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Mobility in Transition

Mobility in Transition: Migration Patterns after EU Enlargement

Birgit Glorius
Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska
Aimee Kuvik
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 332
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  • Book Info
    Mobility in Transition
    Book Description:

    This volume presents new research on post-accession migration from Central and Eastern Europe in the short period since the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. Explanations of post-accession migration patterns, trends and mechanisms delve into the complexities of these phenomena. New groups of migrants and types of migrations are identified -- such as young migrants, often students or graduates, without family obligations and without clear plans concerning their future life. Case studies on Poland, Romania, Hungary and Latvia as well as the United Kingdom and Germany - being major destination countries - divulge the multifaceted nature of transition, whether in the form of labour migration, short-term mobility (including among international students) or return migration. The volume insightfully points towards future migration trends and sets guidelines for further research. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-1549-3
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 7-18)
    Birgit Glorius, Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska and Aimee Kuvik

    Post-accession migration¹ from Central and Eastern Europe (hereinafter CEE) is unique in that it grew in many cases to become massive and spontaneous in a very short period after the European Union (EU) enlargement of 1 May 2004. Membership of the EU for CEE countries created a crucial momentum for social change in terms of migration processes from those countries. Although migration had taken place before, in the 1990s and earlier, there was an elimination of restrictions in access to selected labour markets. Patterns of migration have since been changing mostly in terms of substance and scale, but also in...


    • 2 Liquid migration Dynamic and fluid patterns of post-accession migration flows
      (pp. 21-40)
      Godfried Engbersen and Erik Snel

      In her study,Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe since 1650,Moch (1992) analyses three centuries of migration and distinguishes four crucial periods. The periods comprise pre-industrial Europe c. 1650-1750, the early industrial agec.1750-1815, urbanisation and industrialisationc.1815-1914 and the twentieth centuryc.1914-1990. In order to analyse the central characteristics of these specific periods, Moch categorises migration systems into four groups according to the distance and the definiteness of the break with home (see Tilly 1978). The first islocal migration. Crucial for this system is that people move within their local markets of labour, land...

    • 3 Anatomy of post-accession migration How to measure ‘liquidity’ and other patterns of post-accession migration flows
      (pp. 41-64)
      Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska

      Economic downturns, expansions of the European Union, demographic shifts and international wage gaps seem to push people to move in numbers, dynamics and ways not seen before (Santo Tomas, Summers & Clemens 2009). These dynamics create challenges for measuring and researching new phenomena that are emerging and shifting.

      The lack of migration data creates a significant blind spot in the context of current economic and social realities. The migration flows following the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements have shed additional light on manifest shortages of migration data. With current migration data we have difficulty answering crucial questions: how many migrants...

    • 4 Diverging or converging communities? Stages of international migration from rural Romania
      (pp. 65-84)
      Ruxandra Oana Ciobanu

      Looking at international migration from Romania, one can distinguish various patterns of migration: people moving abroad definitively for permanent emigration, people leaving on a temporary basis and developing a more circular migration, and ‘trans-border migrants travelling for short periods of time between localities near the border’ (Sandu 2005b: 556). At the same time, studies on Romanian migration from rural communities have identified several migration processes taking place throughout the course of the last twenty years, happening at different paces and with different intensities (Sandu 2000, 2005b, 2006). This finding raises the key question of this chapter: Do rural communities in...

    • 5 Post-accession migration from the Baltic states The case of Latvia
      (pp. 85-110)
      Zaiga Krisjane, Maris Berzins and Elina Apsite

      The profile of migration rates in the Baltic states has gradually shifted from one of net immigration to one of net emigration. Although each of the Baltic states experienced positive net migration during the period leading up to and comprising the Soviet era, a series of demographic shifts has since altered the migratory dynamics of the region. The historically less populous countries of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania are today facing considerable demographic challenges, as decreasing fertility rates, increasing mortality rates and population aging are coupled with high rates of emigration. As Krisjane, Berzins and Bauls (2009) observed, migration across the...


    • 6 The race for global talent, EU enlargement and the implications for migration policies and processes in European labour markets
      (pp. 113-132)
      Aimee Kuvik

      Globalisation presents a dilemma for governments in how to best balance participation in international economic systems and the protection of their national citizens and interests. These tensions between global economic processes and supporting the well-being of citizens also mean that there is great room for variation in approaches adopted by governments to support their labour markets and citizens. This variation is illuminated in political-economic debates related to the varieties of capitalism (Esping-Andersen 1990; Hall & Soskice 2001; Schmidt 2002), centred around the existing models of welfare states and welfare capitalism. This has further led to discussions of how countries can...

    • 7 ‘I know that I have a university diploma and I’m working as a driver’ Explaining the EU post-enlargement movement of highly skilled Polish migrant workers to Glasgow
      (pp. 133-154)
      Emilia Pietka, Colin Clark and Noah Canton

      In recent years, the movement of highly skilled migrants has become an important worldwide issue, as it is assumed to reflect the impact of globalisation on the world’s economy and the development of communications technology (Salt & Findlay 1989; Salt 2006; Pethe 2007). Based on the supposition that a high level of human capital is positively correlated with having high economic and social status (Becker 1969), qualified immigrants should be able to be incorporated into the host country’s labour market relatively successfully. Yet it seems that the process of immigrants’ socio-economic incorporation into their new country of residence involves greater...

