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Modes of Migration Regulation and Control in Europe

Modes of Migration Regulation and Control in Europe

Jeroen Doomernik
Michael Jandl
Series: IMISCOE Reports
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 216
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  • Book Info
    Modes of Migration Regulation and Control in Europe
    Book Description:

    In Europe immigration is a politically burning issue, especially when it comes to the arrival of asylum seekers and illegal labour migrants. Governments want to keep them under control in order to limit their numbers. Yet, traditionally there were strong differences between European states in the extent to which they sought to do so and the instruments employed to that end. Currently, the contours become visible of a common approach towards - notably irregular - migration. This becomes clear from the country studies comprising this volume. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0136-6
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-8)
  3. List of tables
    (pp. 9-12)
  4. Contributors
    (pp. 13-16)
  5. Foreword
    (pp. 17-18)
    Jeroen Doomernik and Michael Jandl

    This volume results from a project that was formulated by a group of IMISCOE researchers who deal with, as the very title of this book states, international migration and its regulation. The reports contained herein arose from some general observations and subsequent questions about the nature of migration processes in relation to government interventions in those processes. First, we ground these reports with a number of common understandings. Migration has gone from being a veritable non-issue in European politics to being one of high political preoccupation. In Western Europe, this development began as shortly ago as the 1970s, while it...

  6. Introduction
    (pp. 19-26)
    Jeroen Doomernik and Michael Jandl

    Two concerns are presently at the forefront of migration policymaking, be it among the European Union’s member states themselves or within the European Commission. The first issue presents a dilemma: how to reduce or altogether eliminate irregular labour migration while simultaneously satisfying a growing demand among employers to import low-skilled labour from outside the EU. The solution championed by the European Commission is to introduce circular migration programmes that would satisfy three needs. First, there are the needs of employers and economies of Europe, in general. Conversely, there are the needs of migrant workers hoping to earn a better living...

  7. Report from Austria
    (pp. 27-44)
    Michael Jandl

    In Austria, migration had long been seen solely as a labour market issue. It was only in the 1970s and 1980s that the surrounding public and political debate expanded to include broader issues of family reunification, integration, asylum and the control of territory access. In 1989, the fall of the Iron Curtain heightened the perceived threat of illegal migration, thereby boosting the attention that public authorities paid to the control of illegal migration and human smuggling. At the beginning of this period, however, public perceptions of the impending migration wave from ‘the East’ were met more with rhetoric than actually...

  8. Report from Belgium
    (pp. 45-62)
    Sonia Gsir

    Before giving a brief overview on the evolution of Belgian migration control policy, it is important to outline its institutional framework, particularly because Belgium has been a federal state since 1985. Migration control is located at all levels of government: the federal, the community (i.e. the French-speaking Community, the Flemish Community, the German-speaking Community) and the regional (Wallonia, Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region).¹ The control of entry, stay and exit in the Belgian territory is to a large extent a federal competence. The Federal Public Service for Home Affairs, also known as the Ministry for the Interior, and, notably, its...

  9. Report from France
    (pp. 63-80)
    Frédéric Coste

    Each change of government in France tends to entail a modification of the preceding immigration legislation. Contrary to what they usually claim, however, governments rarely abrogate all the former legislation. From the onset of the 1990s to the middle of the decade, France found itself in a series of harsh positions regarding the control of immigration. This led to the Right’s enactment of two controversial regulations, which were subject to considerable public debate: the Pasqua Law and the Debre Laws. The next leftwing government tried to be more open regarding entry conditions for immigrants, particularly when it came to constitutionally...

  10. Report from Germany
    (pp. 81-104)
    Birgit Glorius

    By the end of 2006, Germany had a resident population of 7.3 million people with foreign citizenship and a total 15.1 million of ‘migration background’. This latter figure represents almost one-fifth of the country’s population (StBa 2008). Over the last decades, both the volumes and the geographical origins of migration flows have rapidly changed, and so too have political actions taken towards regulating immigration as well as the public’s subsequent awareness of it. A net inflow of 788,000 in 1992 made Germany the second largest immigration country in the world that year (Angenendt 1999: 166). This historic record also led...

