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Anne Frank and After

Anne Frank and After: Dutch Holocaust Literature in a Historical Perspective

Copyright Date: 1996
Pages: 184
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  • Book Info
    Anne Frank and After
    Book Description:

    Between 1940 and 1945, 110,000 of the 140,000 Dutch Jews were deported to the death camps in Eastern Europe. 80% never returned. In Anne Frank and After the authors focus on two main questions: how exactly did this happen, and how has Dutch literature come to terms with this appalling event? In the book's final chapter they analyze the relationship between history and the literature of the Holocaust. Does literature add to what we know or does it actually distort historical evidence? Based on the work of leading historians of the period, the book examines literary works from Gerard Durlacher, Anne Frank, W.F. Hermans, Harry Mulisch, Gerard Reve and many others.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0567-8
    Subjects: History, Sociology, Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 7-7)
    Dick van Galen Last and Rolf Wolfswinkel
  4. [Map]
    (pp. 8-8)
  5. Introduction: ‘Statistics Don’t Bleed’
    (pp. 9-14)

    On the 1St September 1939 the German Army invaded Poland, and the Second World War began. In the spring of 1940, after successfully concluding his campaign in Eastern Europe with the occupation of Poland, Hitler started his offensive in the West. In April he occupied Denmark and Norway, and on 10 May the German armies attacked Holland, Belgium and France at the same time.

    It was a rude awakening for a country that had not been involved in a European war since the days of Napoleon and believed implicitly in its policy of neutrality and impartiality. During the First World...

  6. I Dutch Jewry before 10 May 1940
    (pp. 15-32)

    The Netherlands is situated at the mouth of one of Europe’s most important waterways, the river Rhine. This means it holds a very strategic position, from an economic as well as from a cultural point of view. The Republic of the Seven United Provinces - as The Netherlands (i.e. Low Countries) was called before they became a unitary state under the House of Orange in 181) 1- owed its wealth mainly to this favourable geographical position. The country was in the middle of the economically and culturally most powerful countries of Western Europe: Great Britain, France and the several German...

  7. II From Aryan Declaration to Yellow Star: The Antechamber of Death
    (pp. 33-52)

    After a blitzkrieg of just five days, which began in the early hours of la May 1940, German troops occupied Holland. The country had long maintained a policy of strict neutrality and was neither mentally nor materially prepared for war. The bombardment of Rotterdam, which killed nearly 1000 people, and the German warning that more cities would follow, was sufficient reason for the Dutch Government to capitulate. Queen Wilhelmina and her government went into exile in London to continue the struggle from there and to protect their colonial interests in the Dutch East and West Indies. Their departure created a...

  8. III Deportation or into Hiding
    (pp. 53-74)

    On 20 January 1942 in a villa in the Berlin suburb of wannsee. 15 high dignitaries of the Third Retch gathered under the chairmanship of Reinhard Heydrich. They met for about one and a half hours. Their aim was to discuss the organisation of the biggest genocide of this century: the murder of the Jews of Europe. or in the German jargon of that time,die Endlösung der fudell/rage(the Final Solution of the Jewish Problem). SS-Ober-sturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann, who compiled the Wannsee Conference Protocols and would later organise the deportations of the European Jews to the death camps, recalled...

  9. IV The Transit Camps
    (pp. 75-90)

    Ironically enough,Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Westerbork(Police Transit Camp westerbork) began its short unhappy life as a Dutch project. In February 1939 the Dutch Cabinet had decided to build a camp to house Jewish refugees from Germany. For the last lot of the more than 30,000 German and Austrian Jews who had entered Holland in the Thirties, it was difficult to find a place, not in the least because these latecomers were on the whole not as wealthy as those who had come between 1933 and 1937. This had led to enormous financial and accommodation problems. They became the charge of...

  10. V The Railroad of No Return
    (pp. 91-120)

    Probably during the late summer of 1941, the decision to exterminate all the Jews in occupied Europe had been taken, and this was followed by the coordination of the enterprise at wannsee in January 1942. From then on, trains ran day and night to the extermination centres in Poland.

    David Koker heard the word extermination for the first time in transit camp Vught, in the beginning of September 1943. He was at that time still reasonably optimistic, an optimism that would soon vanish. On 27 November a letter from Poland took his last doubts away, when he read that most...

  11. VI The Paradox of Silence: Survivors and Losers
    (pp. 121-146)

    On 30 Apnl rcay, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in the Fiihrerbunker in Berlin, together with the woman he had married one day earlier, Eva Braun. On 8 May 1945, the German Army capitulated officially.

    In Holland the German forces had capitulated two days earlier, although the southern part of the country had already been liberated in the autumn of 1944. The liberators, mainly Canadian, English and American troops, had been received enthusiastically by the Dutch population wherever they went. Among those Dutch people was the almost s-year-old Jewish boy Robert Krell, who had survived in hiding for three years. His...

  12. VII The Epilogue
    (pp. 147-154)

    The difference between ‘history’ and ‘literature’ is sometimes interpreted as the difference between ‘fact’ and ‘fiction’, or even between ‘truth’ and ‘fantasy’. We would like to argue here that in order to begin to understand the events we call the Holocaust, the literature of those events must be seen as an important historical source. If we want to penetrate that mystery of collective behaviour, ordinary knowledge of history does not suffice. Bare facts, horrific though they are, are meaningless unless they are given significance by personal testimony. The personal experiences of Cerard Durlacher. [ona Oberski and all the other of...

  13. Notes
    (pp. 155-164)
  14. Chronology
    (pp. 165-166)
  15. Short Biographies
    (pp. 167-172)
  16. Bibliography
    (pp. 173-178)
  17. Sources
    (pp. 179-180)
  18. Index
    (pp. 181-184)