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European Immigrations

European Immigrations: Trends, Structures and Policy Implications

edited by Marek Okólski
Copyright Date: 2012
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  • Book Info
    European Immigrations
    Book Description:

    This book makes an essential contribution to understanding the dynamics of contemporary immigrant inflows and integration in Europe. Though embracing a Continent-wide outlook on migration processes, it accounts, in particular, for Southern and Eastern European perspectives. This is accomplished by analysing the long-term transition countries undergo from net emigration to net immigration, as well as developments in their migrant inflows, integration and policy. Balance is achieved between describing the common European experience and the intra- and inter-regional differences characterising migration's underlying factors and trends. This volume is one of few attempts to conceive of the 'Old Continent' as a common economic and cultural space that fully incorporates its eastern part, while still viewing post-enlargement Europe as an area that - despite nation-specific histories - maintains a high degree of social and political coherence. The book is very comprehensive, with deep insights into aspects of immigration throughout different periods and changing socio-economic environments. Contents come from new empirical evidence, specially designed and collected. A great asset is the mix of authors, representing several academic centres across Europe yet pursuing a common vision of European migration, past, present and future. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-1727-5
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 7-22)
    Marek Okólski

    Not long ago, Europe was symbolically reunited – at least, such might be the perception of the first eastward enlargement of the European Union on 1 May 2004. The accession of eight Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to the EU gave rise to further dismantling of those barriers between East and West that had been erected in the Cold War era. What followed was a softening of divisions across European societies and an intensification of mutual contacts and flows of knowledge and ideas. Many varied social phenomena in the East were expected to converge with those in other parts of...

  4. 1 Transition from emigration to immigration Is it the destiny of modern European countries?
    (pp. 23-44)
    Marek Okólski

    This book makes extensive use of two basic concepts: migration transition and the migration cycle. Expounded within its framework, the central premise of those concepts is such that, over time and under specific circumstances, individual European countries transform their migration status from one of emigration to one of immigration. This change in migration status has been termed the ‘migration transition’.

    As explained in the Introduction of this volume, the ‘migration cycle’ in its more general sense involves three distinct, consecutive phases: the first occurs when a country is overwhelmed by the outflow of its inhabitants, while the proportion of foreign...

  5. 2 Early starters and latecomers Comparing countries of immigration and immigration regimes in Europe
    (pp. 45-64)
    Joaquín Arango

    In recent decades, Europe has become one of the major immigration-receiving regions in the world. No other region receives more immigrants in absolute terms, although not in relation to population size. Put in historical perspective, this represents an epochal change, since Europeans tended to predominate in international migration flows until the 1960s. Taken as a whole, it can be said that Europe’s migration transition – i.e. its transformation from a primarily sending region to a primarily receiving one – took place in the two decades that followed the end of World War II, albeit a handful of countries had experienced it well...

  6. 3 ‘Old’ immigration countries in Europe The concept and empirical examples
    (pp. 65-90)
    Heinz Fassmann and Ursula Reeger

    In the course of their immigration experience, transitioning receiving countries go through a specific demographic development and policy learning process that is called a migration cycle. It appears that this migration cycle is to some extent similar to that which old immigration countries experienced in the past. Migration processes of the past will never be repeated in exactly the same way, but if the stages of the migration cycle are generalised, the similarities become apparent. This chapter applies this conceptual model to the past and recent migration history of the ‘old’ immigration countries in Europe. The authors critically evaluate the...

  7. 4 Migration transitions in an era of liquid migration Reflections on Fassmann and Reeger
    (pp. 91-106)
    Godfried Engbersen

    It is a pleasure to have the opportunity to respond to the compelling contribution of Heinz Fassmann and Ursula Reeger. Their work demonstrates their ability to reduce the complexity of international systems in a very elegant way. Their conceptual model of a migration cycle offers an important heuristic device for analysing migration history. To further illustrate its applicability, I will apply it to my country, the Netherlands. However, this sort of application and a closer look at current migration flows to ‘old’ immigration countries will necessarily provoke one major question. This question is related to the emphasis given in their...

  8. 5 Immigrants, markets and policies in Southern Europe The making of an immigration model?
    (pp. 107-148)
    João Peixoto, Joaquín Arango, Corrado Bonifazi, Claudia Finotelli, Catarina Sabino, Salvatore Strozza and Anna Triandafyllidou

    Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain have in common two long episodes of strong emigration – during the first period of globalisation and after World War II – and they now share comparable types of foreign immigration. During the first period of globalisation, in the second half of the nineteenth century and before World War I, these countries made an important contribution to intra-European migration and to settlement migration in North America and South America. After World War II, they were among the main suppliers of the growing economies of Western and Northern Europe. Currently, they are experiencing a significant inflow of foreigners....

