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Europe's Invisible Migrants

Europe's Invisible Migrants

Andrea L. Smith (ed.)
Series: Europa
Copyright Date: 2003
Pages: 248
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  • Book Info
    Europe's Invisible Migrants
    Book Description:

    Following the decolonization movements that swept the globe after World War II, between four and six million people were 'returned' to Europe from the colonies. From an exporter of people, Europe turned to a site of immigration for the first time in the twentieth century. Until now, these migrations have been overlooked as scholars have highlighted instead the parallel migrations of former 'colonized' peoples.Europe's Invisible Migrantscorrects this bias. This multidisciplinary volume presents essays by prominent sociologists, historians, and anthropologists on their research with these 'invisible' migrant communities. Their work highlights the experiences of colonists returning to France, Portugal and the Netherlands, the intersection of race, citizenship, and colonial ideologies, and the ways these migrations reflect the return of the 'colonial' to Europe. This volume offers fresh insights into immigration, racism and ethnic conflict in post-colonial Europe by presenting colonial repatriates as another 'immigrant' population. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0510-4
    Subjects: Sociology, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. Acknowledgements
    (pp. 7-8)
  4. Introduction Europe’s Invisible Migrants
    (pp. 9-32)
    Andrea L. Smith

    In the wake of worldwide decolonization movements, an estimated five to seven million people were repatriated to Europe over a thirty-five-year period that began during World War II. This mass population movement represents Europe’s first important shift in the twentieth century from a site of net population exportation to one of immigration. It has now been sixty years since the first of these migrants, Italians from Libya, began to return “home” in 1940. It would be a reasonable assumption that considerable research has been completed on the long-term consequences of these migrations – the consequences for the migrants themselves, as...

  5. Part One: Repatriates or Migrants?: Returning “Home”

    • Chapter one No Sheltering Sky: Migrant Identities of Dutch Nationals from Indonesia
      (pp. 33-60)
      Wim Willems

      In the years after World War II, a process of decolonization took place that has still not been completed today. It has involved the migration of millions of people who, because of changed sociopolitical circumstances, decided to leave the country of their birth or settlement and move to the homeland of the former colonizer. This was the case with Dutch migrants from the former Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, who came to the Netherlands from 1945 to the end of the 1960s. This group consists of at least three categories: European-born people who were in the Indies temporarily; Dutch and...

    • Chapter two The Creation of the Pieds-Noirs: Arrival and Settlement in Marseilles, 1962
      (pp. 61-74)
      Jean-Jacques Jordi

      Many factors have contributed to the creation in France of a distinct “pied-noir” culture and identity.¹ In contrast with the other migrations of decolonization explored here, the “return” of the French from Algeria occurred remarkably quickly, resulting in the transplantation of over a million people over the course of a few years, with a half a million crossing the Mediterranean in only a few months in the summer of 1962. Mass migration from Algeria, moreover, was only one of a series of migrations that followed the decolonization of the French empire in the two decades following World War II. Overall,...

    • Chapter Three Race, Class, and Kin in the Negotiation of “Internal Strangerhood” among Portuguese Retornados, 1975-2000
      (pp. 75-94)
      Stephen C. Lubkemann

      In the immediate aftermath of Portugal’s revolution of April 25, 1974, the rush to decolonization ushered a wave of humanity onto Portuguese shores. Within the short period of little over a year, over half a million residents of the former African colonies, termed “retornados” (literally translated as “returnees”) arrived in Portugal. Despite the inevitable social, demographic, political, and economic impact of an influx of this size on a country of just under 10 million inhabitants at the time (Baganha 1998), with a long history of exporting rather than receiving immigrants (Baganha 1998; Brettell 1986; Rocha-Trindade 1981, 1990; Higgs 1990), and...

    • Chapter Four Repatriates or Immigrants? A Commentary
      (pp. 95-102)
      Caroline B. Brettell

      In an insightful and thorough review article dealing with various theories of international migration, Douglas Massey and several coauthors (Massey et al. 1993) address the aspect of World Systems Theory that argues that the process of economic globalization has created cultural links between core capitalist countries and their hinterlands. In many cases, these links are long-standing, and are rooted in the bureaucratic structures built by core colonial powers in peripheral colonies. One consequence of these deep-rooted links is the movements of natives of the periphery to the capitalist core that occurred in the post-World War II, postcolonial period. These “natives”...

  6. Part Two: The Migrants, History and Memory:: Reconfiguring Colonialism after the fact

    • Chapter Five From Urn to Monument: Dutch Memories of World War II in the Pacific, 1945 – 1995
      (pp. 105-128)
      Elsbeth Locher-Scholten

      In 1946, an eleven-year-old girl was given a small homemade apron by her mother for the liberation festivities of May that year. The wearing of “national celebration skirts” had been promoted in the Netherlands by one of the survivors of the Nazi camp Ravensbrück as a female way to remember the traumatic past of World War II.² These skirts were composed of old pieces of cloth from beloved family members and friends and decorated with embroidered memories. This girl had her own war memories, however. She had lived through the hardships of the Japanese internment camp in the Indies and...

    • Chapter Six Pied-Noir Memory, History, and the Algerian War
      (pp. 129-146)
      William B. Cohen

      In 1958, the newly mintedagrégéin history, Pierre Nora, was assigned his first teaching post, the Lycée Lamorcière in Oran, Algeria. In addition to teaching his classes in the midst of war, he worked on a book on the European population in Algeria,Les Français d’Algérie. ¹ The theme of the work was the gap between the reality of the Algerian situation and the myths and illusions the Europeans, or pieds-noirs, maintained. Twenty-five years later Pierre Nora edited his famous Les Lieux de mémoire and strangely none of the seven volumes addressed the issues connected with the Algerian war....

    • Chapter Seven The Wrinkles of Decolonization and Nationness: White Angolans as Retornados in Portugal
      (pp. 147-168)
      Ricardo E. Ovalle-Bahamón

      Mr. Graça² sat across the small table in the café we had frequented for about two months and which had been his place for over two decades, and solemnly stated, “I was born in Angola, lived there all my life except for a few years that I spent in theliceuin Lisbon, and know no other home. I didn’t leave Angola; I was expelled. With independence people would yell at me in the streets [of Luanda] to go back to the land of my father (vai p’ra terra do teu pai!). And when I arrived in Portugal, people would...

    • Chapter eight Postcolonial Peoples: A Commentary
      (pp. 169-184)
      Frederick Cooper

      The men and women discussed in this book, in a fuller sense than practically anybody else, are postcolonial people. If the large majority of the populations of the Netherlands, France, and Portugal sought to distance themselves from the sordid past of colonization and the embarrassing history of the loss of their colonies, citizens of new nations born of decolonization were caught up in efforts to become something other than what they had been. Not everyone who fled from newly independent Indonesia, Angola, or Algeria sought refuge in the collective identification of colonial repatriate – some wanted simply to get on...

  7. Notes
    (pp. 185-208)
  8. Sources Cited
    (pp. 209-236)
  9. Index
    (pp. 237-246)