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The European Second Generation Compared

The European Second Generation Compared: Does the Integration Context Matter?

Maurice Crul
Jens Schneider
Frans Lelie
Copyright Date: 2012
Pages: 416
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  • Book Info
    The European Second Generation Compared
    Book Description:

    Integration of newcomers is a foremost challenge for contemporary Europe. The 'second generation' - children born of immigrant parentage - is crucial in this process, for they constitute a growing and increasingly vocal segment of the metropolitan youth. This book offers an unprecedented look at the real-life place and position of the European second generation in education, labour, social relations, religion and identity formation. Using data collected by the TIES survey in fifteen cities across eight European countries, the authors paint a vivid picture of how the children of immigrants from Turkey, Morocco and former Yugoslavia are progressing. Their findings and cross-national comparisons are demographically compelling and at times revelational. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-1692-6
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. Acknowledgements
    (pp. 7-10)
  4. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 11-18)
    Maurice Crul, Jens Schneider and Frans Lelie

    Immigration and the subsequent integration of newcomers is one of the foremost challenges for European cities. The integration of children born to immigrant parents in countries of migration is critical, for this second generation, as they have come to be known, constitutes a growing share of metropolitan youth today. Research on the second generation is particularly pertinent because it can respond to many universal questions concerning integration.

    With an extra push from the late-2000s’ financial crisis, the public debate has taken a dramatic shift against immigrants and their children. In Europe, the so-called threat of Islam is being put on...

  5. 2 Comparative integration context theory: Participation and belonging in diverse European cities
    (pp. 19-38)
    Jens Schneider and Maurice Crul

    In the last fifteen years a great deal of research about the second generation has appeared in academic journals and books. These publications have stirred a wider theoretical debate about assimilation and integration. Scholars in the United States have been at the forefront of studies producing both research results and theoretical models on the subject of the second generation. Europe’s scholars are now catching up, starting to respond to the theoretical notions produced within the North American context, notably where the US-born children of Mexican and Asian immigrants dominate discussion about the second generation. In Europe, these groups are, as...

  6. 3 Research methodology
    (pp. 39-56)
    George Groenewold and Laurence Lessard-Phillips

    Mainly under ‘guest worker’ policies, Turkish, Moroccan and former Yugoslavian immigrants in the 1960s began to constitute sizeable diasporic communities in many European cities. They formed families and had children born in the country of immigration. The so-called second generation has now come of age and is well represented among adolescents and young adults in the European Union.

    The TIES project’s methodological objective was to obtain statistically representative information on integration-related topics from second-generation Turks, Moroccans and former Yugoslavians in fifteen cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam (the Netherlands); Antwerp, Brussels (Belgium); Paris, Strasbourg (France); Barcelona, Madrid (Spain); Basel, Zurich (Switzerland); Linz, Vienna...

  7. 4 The TIES respondents and their parents: Background socio-demographic characteristics
    (pp. 57-100)
    Laurence Lessard-Phillips and Christopher Ross

    As the TIES project has affirmed, socio-demographic characteristics of migrants and their descendants across Europe vary greatly. We see this both in terms of individuals as well as their families. Our survey has also revealed such differences among respondents who share common ethnonational origins. The aim of this chapter is to give a first descriptive overview of all TIES respondents – including the comparison groups – detailing their age, citizenship status, household composition alongside pertinent socio-demographic information about their parents.² We describe here to what extent parental characteristics of second-generation respondents may diverge from their respective cities’ comparison groups. A particular comparative...

  8. 5 School careers of second-generation youth in Europe: Which education systems provide the best chances for success?
    (pp. 101-164)
    Maurice Crul, Philipp Schnell, Barbara Herzog-Punzenberger, Maren Wilmes, Marieke Slootman and Rosa Aparicio Gómez

    We begin this chapter with some profiles of respondents to the TIES survey, namely, three young women of Turkish descent living in Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam. The women’s parents all came from small villages in the countryside of Yozgat, a province in central Turkey, which is a major sending area for Turkish emigrants. The mothers had all gone only to primary school, while the fathers each had attended an additional few years of secondary school. These stories exemplify differences in school careers for young second-generation Turkish women in the different European cities we studied.

    First there is Kaya, an unmarried...

  9. 6 Assessing the labour market position and its determinants for the second generation
    (pp. 165-224)
    Laurence Lessard-Phillips, Rosita Fibbi and Philippe Wanner

    There is ample research evidence about the economic hardship that immigrants and their families face (see e.g. Kogan 2006; OECD 2007, 2008). The most predominant reasons for such hardship include the low starting position of unskilled and low-skilled migrants and, especially for more highly educated migrants, a lack of skills transferability upon migration. An evaluation of the second generation’s position in the labour market gives insights into the extent to which labour market disadvantages found in the first generation are reproduced in the subsequent one. The labour market integration of the second generation, along with education, helps to determine the...

  10. 7 Union formation and partner choice
    (pp. 225-284)
    Christelle Hamel, Doreen Huschek, Nadja Milewski and Helga de Valk

    Partner choice and union formation are important events in the lives of young adults. The specific choices involved in these events are determined by a range of factors. For example, research indicates that social homogamy plays an important role in partner choice. The timing of union formation is, moreover, strongly correlated with people’s educational level and other social background characteristics. At the same time, common social patterns in partner selection and union formation do change over time and in the succession of generations. Two of the most significant changes to occur across Europe in recent decades are a considerable postponement...

  11. 8 Identities: Urban belonging and intercultural relations
    (pp. 285-340)
    Jens Schneider, Tineke Fokkema, Raquel Matias, Snežana Stojčić, Dušan Ugrina and Constanza Vera-Larrucea

    Identities are difficult to grasp – in more ways than one. Conceptually, ‘identity’ is probably one of the most fuzzy concepts constantly used in the social and cultural sciences. For several disciplines it is a key term, notably psychology, anthropology and cultural studies, but standard and encyclopaedic definitions are highly diverse, even within one discipline. We know that every person has ‘an identity’ , but we also know that people havemultipleidentities. The term’s root is the Latin word for ‘the same’ (idem), which highlights a contradiction found in each definition of ‘identity’. The notion of theuniquenessof each...

  12. 9 Ways of ‘being Muslim’: Religious identities of second-generation Turks
    (pp. 341-374)
    Karen Phalet, Fenella Fleischmann and Snežana Stojčić

    Large-scale immigration from Muslim-majority countries to highly secularised North-Western European societies has raised questions about how the European-born children of Muslim immigrants relate to and practise religion. On the one hand, second-generation Muslims are socialised into Islam within their immigrant families and communities. On the other hand, they grow up in societies where the majority is historically Christian, highly secularised and, in a post-9/11 era, increasingly anti-Islamic (Bruce 2011). By secularisation, we refer to a robust downward trend in the importance and impact of religion among Christian-majority populations (Gorski & Altinordu 2008). In European societies, secularism is a normative ideology...

  13. 10 Conclusions and implications: The integration context matters
    (pp. 375-404)
    Maurice Crul and Jens Schneider

    Throughout this book, we pursued several lines of comparison across countries, between and across cities and for multiple origin groups. We found major differences between groups as well as remarkable variation within the same origin group across cities and countries. In our conclusion, we make use of the preceding chapters’ various outcomes to look at one origin group in more detail. For this purpose we selected second-generation Turks, as they are significantly present in seven of the eight countries that the TIES survey covered. This group’s ubiquity enabled robust comparison and, at the same time, contemplation on the integration context...

  14. List of contributors
    (pp. 405-415)
  15. Appendix [Additional tables for chapter 6 “Assessing the labour market position and its determinants for the second generation”]
    (pp. 1-21)