    • 8 Transnational social networks, human capital and economic resources of Polish immigrants in Scotland
      (pp. 155-168)
      Marta Moskal

      Post-enlargement Europe provides an interesting site where the traditional distinction between internal and international migration is becoming less useful. The advent of flexibility of movement within the European Union creates a context in which new patterns of migration appear. It is important to understand the new forms of mobility, particularly the emergence of transnational connections and multiple identities. Exploring Bailey and Boyle’s (2004) suggestions, this chapter applies transnational theory to migration movements within the single union. Migration from Poland and the other new EU member states raises a number of issues about how we conceptualise labour migrations and transnationalism. This...

    • 9 Why do highly educated migrants go for low-skilled jobs? A case study of Polish graduates working in London
      (pp. 169-190)
      Paulina Trevena

      Beginning from Piore’s (1979) seminal work on the existence of a dual labour market in highly developed countries, the secondary sector of the economy has been associated predominantly with low-educated, unskilled labour. The fact that growing numbers of highly educated persons also gravitate towards this sector has only fairly recently been acknowledged in migration studies (Raijman & Semyonov 1995; Morawska & Spohn 1997; Brandi 2001; Reyneri 2004; Düvell 2004; Csedö 2007; Lianos 2007). This phenomenon has become especially conspicuous in the case of Eastern Europeans from A-8 countries, particularly Poles, working in the United Kingdom (Anderson et al. 2006; Drinkwater,...

    • 10 Changes in tertiary education and student mobility in Hungary
      (pp. 191-214)
      Irina Molodikova

      Education and availability of highly qualified specialists is crucial to economic development. Policies are therefore often aimed at building strong links between universities, to stimulate innovation in science and business. Most Western countries show a widening income gap between those who received a good education and the rest, according to the OECD (2005). It has even been calculated that 1 per cent growth in a population’s level of education raises economic output by 3 to 6 per cent (Schleicher 2006).

      Studying internationally is becoming more and more popular, and educational migration is one of the most rapidly developing types of...


    • 11 Understanding the counter-flow Theoretical and methodological aspects in studying remigration processes after EU expansion
      (pp. 217-236)
      Birgit Glorius

      Migration research, in its theoretical and empirical forms, has so far largely concentrated on the analysis and explanation of primary mobility processes. However, considerable counter-flows always existed, starting with the historic transatlantic emigration waves, which were believed to be temporary in at least one quarter of the cases (Bade 2002: 141f). A great portion of labour migration from Southern European countries to Northwest Europe was temporary as well. Böhning (1979) estimates that more than 1.5 million of these guest workers returned home during the 1970s, with return rates varying for each sending country concerned. Contrary to transatlantic emigration, the guest...

    • 12 Regional selectivity of return migration The locational choice of high-skilled return migrants in Poland
      (pp. 237-258)
      Katrin Klein-Hitpaß

      Currently, there is a growing interest in the process of return migration and the question of whether return migrants and especially high-skilled return migrants support the economic development of the nations or regions they are returning to. Research thus far has predominantly been based on high-tech regions in newly industrialised countries (NIC), such as Shanghai, China, and Bangalore, India (Saxenian 2006; Iredale & Guo 2001; Chacko 2007; Hunger 2000; Müller 2007; Müller & Sternberg 2006; Fromhold-Eisebith 2002), or the capital regions of some West African countries (Black & King 2004; Ammassari 2004; Ammassari & Black 2001). In all of these...

    • 13 Translators of knowledge? Labour market positioning of young Poles returning from studies abroad in Germany
      (pp. 259-276)
      Nina Wolfeil

      Post-accession migration from Poland has gained prominence in the media and in research during recent years. Researchers have pointed to the strong involvement of young and highly educated migrants in this most recent wave of migration from Poland (Kaczmarczyk & Okólski 2008). While we already know a lot about the labour market outcomes of Poles in the United Kingdom (see, e.g., Drinkwater, Eade & Garapich 2006), post-accession return migration and labour market outcomes of returnees remain blind spots. This is even more true with regard to educational migration and returns from studies abroad. According to UNESCO (2008: table 10), 30,808...

    • 14 Ready to move Liquid return to Poland
      (pp. 277-308)
      Marta Anacka, Ewa Matejko and Joanna Nestorowicz

      The accession of CEE countries to the European Union in 2004 had significant influence on migration processes in this geographical area. A main reason for the shift in mobility patterns was the EU policy on free movement of persons and services, which opened the labour markets of some member states, as well as the large migration potential among the ‘new Europeans’. The latter was a result of labour force surpluses and delays in economic modernisation. Undoubtedly, regardless of the size of the population, Poland represented the biggest migration potential. In the opinion of some experts one to four million people...

    • 15 Concluding remarks
      (pp. 309-324)
      Birgit Glorius, Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska and Aimee Kuvik

      The past two decades have brought immense changes to Europe. From political and economic transition following the collapse of communist regimes to European Union membership, countries in CEE have faced transitions on many fronts. With membership of the EU came increased European integration, including more access for individuals to the labour markets in other EU countries. While the wins and woes of economic ‘transition’ have been fairly well documented within individual countries, less is known and understood about changes in human mobility resulting from EU membership. The free mobility of labour within the EU (albeit with limitations) has led to...

  7. Contributors
    (pp. 325-328)
  8. Back Matter
    (pp. 329-332)