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Krinoi Kai Limenes

Krinoi Kai Limenes: Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw

Philip P. Betancourt
Michael C. Nelson
Hector Williams
Copyright Date: 2007
Published by: INSTAP Academic Press
Pages: 315
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  • Book Info
    Krinoi Kai Limenes
    Book Description:

    Joseph and Maria Shaw received the Archaeological Institute of America's Gold Medal for a lifetime of outstanding achievement in January of 2006. This volume is a collection of the papers presented at the Gold Medal Colloquium held in their honour during the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in Montreal, Quebec. Additional articles have also been written for this volume. Many of the articles pertain to different aspects of Aegean Bronze Age architecture, harbors, frescoes, and trade, which are all keen interests of the Shaws.

    eISBN: 978-1-62303-105-3
    Subjects: History, Archaeology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. List of Tables in the Text
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Figures in the Text
    (pp. xi-xx)
  5. List of Color Plates
    (pp. xxi-xxiv)
    (pp. xxv-xxviii)
    (pp. xxix-xxxii)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxxiii-xxxiv)
  9. Introduction
    (pp. xxxv-xxxvi)
    Philip P. Betancourt, Michael C. Nelson and Hector Williams

    Maria C. and Joseph W. Shaw received the Archaeological Institute of America’s highest and most esteemed honor in January of 2006: the Gold Medal Award for Distinguished Archaeological Achievement. It recognized their scholarly endeavors—rigorous fieldwork, relentless analyses of material remains, and outstanding publications—which are truly remarkable and which continue to influence and shape our understanding of Aegean archaeology and the history of the Mediterranean region.

    The two formed a team in graduate school and were married in the little Byzantine church below the British embassy on Ploutarchou Street in Athens. Maria graduated with a Ph.D. from Bryn Mawr...


    • 1 Minoan Archaeology and the Quest for the Primitive Hut
      (pp. 1-8)
      John C. McEnroe

      In the second edition of his Essai sur l’architecture published in 1755, Marc-Antoine Laugier provided an engaging illustration of the origin of architecture (Fig. 1.1).* In this engraving, a personification of architecture holds drafting tools in one hand and, with the other, directs a young putto’s attention to an imaginary vision of the world’s first building. Laugier portrays the primitive hut as the fusion of culture and nature. The four main columns are rooted trees whose branches bear masses of shimmering leaves, as if the building had sprung from the earth. At the same time, the rectangular building with gabled...

    • 2 The Roofing of Early Minoan Round Tombs: The Evidence of Lebena Tomb II (Gerokampos) and of Cretan Mitata
      (pp. 9-16)
      Peter Warren

      The intriguing architectural and engineering question of the form or forms of roof structure of Early–Middle Minoan round tombs received renewed and extensive discussion some years ago.* Hood (1960), Branigan (1970, 28–55, especially 37–55), Pelon (1976, 55–63), Treuil (1983, 435–440), and Belli (1984, 120–124) considered a variety of solutions; Hood favored a domed superstructure of mudbrick, Branigan suggested a flat roof with horizontal timbers below a stone layer (accepting that some late, Middle Minoan I tombs may have been fully vaulted in stone); Pelon (1976, 60–61) argued that tombs up to 6 meters...

    • 3 Minoan and Mycenaean Stone Revetment
      (pp. 17-22)
      Michael C. Nelson

      Ashlar masonry was frequently used on the exterior facades of Minoan and Mycenaean buildings because of its durability.* Cuttings on the tops of many blocks indicate that horizontal timber beams were occasionally inserted between ashlar courses. Although no beams have been recovered in situ, reconstructions of ashlar walls by archaeologists often place them flush with the face of the wall, for example, within the west wall of the lightwell in the Hall of the Double Axes at Knossos (Fig. 3.1; Evans 1921–1935, I, fig. 250; III, fig. 225; Shaw 1971, fig. 97) or within the north wall of the...

    • 4 New Data on the Western Facade of the Phaistian Palace
      (pp. 23-30)
      Vincenzo La Rosa

      At the end of August 1976, a young American man (in shorts, with a multi-functional knife on display in the side pocket, and with a jovial and captivating smile) came to greet D. Levi at Phaistos and asked permission to store his tachymeter in one of the magazines of the Italian Mission premises. The Teacher told me that his name was Joseph Shaw and that he had just started working in the nearby site at Kommos. The following year it was my turn, with Hagia Triada. Thirty years have since passed! Common scientific and planning problems, a great passion for...

