’s poetry is filled...

      • Alexander Bain, from The Senses and the Intellect (1855)
        (pp. 253-259)
        Alexander Bain

        Alexander Bain (1818–1903), one of the founders of modern psychology, was a Scottish natural philosopher, writer, and academic. A materialist and an associationist, Bain maintained that understanding how humans process sensory experiences was key to constructing a viable theory of mental life. Previously experienced sensations are revived as ideas according to “laws” of association, including the “Law of Contiguity,” “Law of Similarity,” and “Law of Contrast.” In the excerpts that follow, Bain explains why mental life necessarily involves the body, and he describes the relationship between his model of mind and artistic creation. Against those who regard fidelity to...

      • A. B. Johnson, from The Physiology of the Senses (1856)
        (pp. 260-267)
        A. B. Johnson

        Alexander Bryan Johnson (1786–1867) was an American banker, amateur scientist, and philosopher of language whose Physiology of the Senses was praised by the English press for its lively synthesis of contemporary thought about how sensory perception relates to understanding and language use. Words do not name the knowledge we gain through our senses, Johnson insists. Rather, words name our intellectual or emotional understanding of sensory perceptions. As Johnson puts it, “the sensible signification of language is strictly limited by the sensible knowledge of the hearer.”² Key to Johnson’s account of how language can promote or impede the communication of...

      • George Wilson, from The Five Senses (1860)
        (pp. 268-276)
        George Wilson

        George Wilson (1818–1859) was a professor at the University of Edinburgh, chemist, celebrated public speaker, museum director, and writer of popular textbooks and scientific treatises. He is perhaps best remembered for his research findings regarding color blindness, research that changed practices in railway and ship signaling. Wilson’s The Five Gateways of Knowledge (as it was initially known) popularized scientific thought about the influence of the senses upon the mind and went through at least seven editions. Using religious rhetoric, Wilson argued against the notion that ignoring the body improves the mind and encouraged his readers to cultivate their sensory...

    • NINETEENTH-CENTURY POETICS

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 277-279)

        This section is not intended to offer a comprehensive overview of the numerous (and often elaborate) theories of Victorian prosody. Instead, it provides a series of texts that articulate some of the abiding aesthetic concerns of the period, chosen both for their representative nature and their relevance to Meredith’s verse and its contemporary reception.

        Each of these excerpts raises questions that shaped Meredith’s poetry: What is poetry’s purview? Are the ancients relevant to modern poets and readers? What role, if any, should the present play in contemporary poetry? How should poetry handle subjective and emotive experience? Is highly sensual poetry...

      • Arthur Henry Hallam, from “On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry” (1831)
        (pp. 280-284)
        Arthur Henry Hallam

        Arthur Henry Hallam (1811–1833) is now, perhaps, best known as the man whose death occasioned one of the Victorian period’s most powerful elegies: Tennyson’s In Memoriam. Before he died, however, Hallam was a promising poet and critic who planned to make a living at law. A love of poetry drew Tennyson and Hallam together while students at Cambridge. Tennyson’s first published volume of poems initially found few sympathetic readers among the critical establishment. No surprise, then, that Hallam’s review of the same volume begins by telling its readers to judge the book (and indeed all poetry) for themselves. In...

      • Matthew Arnold, from “Preface” to Poems (1853)
        (pp. 285-295)
        Matthew Arnold

        Although Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) earned his living as a school inspector, he was also a prominent poet, essayist, and social critic. This is Arnold’s first published essay; it is important not only as an influential account of readers’ aesthetic responses to poetry, but also as a statement of Arnold’s own classicist aesthetic. Fundamentally, this is an essay about language and style. In the excerpt that follows, Arnold praises the ancients for subordinating style to subject matter and overall design—a strategy which (according to Arnold) enabled their work to produce a clear and profound moral impression in audiences. He...

