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Policy, Planning, and People

Policy, Planning, and People: Promoting Justice in Urban Development

Naomi Carmon
Susan S. Fainstein
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 448
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  • Book Info
    Policy, Planning, and People
    Book Description:

    The contributors of Policy, Planning, and People argue for the promotion of social equity and quality of life by designing and evaluating urban policies and plans. Edited by Naomi Carmon and Susan S. Fainstein, the volume features original essays by leading authorities in the field of urban planning and policy, mainly from the United States, but also from Canada, Hungary, Italy, and Israel. The contributors discuss goal setting and ethics in planning, illuminate paradigm shifts, make policy recommendations, and arrive at best practices for future planning. Policy, Planning, and People includes theoretical as well as practice-based essays on a wide range of planning issues: housing and neighborhood, transportation, surveillance and safety, the network society, regional development and community development. Several essays are devoted to disadvantaged and excluded groups such as senior citizens, the poor, and migrant workers. The unifying themes of this volume are the values of equity, diversity, and democratic participation. The contributors discuss and draw conclusions related to the planning process and its outcomes. They demonstrate the need to look beyond efficiency to determine who benefits from urban policies and plans. Contributors: Alberta Andreotti, Tridib Banerjee, Rachel G. Bratt, Naomi Carmon, Karen Chapple, Norman Fainstein, Susan Fainstein, Eran Feitelson, Amnon Frenkel, George Galster, Penny Gurstein, Deborah Howe, Norman Krumholz, Jonathan Levine, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Enzo Mingione, Kenneth Reardon, Izhak Schnell, Daniel Shefer, Michael Teitz, Iván Tosics, Lawrence Vale, Martin Wachs.

    eISBN: 978-0-8122-0796-5
    Subjects: Architecture and Architectural History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Introduction: Policy, Planning, and People
    (pp. 1-10)

    This collection of invited essays, especially written for this book, provides the readers with the state of the art of urban studies and planning oriented to the theme of planning for people. They all cope with the challenge of enhancing quality of life for all in the built environment.

    Our first goal in initiating this book was to provide a stage for well known authors who do not accept that there must be a “tradeoff between equality and efficiency” (Okun 1975), saying instead that economic efficiency without consideration of social equity is unacceptable for both moral and practical reasons. The...


    • Chapter 1 The Profession of Urban Planning and Its Societal Mandate
      (pp. 13-31)
      Naomi Carmon

      Modern urban planning is over a hundred years old, yet there is still no internal agreement about its mission and little external recognition of its societal role. This opening essay is intended to promote agreement among planners regarding their societal responsibility, a step that in turn may enhance external recognition of the planning profession and its societal mandate.

      The chapter may be viewed as a personal statement. It is based on observations, findings, and interpretations regarding the knowledge field and the profession of urban planning, which have been evolving from the time I first attended classes at the Department of...

    • Chapter 2 Restoring Just Outcomes to Planning Concerns
      (pp. 32-53)
      Norman Fainstein and Susan S. Fainstein

      Creating a more just world has been a human goal ever since injustice was recognized and defined. Needless to say, the definitions of just outcomes and the methods for attaining them have differed widely across cultures and epochs. Some visions of justice have been entirely ethereal or otherworldly. Many, however, have been presented in the context of a physical utopia embodying, at least implicitly, a conception of justice. In fact, the rise of town planning as a professional and academic field in the nineteenth century was strongly propelled by the desire to shape a more just world through explicitly rational...

    • Chapter 3 Environmental Equity: Is It a Viable City Planning Goal?
      (pp. 54-74)
      Eran Feitelson

      The improvement of environmental conditions, primarily of the urban poor, has been one of the main driving forces and goals of planning in the past century. Indeed, the environmental degradation induced by the industrial revolution and borne mainly by the urban poor, a condition graphically described by various nineteenth-century writers and analysts, was one of the stimulants for urban planning thereafter (Hall 2002; Hunt 2005). However, the direct coupling of environment and equity implicit in the term “environmental equity” is relatively new, having been advanced largely in the last twenty-five years, primarily in the United States.

      As city planning has...

    • Chapter 4 From Socialism to Capitalism: The Social Outcomes of the Restructuring of Cities
      (pp. 75-100)
      Iván Tosics

      The past twenty years or so brought the largest and quickest changes in the history of the Eastern-Central European cities. Within this short time, three periods can be distinguished, each with a different economic basis: the socialist system; the transitory, unregulated free market system; and the recent attempts at regulated capitalism.