    • 5 The Cosmopolitan Harbor Town of Ugarit and the ʺAegeanʺ Aspects of Its Domestic Architecture
      (pp. 31-48)
      Clairy Palyvou

      Joseph Shaw’s seminal work, “Minoan Architecture: Materials and Techniques,” set the standard for understanding Aegean building technology of the Bronze Age and is a valuable reference work to this day (Shaw 1971). The book deals with one of the three components of architecture, Structure. It is the most tangible and safe component to describe and, therefore, an appropriate starting point. Of the other two, Form is perhaps the most attractive—and Maria Shaw has proven this with her excellent work on formal analysis of wall paintings, an issue touching on architecture as well—whereas Function is the most intriguing yet...

    • 6 The Central Court of the Palace of Petras
      (pp. 49-60)
      Metaxia Tsipopoulou

      Since the beginning of Minoan Archaeology, there has been a long discussion concerning the origin and the function(s) of the central court of the Minoan palaces, especially on how this particular architectural type served and reflected these two aspects.* All scholars agree that the central court is the most defining feature of a palace (Palyvou 2002, 167) and that it mirrored “a particular social order, and a symbolism carried by monumentality” (Driessen 2004, 75). Also, the central court is the sine qua non for the definition of a building as a palace, and it has been described as having functions...

    • 7 Building Megara for Dummies: The Conception and Construction of Architectural Forms at Late Minoan IIIC Halasmenos (Monasteraki, Ierapetra, Crete)
      (pp. 61-66)
      David W. Rupp

      When most individuals look at the preserved foundations of an ancient building in person or its schematic representation on a plan (actual state or restored plan), they tend to see the totality of the structure as opposed to the component parts. That is, they create the impression in their minds of the building as a whole at its latest phase before abandonment and/or destruction. In this “macro-vision,” the phases of construction, enlargement, and/or modification are suppressed in favor of a general conception of its “buildingness,” sometimes even incorporating subconsciously into this vision abstract elements that arise from the label given...

    • 8 A Chorotaxia at the Late Minoan III Cemetery of Armenoi
      (pp. 67-74)
      Yannis Tzedakis and Holley Martlew

      The village of Armenoi is situated some 10 kilometers south of the town of Rethymnon, on the main road leading to the south coast of Crete. One kilometer north of the village, the greatest known Late Minoan (LM) III necropolis was discovered on a low hill called Prinokephalo, which means “hill of the wild oaks.” Systematic excavations began in 1969 and continue to the present day. To date, 232 tombs, some unfinished, and one small tholos (probably dating to the end of LM II, ca. 1425–1390 b.c.) have been uncovered (Fig. 8.1; Tzedakis 1971; 1992; Godart and Tzedakis 1992;...

    • 9 Richard Seager in 1902–1903
      (pp. 75-84)
      D.J. Ian Begg

      Richard Berry Seager was born in Michigan in October 1882 and died in Crete in May 1925.* There is no consecutive narrative of events between these dates as his notebooks “left at the house” (24 May 1907 letter to Edith Hall in Georgiou and Becker 1974, 112) and any diaries that he may have written have never been found. In their biography of Seager, Marshall Becker and Philip Betancourt (1997) managed to piece together his life by relying upon sporadic letters from Seager and scattered references in letters to and from others. Given his central role among early American archaeologists...


    • 10 Akrotiri, Thera: Some Additional Notes on its Plan and Architecture
      (pp. 85-92)
      Christos G. Doumas

      In his pioneering contribution to the Third International Congress “Thera and the Aegean World,” J.W. Shaw presented a paper that demonstrated that Aegean Bronze Age coastal settlements were founded on a promontory flanked by sandy shores (Shaw 1990), with the result that ships could beach on either side of a natural double harbor according to weather conditions and the direction of the prevailing winds (Shaw 1990, 423). This pattern seems to be the rule almost without exception, as the ever increasing list of such sites demonstrates. Kum Tepe and Bessik Yassi Tepe in the Troad, Bakla Tepe and Liman Tepe...

