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International Migration in Europe

International Migration in Europe: New Trends and New Methods of Analysis

Corrado Bonifazi
Marek Okólski
Jeannette Schoorl
Patrick Simon
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 344
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46mv64
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  • Book Info
    International Migration in Europe
    Book Description:

    Over the past twenty years international migration issues have gained a growing importance in public debate in most of the European countries. Public opinions are more and more concerned about the arrival of new immigrants and about the problems of integration processes. International Migration in Europe addresses some of the new aspects of European international migration. Different aspects are considered and different disciplinary perspectives are used in the fifteen chapters. In particular, attention has been devoted to analyse new forms of migration, the evolution of regional patterns, the intergenerational process of migrant integration and the use of special survey in migration studies. This title is available in the OAPEN Library - http://www.oapen.org.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0154-0
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. Preface
    (pp. 7-8)
  4. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 9-16)
    Corrado Bonifazi, Marek Okólski, Jeannette Schoorl and Patrick Simon

    Some of the most rapid and radical changes in the history of European international migration have taken place over the last fifteen to twenty years. After 45 years of real socialism, the fall of the Berlin Wall has brought Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), previously isolated by the Iron Curtain, back into the continental migration system. All this has occurred in a context that, since the end of the 1980s, was already witnessing important new developments. The Southern European countries have emerged as centres of attraction and have become the new promised land for migrants coming from both old and...

  5. Part I New forms of migration in Europe

    • 2 Managing new migrations in Europe: Concept and reality in the ICT sector
      (pp. 19-36)
      John Salt

      The aim of this chapter is twofold. First, it proposes a theoretical framework for explaining migration that takes into account the complexities of the subject and the need to focus on routes of entry. Second, it highlights the role of employers in orchestrating the international mobility of highly skilled labour through the lens of the Information, Communications and Technology (ICT) sector. The ICT sector is new and has developed rapidly over the last fifteen years or so, as has the mobility of staff associated with it. The chapter presents the main findings of an international research project.

      Any explanation of...

    • 3 On the demand side of international labour mobility: The structure of the German labour market as a causal factor of seasonal Polish migration
      (pp. 37-64)
      Barbara Dietz and Pawel Kaczmarczyk

      Since the adoption of a bilateral agreement signed by the Polish and German governments in 1990, Polish workers have been allowed to take up seasonal employment (short-term and legal) in specific sectors of the German economy. According to the agreement’s provisions, the seasonal workers¹ from Poland can undertake working activities in Germany for a period of three months. This relatively new form of migration has constituted a large part of Polish migration in the last couple of years: since the year 2000, over 250,000 workers have taken seasonal employment in Germany annually.

      The agreement was generated by mutual will to...

    • 4 Migrant smuggling and trafficking in Portugal: Immigrants, networks, policies and labour markets since the 1990s
      (pp. 65-86)
      João Peixoto

      This chapter is based on a research project funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and the High Commissioner for Immigration and Ethnic Minorities (ACIME), Portugal, ‘Migrants trafficking in Portugal: sociological, juridical and political perspectives’, a project carried out from January through December 2004.¹ First, the chapter will deal with the main conceptual questions involved in this issue. The theoretical difference between the trafficking and smuggling of migrants will be the axis of the discussion. Second, some of the research project aims and methodology will be presented, since they inevitably constrained the empirical evidence produced. Third, some of...

    • 5 Romanian migration movements: Networks as informal transnational organisations
      (pp. 87-104)
      Swanie Potot

      Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the European continent has become, as it used to be, a vast area of exchange in which human migrations take diverse forms, from virtually permanent emigration to a variety of short-term movements, such as study programmes or seasonal jobs (Okólski 2001). The kind of migration this text deals with consists of constant mobility between the native country and several places abroad where migrants work on a temporary basis. This started at the beginning of the 1990s and demonstrates how middle-class people from Eastern European countries have played a role, without waiting for international...

  6. Part II Evolution of regional patterns of international migration in Europe

    • 6 Evolution of regional patterns of international migration in Europe
      (pp. 107-128)
      Corrado Bonifazi

      International migration trends are the result of many elements. Demographic contexts, economic and social conditions, political choices, international links, historical ties, and cultural factors play, at different levels, an important role in determining the size and directions of migration flows. Globalisation processes and the end of the Iron Curtain have been powerful factors in promoting human mobility and in accelerating the evolution of migration. The result is the increasingly complex and changeable picture that has characterised world migration in the last twenty years. During this period, some countries and regions have suddenly changed their role in migration systems. New destinations...

    • 7 Long-term international migration scenarios for Europe, 2002-2052
      (pp. 129-152)
      Jakub Bijak, Anna Kicinger, Dorota Kupiszewska and Marek Kupiszewski

      The hypotheses regarding the future shape of international migration are not only demographic by nature, but also have to take into account various economic, political, sociological and ethnic factors. Moreover, migration is a phenomenon characterised by a much higher level of uncertainty and is much more controversial in terms of expectations for the future than fertility or mortality. For these reasons, predicting migration is very difficult and the results of various forecasts often prove to be unsuccessful, bearing very high prediction errors.

      This article presents assumptions for the future development of long-term international migration in 27 European countries for the...

