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Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective

Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective

Marlou Schrover
Joanne van der Leun
Leo Lucassen
Chris Quispel
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 196
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  • Book Info
    Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective
    Book Description:

    Two issues come to the fore in current debates over migration: illegal migration and the role of gender in illegal migration. This incisive study combines the two subjects and views the migration scholarship through the lens of the gender perspective, investigating definitions of citizenship and the differences in mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion for men and women, producing a comprehensive account of illegal migration in Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, Mexico, Malaysia, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East over the nineteenth- and the twentieth centuries. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0632-3
    Subjects: Anthropology, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-8)
  3. 1 Introduction: Illegal migration and gender in a global and historical perspective
    (pp. 9-38)
    Marlou Schrover, Joanne van der Leun, Leo Lucassen and Chris Quispel

    The differences between men and women involved in migration have been studied from various angles in the last decades (Sinke 2006). However, study of the ‘illegal’ side of migration has remained relatively sparse. A special issue ofInternational Migration Reviewon gender and migration offers an impressive overview of what has been written on gender differences in migration in recent years (Donato, Gabaccia, Holdaway, Manalansan & Pessar 2006), but the focus has mainly been on legal migration. Not much light is shed on the historical roots and global differences within illegal migration. In this book we therefore use a historical and...

  4. 2 Tracing back ‘illegal aliens’ in the Netherlands, 1850-1940
    (pp. 39-56)
    Corrie van Eijl

    Regulation of migration is not a recent phenomenon in the Netherlands. The conditions for the entry and deportation of aliens were laid down in the first Dutch Aliens Act of 1849. Although illegality is strongly related to this kind of lawmaking, with its mechanism of inclusion and exclusion, the Aliens Act did not result in a clear distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Many aliens were ‘unwanted’ and they were deported, but it took almost a century before the term ‘illegal’ entered the policy documents and public debates on migration. The main aim of this chapter is to trace and...

  5. 3 Policing foreign men and women: Gendered patterns of expulsion and migration control in Germany, 1880-1914
    (pp. 57-82)
    Christiane Reinecke

    Addressing her letter of 1882 to the Prussian Minister of the Interior, the Russian citizen Marie Gad was petitioning for the readmission of her husband to the country so he would be able to help her. The Russian-Pole Israel Meyer Gad, to whom she was married, had been forced to leave Germany after being expelled by local Prussian authorities. His wife, originally a Prussian citizen, was now struggling to support her family and was afraid of being deported herself. Whether they were immigrants or former German citizens, foreign women living in late nineteenth-century Prussia found themselves in a vulnerable position....

  6. 4 Gendered borders: The case of ‘illegal’ migration from Iraq, the Horn of Africa and the former Soviet Union to the Netherlands
    (pp. 83-104)
    Ilse van Liempt

    The smuggling and trafficking of human beings has received wide attention from politicians, the media and academia. Most studies in this field, however, are conducted by criminologists and as a result focus specifically on crime. Much research about smuggling and trafficking looks at the organisations involved in the ‘business’, the cooperation between different actors involved and the profits that are made (Salt & Stein 1997; Kleemans Van den Berg & Van de Bunt 1998; Salt & Hogarth 2000; Aronowitz 2001; Van Dijk 2002; Staring, Engbersen, Moerland, De Lange, Verburg, Vermeulen & Weltevrede 2005; Soudijn 2006). Furthermore, the majority of the studies in this field...

  7. 5 Old and new labour migration to Malaysia: From colonial times to the present
    (pp. 105-126)
    Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas

    Anyone visiting Malaysia from the 1880s onwards would be struck by the presence of foreign workers in the country. At the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth a visitor could observe Chinese workers in tin mines and Indian workers at sugar, coffee and later rubber plantations. Indian workers also constructed roads and railways and worked in supporting public services. Most of these Chinese and Indian workers were men. One hundred years later, from the 1980s onwards, a visitor would again find many foreign workers. This time, however, these workers mainly come from Indonesia as well...

  8. 6 The romantic appeal of illegal migration: Gender, masculinity and human smuggling from Pakistan
    (pp. 127-150)
    Ali Nobil Ahmad

    Despite the growing prominence of gender within the field of migration studies (testified to by this volume and many others), there exists an unmistakeable scarcity of empirical research dealing with the construction and performance of masculinities in the process of international migration. Apart from a handful of notable exceptions (e.g. Charsley 2005; Gallo 2006) the critical study of men represents something of a lacuna in an otherwise burgeoning literature. This is partly due to the fact that scholars are understandably preoccupied with new forms of female agency in a world where the ‘lone male bread-winning migrant’ is increasingly seen to...

  9. 7 Migrant domestic workers in the Middle East
    (pp. 151-170)
    Annelies Moors and Marina de Regt

    This chapter sets out to contribute to ongoing debates on gender and illegal migration by focusing on migrant domestic labour in the Middle East.¹ Whereas in the course of the last decade gender has been taken up as an analytical category in migration research and the trend towards the feminisation of migration has been acknowledged (see Donato, Gabaccia, Holdaway, Manalansan & Pessar, 2006; Mahler & Pessar 2006), little academic research has been published on the migration of women to the Middle East, the large majority of whom are migrant domestic workers. Moreover, if attention has been paid to the migration of women...

  10. 8 Illegal migration, gender and health care: Perspectives from Germany and the United States
    (pp. 171-188)
    Heide Castañeda

    Illegal migrants are generally excluded from social and political rights in their host countries. The study of these exclusions – and occasional inclusions – can contribute to debates on the role of the nation-state and shifting forms of citizenship. Indeed, the economic need for migrant labour often coexists with a political desire to create boundaries between foreigners and full citizens, especially in relation to resources such as health care services. The advent of illness provokes a quintessential dilemma of social responsibility for states that simultaneously condemn yet rely upon illegal immigration. In these cases, receiving states find themselves oscillating ‘between...

  11. About the authors
    (pp. 189-192)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 193-195)