    • 11 A New Exploration of Priniatikos Pyrgos: Primary Harbor Settlement and Emporium of the Vrokastro Survey Region
      (pp. 93-100)
      Barbara J. Hayden, Yannis Bassiakos, Thanasis Kalpaxis, Apostolos Sarris and Metaxia Tsipopoulou

      One goal of the Vrokastro Survey Project (see Hayden et al. 2004; 2005) was to identify a site in the west-central region of the Gulf of Mirabello that could reveal the diachronic cultural history of the survey area. Excavation of this primary center could provide stratified contexts by which to more carefully assess regional development and synthesize results of the survey. Based on its size, potential complexity, and millennia-long history, the site of Priniatikos Pyrgos, located on a promontory in the Istron coastal zone, was selected for further investigation (Fig. 11.1). Previous work at the site included a brief excavation...

    • 12 Harbors as Agents of Social Change in Ancient Crete
      (pp. 101-106)
      L. Vance Watrous

      The paper I am going to deliver here is not the one I intended to write—this paper seems to have written itself, and in the process, became something quite different. I will suggest that harbors, because of their commercial wealth and exposure to new ideas, have often functioned as agents of social change, as seedbeds for ideas that subvert the orthodoxy of the centralized state. To illustrate this idea, I will begin in the Roman period and work backward in time, concentrating on Matala and Kommos in the Mesara, Poros/Katsambas and Amnissos in north central Crete, and Gournia and...

    • 13 The Harbors of Ancient Lesbos
      (pp. 107-116)
      Hector Williams

      In 1972, in George Bass’s A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology, Joe Shaw published an article on ancient harbors that remains one of the most useful summaries of the subject available (Shaw 1972). My own experience in underwater archaeology and my long acquaintance with him and Maria began under his tutelage at the excavations of Kenchreai, the eastern port of Corinth, in 1968, and it is a pleasure to offer them this short discussion of a group of interesting but little known ancient harbors in the Greek archipelago. Work on ancient harbors is beginning to attract more attention,...


    • 14 Paintings, Harbors, and Intercultural Relations
      (pp. 117-130)
      Lyvia Morgan

      Wall paintings are, by definition, contextual. While itinerant painters may have traveled to farflung lands, bringing their imagery to foreign palaces, the paintings belonged to the walls on which they were painted.* Their context is multifaceted and expansive: the particular wall, the iconographic juxtaposition of images on adjacent and opposite walls, the function of the room and its associated finds, the connection with thresholds, corridors and surrounding rooms, the topographical surroundings (fortifications, harbors, hills, shore), and the cardinal orientation.

      Cardinal orientation is a concept clearly demonstrable in paintings and reliefs preserved in situ in Egyptian tombs and temples. I propose...

    • 15 Disiecta Membra: The Wall Paintings from the ʺPorterʹs Lodgeʺ at Akrotiri
      (pp. 131-138)
      Andreas Vlachopoulos

      This short article is a preliminary presentation of the unpublished wall paintings from the “Porter’s Lodge,” given in homage to two eminent scholars and respected friends, Joe and Maria, who, for over 35 years, have complemented each other as inextricably as architecture and monumental painting do in the Aegean of the Late Bronze Age.*

      The autumn of 1968, the second excavation season at Akrotiri, was promising for Spyridon Marinatos, thanks to the discovery of the first wall paintings (Marinatos 1968–1976, II, 53). In the area south of Sector A, some technical works brought to light a small paved space...

    • 16 A Manʹs World? Gender and Male Coalitions in the West House Miniature Frescoes
      (pp. 139-144)
      Anne P. Chapin

      Rich in detail and complex in subject matter, the miniature frescoes from Room 5 of the West House in Akrotiri, Thera, offer a unique glimpse into prehistoric Aegean art and culture (Marinatos 1968–1976, VI, 38–60, pls. 91–94, 96–108, 110, col. pls. 7–9; Doumas 1992, pls. 26–48; Televantou 1990; 1994; 2000). Three narrow friezes are preserved: the north wall was painted with scenes of a coastal raid, the south wall presented a grand procession of ships sailing between two towns, and the east wall featured an exotic riverine landscape. Iconographic analyses of the surviving fragments...

    • 17 Brush Work
      (pp. 145-150)
      Ellen Davis

      With the access provided by the new renovation of the Chora Museum on Keos in 2002, I was able to resume study of the frescoes from Hagia Eirene for the final publication.* I saw the paintings with fresh eyes, since so much new evidence about fresco painting had come to light in the interim. I was especially struck by the free brush painting without guide lines practiced by the skilled artists. It is a Minoan feature that did not survive the Mycenaean takeover. The quality of the brushwork can only be conveyed by details in color. Following the instructions of...