      This chapter explores the changes in the urban development processes of the East-Central European cities (represented mainly through a close examination of Budapest) across the three periods, with special regard to the social inequality aspects of development.

      After an introduction of the conceptual framework, the discussion is structured around...

    • Chapter 5 The Past, Present, and Future of Professional Ethics in Planning
      (pp. 101-120)
      Martin Wachs

      Planning has historically been about shaping our shared built environment, but over time it has also come to be about forming our collective institutional and social environments. The meaning of plans is in their impacts on communities and in the actions that affect relationships among people within social and physical environments. Every collective or social decision is based in part on explicit or implied moral values, and it is inevitable that every act of planning is to some extent inspired by thought about morality. Programs addressing housing, air quality, mobility, and economic development all have complex technical content but are...


    • Chapter 6 Toward an Equity-Oriented Planning Practice in the United States
      (pp. 123-140)
      Norman Krumholz

      Over the past sixty years almost all older industrial cities in the United States have been losing population, jobs, and economic investment. As a consequence, most are becoming locations of concentrated poverty and unemployment. Global economic changes have eliminated employment and income opportunities for many lower-and moderate-income people, with minority populations in center cities being particularly affected (Wilson 1987). Many of the people remaining in these places live in areas that provide poor education, have high crime rates, and in every respect offer a sharply lower quality of life than that enjoyed by other Americans.

      Both local and national leadership...

    • Chapter 7 Urban Transportation and Social Equity: Transportation-Planning Paradigms That Impede Policy Reform
      (pp. 141-160)
      Jonathan Levine

      To the casual observer, transportation may seem to be an egalitarian aspect of metropolitan life. The vehicles of the wealthy travel in traffic jams at the same speed as those of the poor. An overcrowded rapid transit system leaves all passengers uncomfortable regardless of social class. But access to the means of transportation and to the destinations they connect is distributed highly unequally in cities of the developed and developing world—an inequality that affects nearly all aspects of the lives of people with limited ability to reach their destinations. This presents a particular challenge for equity-based planning. Views on...

    • Chapter 8 Social Equity in the Network Society: Implications for Communities
      (pp. 161-182)
      Penny Gurstein

      Digital networks are increasingly replacing or complementing social networks of face-to-face communication, furthering the formation of globally interdependent relationships within the economy, state, and society. The “network society” typified by Castells (1996) and van Dijk (1996) created by these new relationships is the result of a shift in spatial and temporal patterns that undermine the importance of local, regional, and national boundaries in many facets of social life.

      The consequences of this fraying of boundaries are still unfolding. What is and will be the impact of networked relationships on just and equitable resource allocation globally, nationally, regionally, within communities, and...

    • Chapter 9 The Center-Periphery Dilemma: Spatial Inequality and Regional Development
      (pp. 183-202)
      Daniel Shefer and Amnon Frenkel

      Variations exist among regions. These variations manifest themselves in the levels of the population’s economic and social well-being. Different regions are endowed with production factors and characteristics that offer different opportunities for specialization, which can be exploited to gain regional comparative advantage. They then may add to the region’s aggregate income and well-being. It is of paramount importance, then, first to identify a region’s comparative advantages and then to devise policies that exploit those advantages. Many outlying regions (peripheral regions) suffer from a high rate of unemployment, a low level of per capita income, and net out-migration. Most often the...


    • Chapter 10 Planning and Poverty: An Uneasy Relationship
      (pp. 205-223)
      Michael B. Teitz and Karen Chapple

      Do planners hate the poor? The evidence of history suggests that at best they have been indifferent, especially if offered the opportunity to plan on a massive scale. From the clearance of Roman insulae for imperial palaces in the first century C.E., to Haussmann’s boulevards in the 1850s, to urban renewal in U.S. cities in the 1960s and the current destruction of old Beijing, the possibility of grandiose projects has seemingly blinded planners, urban designers, and architects to the consequences of their actions for people in the path of change. Despite the variety of idealistic rationales for planners’ actions, the...