  9. 6 The Southern European ‘model of immigration’ A sceptical view
    (pp. 149-158)
    Martin Baldwin-Edwards

    Chapter 5 in this volume details a Southern European ‘model of immigration’ across Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece with five empirical similarities and five structural or causal patterns. This line of theoretical thinking continues a tradition attempting to identify, variously, an immigration policy regime (Baldwin-Edwards 1991, 1997), immigrants’ location within a ‘southern’ capitalist economy (King & Konzhodic 1995; King & Black 1997; Baldwin-Edwards & Arango 1999) or within southern societies (Iosofides & King 1999) or more generally a ‘southern model’ of immigration (Baldwin-Edwards 1999; King 2000). It is perhaps ironic that as one of the participants in these earlier analytic...

  10. 7 Framing the Iberian model of labour migration Employment exploitation, de facto deregulation and formal compensation
    (pp. 159-178)
    Jorge Malheiros

    As mentioned in the Introduction to this volume and particularly in chapter 5, the two Iberian nations, Portugal and Spain, have experienced a transition from emigration to immigration countries since the 1980s. This process has occurred during a specific moment of the political and economic evolution of both countries, marked, on the one hand, by the consolidation of their democratic regimes and their integration with the European Union and, on the other hand, by significant economic growth. This growth cannot be dissociated from the dynamics of the construction and public works sectors, nor from the expansion of family consumption and...

  11. 8 Patterns of immigration in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland A comparative perspective
    (pp. 179-210)
    Dušan Drbohlav

    International migration in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is not a new phenomenon. Nevertheless, as late as the beginning of the 1990s, it began evolving into a more important topic for scientists and researchers, who started to look at international migration movements from various angles and perspectives. A missing key component, however, was a more systematic comparative perspective that could anchor the issue within a broader conceptual and theoretical framework (see also the Introduction in this volume). These very aspects were a primary focus of the IDEA project, which sought to compare the migratory experience of three...

  12. 9 An uncertain future of immigration in Europe Insights from expert-based stochastic forecasts for selected countries
    (pp. 211-232)
    Arkadiusz Wiśniowski, Jakub Bijak, Marek Kupiszewski and Dorota Kupiszewska

    The theoretical underpinning of this volume is the analysis of changes in migration patterns over time, discovering regularities and formulating a theory describing the observed migration processes. Marek Okólski offered such a theory in chapter 1. Migration forecasting allows for the extension, albeit with a degree of uncertainty, of migration patterns into the future. In an ideal and reasonably predictable world, it would be possible to use forecasts to identify the moment of transition from an emigration to an immigration country for those countries that are in the transition phase. To do so, the IDEA project team (see note 9...

  13. 10 Comments on ‘An uncertain future of immigration in Europe’ by Wiśniowski et al.
    (pp. 233-238)
    Leo van Wissen

    Forecasting is not in the first place a technical exercise; rather, it involves thinking methodically about the future. In so doing, we need to strategically leverage our knowledge and expertise of the migration process and assess how our experiences in the past will (or will not) carry over into the future. We have our own theories and models – sometimes intuitive, sometimes explicit – for doing so. In the end, we are obliged to quantify our beliefs about the future – an undertaking that is, by its very nature, technical. In order to make this task of ‘projecting’ a scientific one, a framework...

  14. 11 Migration policy matters A comparative analysis of policy recommendations
    (pp. 239-258)
    Magdalena Lesińska

    The process of formulating policy recommendations is based on the main assumption that, among the main factors having an impact on migration processes – including the labour market, development gaps, demographic factors or international situations – a state’s migration policy falls among the most influential. In other words, there exists a view that migration flows could be to some extent regulated through political measures (Brochmann & Hammar 1999; Boswell 2007; Cornelius, Tsuda, Martin & Hollifield 2004; Hollifield 2000).

    In order to improve our understanding of the creative role of the state and its policies, a thorough analysis of the past and present...

  15. 12 The evolving area of freedom, security and justice Taking stock and thinking ahead
    (pp. 259-268)
    Dora Kostakopoulou

    Justice and Home Affairs cooperation in the European Union has evolved in increasingly variable and unpredictable environments. Evolution and altered conditions more often than not represent both an opportunity and a need for initiating observations, reflection about the past and thinking ahead and bettering what exists. This is, indeed, the case with the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) – that is, the institutional architecture that emerged following the partial Communitarisation of the Justice and Home Affairs pillar of the Maastricht Treaty (1993), which was agreed during the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference and which culminated in the Amsterdam Treaty (in force...

  16. Europe, a continent of immigrants A conclusion
    (pp. 269-274)
    Marek Okólski

    This volume has offered a comprehensive description of migration processes that take place in various parts of Europe. In particular, it has attempted an in-depth inquiry into the phenomenon of European immigration.

    Analyses presented in the foregoing chapters have explicitly or implicitly referred to a common conceptual framework that implies the existence of a pattern of migration typical of European countries, whose major characteristic has been assumed to be the change of migration status from net emigration to net immigration. It has also been assumed that such change – concomitant with the relatively high intensity of international movements of population – occurred...

  17. Contributors
    (pp. 275-278)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 279-289)