    • 18 A Reconsideration of the Kneeling-Figure Fresco from Hagia Triada
      (pp. 151-158)
      Bernice Jones

      Among the most important LM I frescoes, the ones decorating Room 14 (2.35 x 1.60 m) at Hagia Triada (Militello 1998, 99, pls. A–F) stand out because they preserve the most complete large-scale figural paintings from Minoan Crete. A “goddess” on the east wall (Militello 1998, pls. 3a, D–E; Jones 2005, pl. 178b) presides over landscapes with animals on the south wall, and a kneeling figure on the north wall (Militello 1998, pls. 1a, 2, 5, 6). Although the “goddess” (preserved in situ) is clearly the central figure in the narrative, the large-scale kneeling figure (preserved in a...

    • 19 Throne Room Griffins from Pylos and Knossos
      (pp. 159-166)
      Elizabeth B. Shank

      The discovery of the Throne Room at Pylos in 1953 under the direction of Carl W. Blegen was made all the more spectacular by the fresco remains found within the room (Blegen and Rawson 1966, 8, 9).* By 1956, Piet de Jong had studied the fresco fragments and created a reconstruction of the northeast wall of the room (Blegen 1956, 95, pl. 40, fig. 2). The fresco fragments depicted a griffin and a lion, and, due to their inclusion in a throne room setting, parallels were quickly drawn between the Pylos Throne Room and the Throne Room at Knossos (Blegen...

  13. TRADE

    • 20 Hippopotamus Ivory in EM–MM Lasithi and the Implications for Eastern Mediterranean Trade: New Evidence from Hagios Charalambos
      (pp. 167-176)
      Susan C. Ferrence

      The upland plain of Lasithi in eastern Crete lies at approximately 850 m above sea level, and it is encircled by a mountain range that reaches over 2000 m at its highest peak. Only a handful of mountain passes allowed access to Minoan settlements in this seemingly isolated location during the Bronze Age. In this remote setting, one would not readily expect to find evidence of international trade in the Early to Middle Minoan periods; that would be an incorrect assumption, however.*

      The caves of Hagios Charalambos and Trapeza in Lasithi were both used in MM IIB as ossuaries for...

    • 21 The Harbor of Kommos and Its East Mediterranean Connections in the Protopalatial Period
      (pp. 177-184)
      Aleydis Van de Moortel

      In recent decades, numerous studies have dealt with maritime interconnections between Middle Bronze Age Crete and the East Mediterranean (e.g., Crowley 1989; Lambrou-Phillipson 1990; Phillips 1990; 1991; Sherratt and Sherratt 1991; Wiener 1991; Cline 1994; Warren 1995; Betancourt 1998; Watrous 1998; 2001; Karetsou et al. 2000).* Where as it has long been customary in this line of study to consider Crete as a whole, as evidence from excavations increases and our understanding of regional artifact styles (pottery in particular) improves, time has come to adopt a regional approach and focus on the overseas connections of individual Minoan palatial societies. It...

    • 22 An Orientalizing Type of Minoan Rhyton from House X at Kommos
      (pp. 185-190)
      Jeremy B. Rutter

      Two non-joining fragments of an unusual decorated rhyton were found within a layer of rubble some 35–40 cm thick deposited over the final Minoan level of use in Room 3 of House X at Kommos. Initially inventoried as C7013 when the first six sherds belonging to this vase were found in 1984 by R. Henrickson in Trench 59A, the piece was supplemented by a pair of additional sherds recovered in 1991 by J. Sabourin in Trench 74B. The date of the latest purely Minoan use of this space appears to be either late LM IIIA:1 or early LM IIIA:2...

    • 23 Marketing Mycenaean Pottery in the Levant
      (pp. 191-198)
      Mary K. Dabney

      Based on my study of Late Helladic IIIA:2–IIIB pottery found in the Eastern Mediterranean, I propose that the people from Mycenae and its environs were actively engaged in trying to establish direct trade relations with Egypt and the Levant, but ultimately failed because they lacked both sufficiently marketable export products and adequate experience in the language and protocol of the international relations that they needed to succeed.*

      First, I review some established evidence that is important to my argument for the exchange between Greece and sites east of Cyprus in the Eastern Mediterranean. This evidence consists of the following:...

