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Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak, and Electromagnetic Interactions

Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak, and Electromagnetic Interactions: Second Edition

Chris Quigg
Copyright Date: 2013
Edition: STU - Student edition
Pages: 504
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  • Book Info
    Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak, and Electromagnetic Interactions
    Book Description:

    This completely revised and updated graduate-level textbook is an ideal introduction to gauge theories and their applications to high-energy particle physics, and takes an in-depth look at two new laws of nature--quantum chromodynamics and the electroweak theory. From quantum electrodynamics through unified theories of the interactions among leptons and quarks, Chris Quigg examines the logic and structure behind gauge theories and the experimental underpinnings of today's theories. Quigg emphasizes how we know what we know, and in the era of the Large Hadron Collider, his insightful survey of the standard model and the next great questions for particle physics makes for compelling reading.

    The brand-new edition shows how the electroweak theory developed in conversation with experiment. Featuring a wide-ranging treatment of electroweak symmetry breaking, the physics of the Higgs boson, and the importance of the 1-TeV scale, the book moves beyond established knowledge and investigates the path toward unified theories of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Explicit calculations and diverse exercises allow readers to derive the consequences of these theories. Extensive annotated bibliographies accompany each chapter, amplify points of conceptual or technical interest, introduce further applications, and lead readers to the research literature. Students and seasoned practitioners will profit from the text's current insights, and specialists wishing to understand gauge theories will find the book an ideal reference for self-study.

    Brand-new edition of a landmark text introducing gauge theories Consistent attention to how we know what we know Explicit calculations develop concepts and engage with experiment Interesting and diverse problems sharpen skills and ideas Extensive annotated bibliographies

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-4822-5
    Subjects: Physics

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Chris Quigg
  4. One Introduction
    (pp. 1-24)

    Over the past three decades, an animated conversation between experiment and theory has brought us to a new and radically simple conception of matter. Fundamental particles called quarks and leptons make up the everyday world, and new laws of nature—in the form of theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces—govern their interactions. Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction among quarks, and the electroweak theory have both been abstracted from experiment, refined within the framework of local gauge symmetries, and validated to an extraordinary degree through confrontation with experiment. What we have learned suggests paths to...

  5. Two Lagrangian Formalism and Conservation Laws
    (pp. 25-37)

    There are many ways to formulate the relativistic quantum field theory of interacting particles, each with its own set of advantages and shortcomings or inconveniences. The Lagrangian formalism has a number of attributes that make it particularly felicitous for our rather utilitarian purposes. Not to be neglected among its assets are that it is a familiar construct in classical mechanics and that many of its practical advantages can be understood already at the classical level. The Lagrangian approach is characterized by a simplicity in that field theory may be regarded as the limit of a system with n degrees of...

  6. Three The Idea of Gauge Invariance
    (pp. 38-56)

    We now turn to a discussion of the theory of electrodynamics, which is both the simplest gauge theory and the most familiar. The foundations for our present understanding of the subject were laid down by Maxwell in 1864 in his equations unifying the electric and magnetic interactions. The electromagnetic potential that we are led to introduce in order to generate fields that comply with Maxwell’s equations by construction is not uniquely defined. The resulting freedom to choose many potentials that describe the same electromagnetic fields has come to be called gauge invariance. We shall see that the gauge invariance of...

  7. Four Non-Abelian Gauge Theories
    (pp. 57-70)

    In this chapter we undertake the extension of our ideas about local gauge invariance to gauge groups that are more complicated than the group of phase rotations. We shall find that it is possible to enforce local gauge invariance by following essentially the same strategy that succeeded for electrodynamics. The principal difference, apart from algebraic complexity, will be the appearance of interactions among the gauge bosons as a consequence of the non-Abelian nature of the gauge symmetry. As before, we proceed by example, developing the SU(2)-isospin gauge theory put forward by Yang and Mills [1] and by Shaw [2]. The...

  8. Five Hidden Symmetries
    (pp. 71-94)

    Much importance has been attached to symmetry principles in the preceding chapters. We have seen the connection between exact symmetries and conservation laws and have found that the requirement of local gauge invariance can serve as a dynamical principle to guide the construction of interacting field theories. Although a certain economy and mathematical elegance has thus been achieved, the results of the program to this point are unsatisfactory in several important respects. First, the gauge principle has led us to theories in which all the interactions are mediated by massless vector bosons, whereas only a single massless vector boson, the...

  9. Six Electroweak Interactions of Leptons
    (pp. 95-186)

    In the preceding chapters we have developed a general strategy for the construction of exact or spontaneously broken gauge theories of the fundamental interactions. The point of departure for applications to particle physics is the recognition of a symmetry respected by the elementary fermions in the problem. What follows in the case of a spontaneously broken symmetry is an effort to conceal the exact symmetry in the same fashion that nature has chosen. There is much art in the selection of the gauge symmetry and of a pattern of symmetry breaking. Both experimental results and theoretical requirements offer constraints.


  10. Seven Electroweak Interactions of Quarks
    (pp. 187-268)

    In this chapter, we extend the electroweak theory to the hadronic sector. This will be accomplished through the medium of the quark model, as is natural in view of the experimental suggestions that quarks and leptons are comparably elementary. Because of the similarity to leptons, construction of a theory at the quark model level is relatively straightforward, and yet nontrivial. We remarked in section 6.8 that an anomaly-free and, hence, renormalizable theory could be formulated if each weak-isospin doublet of leptons were accompanied by a color triplet of weak-isospin doublets of quarks. Now we shall encounter the necessity of enlarging...

  11. Eight Strong Interactions among Quarks
    (pp. 269-386)

    Having learned that local gauge invariance provides the key to understanding the weak and electromagnetic interactions, we turn our attention once again to the strong interactions. The work of many people, from Yang and Mills [1] through Sakurai [2], Ne’eman [3], Englert and Brout [4], to ’t Hooft [5], among others, showed that it is unlikely that a flavor symmetry such as isospin or flavor-SU(3) could be the basis of a successful theory of the hadronic interactions. Furthermore, at what we currently perceive to be the constituent level of quarks and leptons, flavor has been seen to be an attribute...

  12. Nine Unified Theories
    (pp. 387-429)

    In the early chapters of this book we stressed the economy and elegance of the gauge principle as a guide to constructing theories of the fundamental interactions among the elementary constituents of matter. Subsequently, we put those ideas into practice, and a satisfying picture emerged of the weak and electromagnetic interactions as well as the strong interactions among quarks and gluons. Together, the electroweak theory and quantum chromodynamics account for all the prominent experimental observations in subnuclear physics and provide a large measure of understanding of the relationships among different phenomena. Three decades of lively interplay between theory and experiments...

  13. Epilogue
    (pp. 430-432)

    The preceding chapters have exhibited the promise and power of gauge theories and shown our description of the fundamental particles and the interactions among them to be in a very provocative state. Gauge theories unquestionably provide us with an extraordinarily unified and unifying language for the description of natural phenomena. Two new laws of nature—the electroweak theory and quantum chromodynamics—summarize a simple and coherent conception of an unprecedented range of natural phenomena, but that new picture raises captivating questions. We stand on the threshold of a higher level of understanding, with the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking virtually...

  14. Appendix A Notations and Conventions
    (pp. 433-446)
  15. Appendix B Observables and Feynman Rules
    (pp. 447-456)
  16. Appendix C Physical Constants
    (pp. 457-458)
  17. Author Index
    (pp. 459-474)
  18. Subject Index
    (pp. 475-482)