  11. Report from Italy
    (pp. 105-128)
    Ferruccio Pastore

    Although Spain overtook its top ranking at the turn of the millennium, Italy remains one of Europe’s largest immigration countries in terms of net migration (see Table 1). When it comes to yearly growth rate of the foreign-born population, Italy ranks even higher: third among the developed countries reporting migration statistics to the OECD, after Spain and South Korea (OECD 2007: 59).

    Despite such impressive figures, established trends and the fact that the country’s migration rate became positive some 30 years ago,¹ Italy still perceives itself to be largely a ‘new immigration country’. Legal, institutional and administrative infrastructures for the...

  12. Report from the Netherlands
    (pp. 129-146)
    Jeroen Doomernik

    Dutch migration control mechanisms are not limited to the nation’s borders and gates of physical entry. Instead, the Netherlands has had a history of administrative measures by which to regulate entry and residence of foreign nationals. Indeed, with progressing integration into the European Community – and, subsequently, the European Union – the significance of national borders and their controls has been modified to the extent that it is now Schengen partners who control territory borders, including ones on behalf of the Dutch government. What is left in terms of old-fashioned border control is now concentrated at the Netherlands’ seaports (notably,...

  13. Report from Spain
    (pp. 147-170)
    Rosa Aparicio Gómez and José María Ruiz de Huidobro De Carlos

    The Spanish Constitution of 1978 contains only one precept on migration movements concerning Spanish emigrants.¹ That is, Article 13, which specifies the basic constitutional regulation on aliens. The precept formulates a principle of restricted equivalence between nationals and aliens vis-á-vis the entitlement to, and exercise of, fundamental rights and public liberties.² The article also constitutes the basis for Spanish legislation on aliens and immigration. The Spanish Constitution does not, however, take immigration into account. At the time of its creation, immigration was veritably non-existent, and Spain had traditionally been a country of emigrants. As the data in Tables 1 through...

  14. Report from Switzerland
    (pp. 171-186)
    Paolo Ruspini

    Less than a decade ago, writing about the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in a wider Europe, Jörg Monar argued that ‘Switzerland has remained a “blank spot” right in the middle of the emerging EU internal security zone’ (Monar 2000: 15). The renowned professor of European studies then went on to describe the growing concern amongst European Union practitioners regarding the country’s exclusion from common EU and Schengen cooperation and data exchange, ‘although’, as he pointed out, Switzerland’s ‘border control and policing systems are of very high standard’ (ibid.).

    At a later date, when discussing the package of seven agreements...

  15. Report from the United Kingdom
    (pp. 187-202)
    Franck Düvell

    While the United Kingdom had long been a country as closed to new immigrants as any other European nation, a policy shift observable by the end of 1990s began to produce a liberal and open migration regime. Within ten years, the focus of immigration politics moved from restricting entry to Commonwealth immigrants to concentrating on reducing asylum migration and, most recently, to managing labour migration flows under conditions of globalisation. On the one hand, there are numerous legal migration channels in the UK as well as irregular and otherwisede factoimmigrants such as asylum seekers, their families and Eastern...

  16. Conclusions
    (pp. 203-212)
    Jeroen Doomernik and Michael Jandl

    The chapters comprising this book have analysed mechanisms of migration regulation and control in Europe along the lines of Brochmann’s benchmark ‘The Mechanisms of Control’ and Guiraudon’s subsequent ‘De-Nationalizing Control’.¹

    As we have found, however, much has happened in the field of migration policy since these two influential studies were written. Migration flows – their volumes, forms, types and patterns – have all undergone dynamic changes. Responding to both new migration realities and external developments, policies have subsequently been adapted or, in some cases, undergone fundamental revisions. The dynamic environment of policy and migration interdependence has thus catalysed further changes...

  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 213-215)