    • 24 What Aegean ʺSimple Styleʺ Pottery Reveals about Interconnections in the 13th-Century b.c.e. Eastern Mediterranean
      (pp. 199-208)
      Robert B. Koehl and Joseph Yellin

      Among the many contributions of the excavations at Kommos—directed with vision and skill by Joe and Maria Shaw—has been the discovery of the widest range and largest number of Late Bronze Age Cypriot, Levantine, and Egyptian ceramic imports from any site in the Aegean (Watrous 1992, 156–163; Rutter 1999). These ceramics document the continued reciprocal participation of Crete in the trade networks of the eastern Mediterranean during the 13th century b.c.e., albeit on an apparently smaller scale than the participation of Mycenaean mainlanders.

      One aspect of the interconnections in the 13th-century Eastern Mediterranean was discussed by the...


    • 25 Lasithi and the Malia-Lasithi State
      (pp. 209-220)
      Philip P. Betancourt

      The Middle Bronze Age political alignment of the Lasithi Plain in east-central Crete has been a matter of considerable discussion.* One view holds that the region was independent during this period, based primarily on the presence of fortified sites (Nowicki 1996, 38–39). On the other hand, several scholars have commented on the possibility of a Middle Minoan state centered at the palace of Malia and including Myrtos-Pyrgos, Lasithi, and perhaps territory reaching as far east as the Gulf of Mirabello (Poursat 1988; Cadogan 1990; 1995; Knappett 1997; 1999; Knappett and Schoep 2000). All of these studies have concentrated on...

    • 26 Minoanization at Miletus: The Middle Bronze Age Ceramics
      (pp. 221-230)
      Amy Raymond

      Twenty years ago, the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara published an article entitled “Were the Southeastern Aegean Islands Deserted in the Middle Bronze Age?” (Papagiannopoulou 1985). Although the author intended this title to be a bit facetious, it addressed the near absence of evidence for habitation on the southwestern Turkish littoral and its coastal islands during the period that coincided with the Middle Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Protopalatial period on Crete. If, Papagiannopoulou asked, all of the MBA imitation Kamares Ware from this region had been misidentified and is in fact Late Bronze Age Aegeanizing light-on-dark ware...

    • 27 Neopalatial Knossos: Rule and Role
      (pp. 231-242)
      Malcolm H. Wiener

      Some years ago Colin Renfrew challenged me to state in a paper why I believed that Crete in the Neopalatial period was under unified rule from Knossos, in contrast to his advocacy of the peer-polity interaction model for Neopalatial Crete (Renfrew 1986; Cherry 1986).* My eightfold argument follows.

      After the destructions at the end of MM IIB and in MM IIIA, Knossos was the only palace/great administrative center left standing. Moreover, it seems clear that Knossos played a role in the reconstruction of the political and economic landscape of Crete which followed. The extent of the destructions across the face...

    • 28 Evidence for Ceramic Regionalism in Early Final Palatial Crete: New Perspectives
      (pp. 243-250)
      Jan Arvanitakis

      Over two decades ago, Mervyn Popham initially expounded his view that Knossos had established a political hegemony over Crete in the aftermath of the island’s great Late Minoan IB destructions, resulting in what he believed to be the remarkably uniform nature of LM II and LM IIIA:1 pottery found at sites outside the Knossos area (Popham 1980, 165–166; 1984, 180).*

      Popham’s views have been very influential upon the current perception of the political geography of Crete in the early Final Palatial period (LM II–IIIA:2 Early). Indeed, several scholars today continue to uphold the view that local ceramic production...

    • 29 Saevus Tridens
      (pp. 251-256)
      Jeffrey S. Soles

      During the 2004 season of the Greek-American excavations at Mochlos, a bronze trident (CA 427) was found in unusual circumstances with the remains of a tin ingot in a storeroom in the western wing of the site’s ceremonial building, Building B.2 (Soles and Davaras 1996, pl. 53d).* This storeroom, Room 1.7, lay adjacent to a spacious room, Room 1.3, which appears to have been used for a drinking ceremony, and directly across from Room 1.4 where six bronze basins were being stored (Soles and Davaras 1996, pl. 54a, b). Three pithoi, which probably stored wine or other beverages used in...


    • 30 Color and Brilliance: Obsidian, Chert, and Quartz in Sphakia, Crete
      (pp. 257-262)
      Lucia Nixon

      In this short paper I want to make three points.* First, I confirm the value of the lithic material collected by archaeological surveys in general, and the Sphakia Survey in particular. Second, I suggest that stone color can affect the selection of raw materials for stone tools, and finally, I propose that another aesthetic factor, brilliance, can contribute to the symbolic significance of certain lithic materials.