    • Chapter 11 The City as Local Welfare System
      (pp. 224-241)
      Alberta Andreotti and Enzo Mingione

      Since the 1960s, economic, demographic, social, and political change has been reshaping individual and institutional life throughout the industrialized world. These changes have brought back to the fore the crucial role played by local context in both economic development and social welfare programs. This new importance of the local has only been strengthened by a tendency toward territorialization of policies through devolution of programs and provisions at different territorial levels and contexts.

      Policies regarding welfare provision are increasingly planned and implemented at the local level, as are other urban policies—as one might expect when considered through a lens of...

    • Chapter 12 Policies Toward Migrant Workers
      (pp. 242-261)
      Izhak Schnell

      Transnational worker migration is a complex and variable phenomenon. As such, it should command the full attention of the various disciplines that influence planning strategies for migrant workers. Any attempt to evaluate plans for migrant worker absorption must take a multidisciplinary perspective in order to capture the wider structural context in which planning decisions are made.

      Transnational migration in recent decades is but one symptom of the crystallization of a global economic system that has adopted neoliberal ideologies, global economic regulations, international agreements, and the like. This current wave of global migration can be characterized by five features: (1) globalization...

    • Chapter 13 Planning for Aging Involves Planning for Life
      (pp. 262-282)
      Deborah Howe

      We are in the midst of profound demographic changes taking place on a global scale. Society is aging, the result of declining fertility rates and increasing longevity. The number of older people and their increasing share of the population have significant implications for the extent to which society can provide necessary levels of support to ensure their quality of life.

      Public policy has historically sought to meet elders’ needs through pensions and health care. At the same time, there has been systematic neglect of the role the built environment plays in framing alternatives for individuals as they age. We live...


    • Chapter 14 Public Housing in the United States: Neighborhood Renewal and the Poor
      (pp. 285-306)
      Lawrence J. Vale

      The tortuous and tortured saga of public housing in the United States is a kind of double social experiment: first when it was built—under the high modernist hopes of the mid-twentieth century—and again, as the century closed, when it was redeveloped as a nostalgia-riddled effort that mimicked a pre-modernist urbanism. In both phases, planners and designers promised new and improved housing for low-income households, clearing slums the first time and, in the second iteration, clearing public housing itself. In both cases, planners and designers used physical design and development processes to substitute a new kind of community for...

    • Chapter 15 Neighborhood Social Mix: Theory, Evidence, and Implications for Policy and Planning
      (pp. 307-336)
      George C. Galster

      Progressive thinkers about the residential composition of neighborhoods have long held that population socioeconomic diversity was desirable (Gans 1961; Sarkissian 1976). Similar sentiments still undergird a rich palette of official pronouncements and planning initiatives in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Programmatic examples include: urban regeneration measures that replace concentrations of social housing with more diverse housing stocks; social housing management and tenant allocation reform; tenant-based housing allowances; and land-use planning rules requiring mixed developments (see Berube 2005; Briggs 2005; Musterd and Andersson 2005; Norris 2006).

      Despite its longstanding, exalted place in the pantheon of planning nostrums, the goal of...

    • Chapter 16 Suspicion, Surveillance, and Safety: A New Imperative for Public Space?
      (pp. 337-355)
      Tridib Banerjee and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris

      Openness, access, trust, freedom of speech, and diversity have always been the essential tenets of Western liberal democracies, in contrast to the nondemocratic societies where such features are conspicuously absent. For the purposes of this chapter this assumption does not require empirical validation from polling data affirming that a certain percentage of the general population believes in these values. Instead we will simply accept them as a normative proposition which has guided the ideals of liberal democracies. In other words, these are precisely “democracy’s values,” as Shapiro and Hacker-Cordon (1999) have emphasized.

      Accordingly, we argue that these features, which have...

    • Chapter 17 Beyond the Ladder: New Ideas About Resident Roles in Contemporary Community Development in the United States
      (pp. 356-382)
      Rachel G. Bratt and Kenneth M. Reardon

      During the second half of the twentieth century, the role of residents in community development programs across the United States gained considerable attention as civil rights leaders and community activists pushed municipal governments and their federal partners to develop more participatory planning processes. This greater resident voice in community development programs was stimulated by the negative effects of many Urban Renewal programs as well as the launch of the War on Poverty in the early 1960s, with its requirement of “maximum feasible participation” by the poor. Sherry Arnstein’s seminal 1969 paper “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” written during this period...

  8. List of Contributors
    (pp. 383-388)
  9. Index
    (pp. 389-404)
  10. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 405-406)