      • Gerald Massey, from “Poetry—The Spasmodists” (1858)
        (pp. 296-307)
        Gerald Massey

        Born in poverty, Gerald Massey (1828–1907) was a journalist, amateur Egyptologist, and public speaker known for his lectures on the arts and Christian socialism; he was also considered a Spasmodic poet by some. Although the poets whom Victorian critics tended to label as Spasmodists were considered extremely “modern,” their poetry was often described in terms that today might remind one of high Romanticism: it was marked by introspection, vivid sensory descriptions, striking imagery, and heightened (if sometimes morbid) emotions. In this essay, Massey uses the lingering influence of the Spasmodic school as an opportunity to advance a theory of...

      • Henry James, from “Charles Baudelaire” (1876)
        (pp. 308-314)
        Henry James

        This essay is a response to a debate in the pages of the Nation about the relationship between aesthetic and moral value. Henry James (1843–1916), an American novelist and literary critic, took the controversy (gesturing toward it in the essay’s opening paragraph, which we’ve omitted) as a launching point for a nuanced meditation on the question at the heart of Hallam’s, Arnold’s, and Massey’s essays: What ought to be the proper subject for poetry, and why? James’s critique of Baudelaire’s choice of subjects resonates with the early critical responses to Meredith’s “Modern Love” and the “Poems and Ballads,” which...

      • Gerard Manley Hopkins, “Author’s Preface” (1883)
        (pp. 315-319)
        Gerard Manley Hopkins

        The following two selections from Gerard Manley Hopkins’s (1844–1889) prose offer a clear picture of the difference between “running rhythm” and “sprung rhythm,” and make a strong claim for the positive value of reading poetry aloud. Oddly enough—given the density of his prose—Hopkins, like Wordsworth, believed that poetry ought to correspond to the rhythms of natural speech. Hopkins’s poems, by representing the work of poetic inspiration upon the brain though rhythm, unconventional syntax, puns, ellipses, neologisms, repetition, and compound words, allow readers to access what he considered to be the distinctive design that constitutes the dynamic identity...

      • Gerard Manley Hopkins, Letter on “Harry Ploughman” (1887)
        (pp. 320-322)
        Gerard Manley Hopkins

        ...I want Harry Ploughman to be a vivid figure before the mind’s eye; if he is not that the sonnet fails. The difficulties are of syntax no doubt. Dividing a compound word by a clause sandwiched into it was a desperate deed, I feel, and I do not feel that it was an unquestionable success. But which is the line you do not understand? I do myself think, I may say, that it would be an immense advance in notation (so to call it) in writing as the record of speech, to distinguish the subject, verb, object, and in general...

    • OTHER POETRY

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 323-324)

        Demonstrating the wide range of form and content in mid-Victorian poetry, the poems in this section might at first glance seem like an eclectic mix. They were chosen because each exemplifies key elements of Meredith’s verse: social commentary, sensory detail and synesthesia, narrativity, and the sonnet form. Reading the Modern Love poems in relation to these selections highlights Meredith’s use of these poetic devices, revealing the richly diverse nature of his verse.

        Any study of Victorian poetry depicting marriage would be incomplete without acknowledging the enormous influence of Coventry Patmore’s “The Angel in the House.” The poem breathes life into...

      • John Keats, from “Woman! when I behold thee flippant, vain . . .” (1817) and “On the Sea” (1817)
        (pp. 325-327)
        John Keats

        John Keats (1795–1821) was an English Romantic poet. His association with the radical Leigh Hunt made him a target in the Tory press, which characterized his verse as prurient, overly sensuous, and pretentious. Even Wordsworth called his “Hymn to Pan” a “very pretty piece of Paganism.” It is no wonder, then, that Meredith would regard Keats as a kindred spirit, preferring his work over that of Shelley and Byron. Keats was also a favorite among many in Meredith’s intellectual circle, particularly those belonging to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His mastery of the sonnet form is clear from the two examples...

      • Elizabeth Barrett Browning, from Sonnets from the Portuguese (1850)
        (pp. 328-330)
        Elizabeth Barrett Browning

        Although her work was deemed unfashionably “Victorian” in the early twentieth century, during her lifetime Elizabeth Barrett Browning was England’s most famous and admired woman poet—more famous than her husband, Robert Browning. Their courtship began when Robert Browning, having just read her poetry and never having met her, was nevertheless prompted to express his deep admiration in a letter to her: “I do as I say,” he wrote, “love these books with all my heart—and I love you too.”² Written during the course of their courtship in 1845 and 1846 and first published in 1850 (after they were...

