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The Viability of Human Security

The Viability of Human Security

Monica den Boer
Jaap de Wilde
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 272
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  • Book Info
    The Viability of Human Security
    Book Description:

    This volume elaborates on the EU report A Human Security Doctrine for Europe, adding an engaging discussion of international legal consequences and operational demands in the European Union's quest for domestic security. Introducing the concept of "Human Security from Below," the editors highlight how people in war-torn countries have no choice but to create their own security arrangements. But such structures, surprisingly, are not unique to war zones, the contributors reveal-human security initiatives from below occur in even the most stable Western countries. Arguing that human security as a concept only makes sense if it covers both foreign and domestic policy concerns, The Viability of Human Security offers concise insights on this largely neglected topic. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0146-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. I Introduction

    • 1 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Human Security
      (pp. 9-18)
      Monica den Boer and Jaap de Wilde

      It is incredible how ‘national states’ structure the mind – not just the minds of academics who study state sovereignty and national identity, and not just the minds of politicians whose actions are simultaneously shaped and constrained by state and nation – but the mind of every individual or group willing and able to be political. People in most parts of the world are so state- and ethnocentric. Despite globalisation, every newspaper has separate pages for domestic and foreign news. Even the pages about globalised economics work with distinctions such as local, national, regional and world markets. We are inclined...

  4. II Top-Down Human Security Policies

    • 2 From Just War to Just Peace
      (pp. 21-46)
      Mary Kaldor

      In this chapter, I argue that just such a thoroughgoing transformation in international society is taking place even though it does not amount to the establishment of a global state, which is what Walzer implied. Just War theory is increasingly stretched and difficult to apply in the context of those changes we lump together under the rubric of globalisation. These include growing consciousness of humanity as a single community, growing awareness that the destructiveness of war is unacceptable, increased interconnectedness in all fields, growing importance of human rights norms and laws, and above all, new forms of overlapping political authority...

    • 3 Failing Global Justice and Human Security
      (pp. 47-70)
      Willy Bruggeman

      People’s security around the world is interlinked, as is highlighted by today’s global flows of goods, services, finances, people and images. Political liberalisation and democratisation open new opportunities but also new fault-lines, such as political and economic instabilities and conflicts within and between states. More than 80,000 people a year die as a consequence of violence, according to the Commission on Human Security (Ogata, Sen et al., 2003). Human security means protecting vital freedoms. It implies the protection of people from critical and pervasive threats and situations. Therefore, global justice is essential. During the Cold War, security was essentially defined...

    • 4 Governing Transnational Law Enforcement in the eu: Accountability after Fusing Internal and External Security
      (pp. 71-96)
      Monica den Boer

      Globalisation, new technology and increasing mobility have infused the transnationalisation of criminal activity. The perceived upsurge in international organised crime and terrorism has been mirrored by a further transnationalisation of law enforcement efforts, which means that policing, which can be performed at a variety of levels by a diverse array of actors, increasingly takes place across the borders of sovereign nation states. The organisation of transnational policing takes place both at the formal administrative level, as well as at the informal level where pioneering activities do not always fit the formal delineations of mandate and authority.

      This implies that the...

    • 5 The Lack of Coherence between Internal and External Security Policies of the European Union
      (pp. 97-108)
      Cyrille Fijnaut

      The structure of the European Union is often depicted as a temple with three pillars. The European Community forms the first pillar, the second relates to the Common Foreign and Security Policy (cfsp) and the European Security and Defence Policy (espd) of the European Union, and the third pillar encompasses police and judicial cooperation among the member states. The distinction between the Second and Third Pillars corresponds to a large extent to the classic distinction between foreign and internal security. According to Article 11 of the Treaty on European Union (teu), in which the goals of the cfsp are listed,...

    • 6 Ambidextrous Military: Coping with Contradictions of New Security Policies
      (pp. 109-124)
      Joseph L. Soeters

      Today’s military operations increasingly take place in larger international contexts and their objectives have become vaguer (Elron, Shamir and Ben-Ari, 1999). Operations vary from war-like operations, emphasising the use of violence, to post-conflict nation-building in which communication with local people and ngos is important. In addition, military operations have become more dependent on cooperation between civil services and national militaries. These demands put a heavy burden on the military, because they sometimes really contrast with the traditional military way of operating, stressing clear-cut goals, standard operating procedures, and a fairly strong degree of ‘inner directness’. These changes reflect two aspects...

  5. III Human Security Policies from Below

    • 7 Human Security, the Military and the (Israeli) State: ‘In-Between Organisations’ at Checkpoints
      (pp. 127-148)
      Eyal Ben-Ari

      In this chapter I will examine two organisations that have emerged during the current conflict between Israelis and Palestinians and that centre their activities on the checkpoints that are situated between Israel and the West Bank. For Israeli forces these places have a security function to weed out potential Palestinian perpetrators of violence. For Palestinians they are places of daily humiliation and degradation manned by stern occupying forces. For Israeli soldiers they are highly emotional places veering between fear and boredom, between anxiety and dullness. For the Palestinians, these are places of no less intense mortification and dread of arbitrary...

    • 8 Human Security from Below: Freedom from Fear and Lifeline Operations
      (pp. 149-178)
      Mient Jan Faber

      The central question of this chapter is whether it is possible to develop a consistent human security policy to tackle and survive contemporary wars. After the Cold War, it is said that we now really live in a global world and no longer in a world determined only by national and international relations (Shaw, 1999: 61-80). This global world order is mostly conceived as a governance system in which states and non-state actors are taking part and sharing responsibility. States are repositioning themselves within wider governance networks of non-state actors (ngos) and international institutions (un, imf, World Bank, World Court,...

    • 9 Human Security from Below: Palestinian Citizens Protection Strategies, 1988-2005
      (pp. 179-202)
      Walid Salem

      This chapter deals with the question of citizens’ protection strategies of the Palestinians in the period 1988-2005. It compares strategies practised during the first Intifada (1988-1994) with strategies during the second Intifada (2000-today). Before discussing citizens’ protection strategies this chapter focuses on components for a framework for citizens’ participation in protracted conflict areas. What can such a framework look like? What if these ‘citizens’ are not recognised as such, but are considered ‘subjects’ by regimes, clans and families, and also considered to be stateless, or obliged to hold the citizenship of another country? The Palestinians living in Israel are considered...

    • 10 Human Security from Below: Local Security Networks in the Netherlands
      (pp. 203-222)
      Jan Terpstra

      Up until about twenty years ago, the control of crime and disorder in modern societies was considered to be the task of the police alone. To realise this task the police were granted the use of physical power under certain circumstances. According to this view other agencies, especially private organisations and citizens, should refrain from any active involvement in the institutional control of crime. Fear of vigilantism by citizens was one of the main arguments for why crime control or protection against organised violence should be left to the police. In case of crime or other dangers, citizens were only...

  6. IV Conclusion

    • 11 Speaking or Doing Human Security?
      (pp. 225-254)
      Jaap de Wilde

      In this chapter the issues introduced in chapter 1 are elaborated in the context of parts ii and iii: What is the theoretical value of introducing human security as a concept in security studies? What is the practical value of introducing it as a policy device? Along three lines it will be argued that from a theoretical point of view its value is limited, whereas its practical meaning is a mixed blessing, but a blessing nevertheless. The first argument in this chapter is that human security policies from above are dependent on the structure of the international system and the...

  7. About the Authors
    (pp. 255-256)
  8. Index
    (pp. 257-272)