      The objective of the Sphakia Survey is to investigate how humans have interacted with Crete’s rugged landscape between the time that people first arrived toward the end of the fourth millennium b.c. and the...

    • 31 Modeling Domesticity
      (pp. 263-270)
      James C. Wright

      To any rational observer, archaeology should be the most boring of pursuits. Teams of researchers spend long hours out of doors, often in extreme weather conditions, and tediously dig through the dirt in order to discover and record someone else’s discarded junk. Then they pack up their finds and take them to their study center—where they are cleaned, labeled, weighed, counted, drawn, photographed, cataloged, and put away again—with the expectation that later someone might wish to restudy them.

      Obviously, people who commit their lives to such work think it worthwhile and, therefore, collect about them others of the...

    • 32 The Lily Crown and Sacred Kingship in Minoan Crete
      (pp. 271-276)
      Nanno Marinatos

      The greatest tribute one can pay to a scholar is to demonstrate the lasting value of his or her ideas. Maria Shaw’s work is based on both accuracy of observation and an acute understanding of the conventions of Minoan art. Her reassessment of the Prince of the Lilies from Knossos has the character of a definitive study. She examined the fragments of this relief composition, which are encased in a frame sealed with glass in the Herakleion museum, under difficult circumstances. Standing on a tall ladder, she discerned details of the original hitherto unobserved. She also studied the various restorations...

    • 33 The Neopalatial Chalice: Forms and Function in the Cave of Skoteino
      (pp. 277-284)
      Loeta Tyree, Athanasia Kanta and Dimitris Sphakianakis

      The “chalice,” a ritual vessel made from stone or clay, was prominent in Crete during the Neopalatial period (ca. 1700–1450 b.c.).* Among the best examples are the splendidly-carved stone chalices from the Neopalatial palace at Zakros in eastern Crete. The clay version of the Neopalatial chalice, albeit generally equally striking, has been elusive due to its fragile condition. Consequently, clay chalices did not receive much attention until their discovery, in the hundreds, at Syme Viannou, a rural sanctuary in the mountains of southeastern Crete (Lebessi 1985, 277–278). Recently, the study of the material from the cave of Skoteino,...

    • 34 A Unique Cult Scene
      (pp. 285-290)
      Birgitta P. Hallager

      Excavations in Crete inevitably bring us new sources of information about the Minoans, which can either confirm our present knowledge or, better yet, challenge it. One sherd found in a large LM IIIA:1 pit in the Greek-Swedish Excavations at the Hagia Aikaterini Square in the Kastelli area in Chania, West Crete, provides such a challenge.

      The sherd was part of a leg of a stand with a base diameter estimated at 27 cm. The leg is finished on both sides, and the stand can be identified as belonging to a broad-legged stand, a well-known shape in settlements, tombs, and shrines....

    • 35 Faunal Remains from the Sacred Spring (Corinth)
      (pp. 291-298)
      David S. Reese

      Over the past two decades, zooarchaeologists and their archaeology colleagues have begun to systematically examine animal bones and shells from Iron Age sanctuary sites in Greece and nearby countries to try to better understand ancient religious practices* (Boessneck and von den Driesch 1988; Bookidis et al. 1999; Chenal-Velarde 2001; Chenal-Velarde and Studer 2003; Columeau 2000; Crabtree 1990; Crabtree and Monge 1987; Davis 1996; Forsén et al. 1999; Forstenpointner 2001; 2003; Forstenpointner et al. 1999; Gardeisen 1996; Gebhard 1999, 199, 210–211, 213–221; Gebhard and Hemans 1992, 42, 46, 57, 63, 65, 67–68, 70, 75–76; 1998, 20–21,...

    • 36 The ʺShieldsʺ: An Eleuthernian View to the Idaean Cave
      (pp. 299-314)
      Nicholas C. Stampolidis

      Just before the mid-1990s, the ongoing excavations at the necropolis of Orthi Petra in ancient Eleutherna (Fig. 36.1) brought to light chamber tomb A1/K1 (Fig. 36.2).* Both the chamber and the dromos of the tomb were found unplundered. The first use of the chamber can confidently be assigned to 880–860 b.c. The tomb was probably sealed for the last time in the second quarter of the 7th century b.c., but the deposition of urns persisted in the dromos for perhaps the entire century (see Stampolidis 2004a, 122–124; 2004b).

      The extensive excavation notes, the amount of drawings prepared with...

  16. Color Plates
    (pp. 315-336)