      • Coventry Patmore, from The Angel in the House (1854–62)
        (pp. 331-340)
        Coventry Patmore

        Coventry Patmore published his first book of poems, Poems (1844), with Edward Moxon, publisher of Tennyson and Robert Browning, when he was only twenty-one. His poetry thematized love, sexuality, medievalism, and intense emotion in the Romantic vein, and he was associated with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, publishing in The Germ. Patmore and Meredith were not only connected through the Pre-Raphaelite circle, but also (later in life) through their friendships with the poet and journalist Alice Meynell. The Angel in the House was written to be the definitive poem on married love. The first two installments, telling the story of Felix Vaughn’s...

      • Charles Baudelaire, “Causerie” (1857)
        (pp. 341-343)
        Charles Baudelaire

        In addition to being a poet, Charles Baudelaire (1821–1867) was an art critic, essayist, and translator—one credited with popularizing Edgar Allan Poe’s work in France. Taking a cue from Poe’s gothicism, Baudelaire relished the interstices between the beautiful and the ugly, the sacred and the profane, life and death. Those juxtapositions, along with the parallel synesthesia that pervades his verse, became the touchstone for the Symbolists—poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, and Arthur Rimbaud, who rejected realism in favor of sensual and sensory description. Though it would come to be regarded as a seminal work of...

      • Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from Maud (1859)
        (pp. 344-347)
        Alfred Tennyson

        Alfred, Lord Tennyson became England’s Poet Laureate in 1850, on the heels of the publication of his masterpiece, In Memoriam. Maud (which was many, many years in the making) was first published in 1855 (increasingly longer versions appeared in 1856 and 1859). A series of short lyrics in various meters, Maud is divided into three parts; each of these parts has several subsections (indicated by capitalized roman numerals), some of which have subsections of their own (indicated by lowercase roman numerals). The poem is said to have been one of Tennyson’s favorites to read aloud. Maud’s speaker is an extremely...

      • Christina Rossetti, from “Monna Innominata: A Sonnet of Sonnets” (1881)
        (pp. 348-352)
        Christina Rossetti

        Christina Rossetti (1830–1894), younger sister to Meredith’s friend the Pre-Raphaelite poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a master of poetic form whose witty yet stern poetry often thematized religious belief, love, and death, as well as a conflict between sensory pleasures and their refusal. “Monna Innominata” was first published in 1881, as part of A Pageant and Other Poems. Its title is usually translated as “unnamed lady”; its subtitle—“A Sonnet of Sonnets”—refers to the fact that it is a sequence of fourteen 14-line sonnets that (when taken as a whole) function as a meditation on the...

      • Gerard Manley Hopkins, “Harry Ploughman” (1887)
        (pp. 353-354)
        Gerard Manley Hopkins

        Hopkins’s poetry was first published in 1918, twenty-nine years after his death, by his friend and literary executor, the poet Robert Bridges. His poems are praised for their experimental meter and diction; Hopkins himself was hailed as a pioneer of “Modern” literature—even in the early twentieth century, when his fellow Victorian poets were vociferously derided. Like its companion piece “Tom’s Garland,” “Harry Ploughman” is a caudate sonnet, that is, a sonnet with a tail consisting of so-called burden lines. The poem asks readers to see God’s strength and grace in the body of a common working man and is...

  15. Textual Variants
    (pp. 357-380)

    Unlike the 1862 edition, the Edition de Luxe (EdL) does not use double quotation marks to render dialogue—they are omitted altogether, or in case of reported speech, they are exchanged for single quotation marks. Words ending in ’d in the 1862 edition were rendered as ed in the EdL. As these are global changes, we have not recorded each instance here. The running heads and table of contents in EdL are inconsistent; we note the location of the poems in the EdL according to its table of contents.

    Meredith frequently used an ampersand instead of and in his manuscripts;...

  16. Suggestions for Further Reading
    (pp. 381-384)
  17. Index of First Lines
    (pp. 385-386)
  18. Subject Index
    (pp. 387-390)