    • 8 Foreign immigration in Southern European receiving countries: New evidence from national data sources
      (pp. 153-178)
      Alessio Cangiano and Salvatore Strozza

      The measurement of both the dimensions and main features of the foreign population in Southern European host countries (Italy, Spain, Greece and Portugal) is not an easy task. In addition to the typical problems of statistics on migration flows and migrant population stocks, the presence of a sizeable and dynamic irregular component is a major hindrance. Even for the estimation of the legal presence, administrative sources are often not exhaustive, either because they capture different subsets of the whole universe of regular foreigners (as in the case of Italy) or because of very restrictive immigration policies preventing migrants from keeping...

    • 9 The post-enlargement migration space
      (pp. 179-196)
      Paolo Ruspini

      Since its foundation the transnational experiment called the European Union has tried to provide a political form for the ancient idea of Europe. This has been attempted by establishing a set of rules opposing the entropy of the international system and setting up a common market, therefore continuing the process of political integration sanctioned by treaties. These rules have generated a dense network, which has grown up, surprisingly, beyond all proportions, entangling ‘goods and persons’ and at times delaying the overall growth of the system. The geopolitical space of the EU has expanded or decreased because of historical social factors...

  7. Part III Measuring integration:: Immigrants and the second generation

    • 10 The integration of migrants in the Netherlands monitored over time: Trend and cohort analyses
      (pp. 199-224)
      Rob V. Bijl, Aslan Zorlu, Roel P.W. Jennissen and Martine Blom

      At the end of the twentieth century the political debate on the integration of ethnic minorities radically changed in the Netherlands. The country that had the image, and that fostered the image, of an open and tolerant society towards immigrant groups and minorities appeared to have changed within one year into a country where ‘everyone’ was against multiculturalism, which was more restrictive on immigration issues and that required almost full assimilation of its immigrant groups and minorities. The change was announced by the writer Paul Scheffer in his essay ‘The multicultural drama’ (Scheffer 2000). It was directly followed by 9/11...

    • 11 What integrates the second generation? Factors affecting family transitions to adulthood in Sweden
      (pp. 225-246)
      Calvin Goldscheider, Eva Bernhardt and Frances Goldscheider

      While there have been many studies of immigrant adaptation in the public spheres of work, school and politics and some on select family dimensions (for example fertility and divorce), few have focused on familyrelationshipsamong immigrants, either generationally or between partners. Even fewer studies have investigated immigrant groups from a ‘gendered’ perspective, going beyond gender differences in labour-force participation and economic activities to investigate gender roles and attitudes of immigrants and their adult sons and daughters. Several major research reviews have highlighted the importance of studying family relationships and the critical role of gender relationships that characterise immigrants, and...

    • 12 Discrimination despite integration: Immigrants and the second generation in education and the labour market in France
      (pp. 247-270)
      Dominique Meurs, Ariane Pailhé and Patrick Simon

      For more than one and a half centuries, the ‘French model of integration’ has shaped policies and regimes concerning migrants. Even though the features of the model have encountered many changes over time, its main objective has remained quite stable: to enable immigrants to become French citizens within a generation (HCI 1993). To achieve this aim, the model prevents the reproduction of ‘foreignness’ or ‘otherness’ across generations by encouraging the naturalisation of migrants, and the automatic acquisition of French citizenship for the children of foreigners when they come of age. The key dimension of the French doctrine of integration –...

  8. Part IV Special surveys in international migration studies

    • 13 One-way or both-ways migration surveys
      (pp. 273-292)
      Jean Louis Rallu

      In the nineteenth century, demography started by studying registered events: births and deaths. Migration, as a move, is an event that involves two places. Statistics for this type of event did not become available until much later. In fact we had to wait for modern censuses to record people according to places: first the place where they resided, later the place where they were born, and more recently a place where they resided some time ago – usually five years before a census. Population registers also record people according to places where they live and have lived in the past....

    • 14 Design of samples for international migration surveys: Methodological considerations and lessons learned from a multi-country study in Africa and Europe
      (pp. 293-312)
      George Groenewold and Richard Bilsborrow

      Worldwide, international migration is attracting increased attention, which is manifested in the rapidly growing literature in migration and other social science journals, in increasingly restrictive immigration policies in most receiving countries, and in a rising interest in the role of international migration in economic development of developing nations. The growing importance of international migration is evident in the data and in contemporary policies on international migration (UN 1998; Castles & Miller 1998; UN 2000; UN 2004). Thus, the total number of international migrants in the world was estimated as 191 million in 2005, including 115 million in developed countries (many in...

    • 15 Quality of asylum decisions: Uses and limitations of surveys of asylum case files
      (pp. 313-330)
      Işık Kulu-Glasgow

      Asylum-seeking, in addition to regular immigration, is traditionally one of the most common and legal ways of gaining a residence permit in Western European countries. These countries base their admission laws for asylum seekers partially on international obligations (for example, the 1965 Geneva Convention, or the European Convention of Human Rights, Article 3) and partially on their own domestic policies (for example by developing temporary, country-specific admission policies in cases of political unrest or war). Since the end of the 1990s, several treaties have been signed by the member states of the EU with the final aim of fully harmonising...

  9. List of contributors
    (pp. 331-334)
  10. Index
    (pp. 335-342)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 343-345)