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The Cultural Landscape & Heritage Paradox

The Cultural Landscape & Heritage Paradox: Protection and Development of the Dutch Archaeological-historical Landscape and its European Dimension

Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers
Henk Kars
Arnold van der Valk
Mies Wijnen
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 744
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46mzsp
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  • Book Info
    The Cultural Landscape & Heritage Paradox
    Book Description:

    The basic problem is to what extent we can know past and mainly invisible landscapes, and how we can use this still hidden knowledge for actual sustainable management of landscape's cultural and historical values. It has also been acknowledged that heritage management is increasingly about 'the management of future change rather than simply protection'. This presents us with a paradox: to preserve our historic environment, we have to collaborate with those who wish to transform it and, in order to apply our expert knowledge, we have to make it suitable for policy and society. The answer presented by the Protection and Development of the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape programme (pdl/bbo) is an integrative landscape approach which applies inter- and transdisciplinarity, establishing links between archaeological-historical heritage and planning, and between research and policy. This is supported by two unifying concepts: 'biography of landscape' and 'action research'. This approach focuses upon the interaction between knowledge, policy and an imagination centered on the public. The European perspective makes us aware of the resourcefulness of the diversity of landscapes, of social and institutional structures, of various sorts of problems, approaches and ways forward. In addition, two related issues stand out: the management of knowledge creation for landscape research and management, and the prospects for the near future. Underlying them is the imperative that we learn from the past 'through landscape'.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-1096-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-IX)
  3. [Map]
    (pp. X-X)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. XI-XII)
    Tom Bloemers, Henk Kars, Arnold van der Valk and Mies Wijnen
  5. I. INTRODUCTION

    • 1. The Cultural Landscape and Heritage Paradox. Protection and Development of the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape and its European Dimension
      (pp. 3-16)
      Tom (J.H.F) Bloemers

      “What you see is what you take”. This quotation from the title of a paper on the perception and use of prehistoric landscape written by Roel Brandt in the mid-1980s (Brandt 1986) highlights in an extended form the basic drive leading towards the ‘Protecting and Developing the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape’ programme (PDL/BBO; Dutch: Bodemarchief in Behoud en Ontwikkeling = BBO; Bloemers et al. 2001) and the volume you have in your hands. In his paper, Brandt presented the notion of perception in prehistoric societies as a factor to be considered in the research of his time to understand their exploitation...

  6. II. INSIGHTS AND PROSPECTS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL-HISTORICAL LANDSCAPE STUDIES

    • 1. Introduction to ‘Protecting and Developing the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape’ (PDL/BBO)
      (pp. 19-20)
      Willem J.H. Willems

      As chairman of the steering committee of the programme ‘Protecting and Developing the Dutch Archaeological- Historical Landscape’ I am honoured to introduce the publication that marks the end of the programme. Or perhaps I should say its transition to a new state, because the 2008 symposium and this volume, which is intended to position our national discussions in the context of their European background, may now be continued in a network provided by the European Science Foundation and COST.

      This would be a very useful development because obviously the issues we discussed during the 2008 symposium are not national at...

    • 2. Planning the past. Lessons to be learned from ‘Protecting and Developing the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape’ (PDL/BBO)
      (pp. 21-52)
      Arnold van der Valk

      The Netherlands covers 41,526 km²; 14% of the surface of the country is taken up by housing, business and infrastructure, some 70% is used as agricultural land. With a population density of 500 inhabitants per km², it is one of the most densely populated and urbanized countries in the world (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 2008). In an economic sense, the Netherlands has been in the top 20 of the most prosperous countries of the world for decades (Van der Horst 2007; Needham 2007). The Netherlands, though small, is the world’s largest exporter of agricultural products. The combination of population density...

    • 3. Actors and orders: the shaping of landscapes and identities
      (pp. 53-66)
      Carsten Paludan-Müller

      Landscape is a word of strong Dutch significance² and a phenomenon with many interpretations. It is a constantly reconfigured frame and a medium of human aspiration and action. There is always more to the landscape than meets the eye. Our perceptions of, and actions in, the landscapes are shaped by who we are, and who we are is in many ways shaped by our relationship with our physical environment, including the landscape. In other words, there is a dynamic interplay between the formation of landscape identities and that of human identities. In the following I shall first attempt a simple...

  7. III. LINKING KNOWLEDGE AND ACTION

    • 1. Linking knowledge to action: an introduction
      (pp. 69-82)
      Henk Kars

      Many scientists still believe that good research is the exclusive domain of academic institutes and that the results will be taken up automatically in society where needed. Bringing the research results into the public domain by publishing in scientific journals is implicitly regarded as the end of the researcher’s responsibility. This perspective has perhaps been a good characterization for the freedom and independence of basic and curiosity-driven research for a very long time, but for research that aims to influence decision-making towards generating actions with a societal impact, the reality is different. This dichotomy between curiosity-driven and use-inspired research is...

    • 2. The cultural biography of landscape as a tool for action research in the Drentsche Aa National Landscape (Northern Netherlands)
      (pp. 83-114)
      Hans Elerie and Theo Spek

      The integration of heritage management and nature management poses one of the greatest challenges in Europe’s rural areas over the next few years (Plieninger/Höchtl/Spek 2006). This certainly also applies to the Netherlands, whose highly urbanized society and high population density, coupled with the inevitable intensive use of space over the centuries, have meant that cultural and ecological values are closely interlinked in virtually all parts of the country. This close interweaving of values is found in almost all the National Landscapes that the Dutch government designated in 2004 (Fig. 1; Spatial Planning Memorandum 2004; Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency 2005). More...

    • 3. From inventory to identity? Constructing the Lahemaa National Park’s (Estonia) regional cultural heritage
      (pp. 115-132)
      Marju Kõivupuu, Anu Printsmann and Hannes Palang

      This paper departs from the interlocked trinity of landscape, culture and heritage and addresses a set of paradoxes including protection/development, past/future and science/policy (Palang/Fry 2003). The regional example here, namely Lahemaa National Park (LNP) in Estonia, conjoining nature and culture, exemplifies how knowledge gained through action can contribute to regional identity shaped both by orders from ‘above’ and local actors.

      The aim of the paper is to sketch the specific situation of the LNP to explain how societal factors alongside natural and especially material cultural heritage like rural buildings and settlement systems influence the conceptual and social construction of regional...

    • 4. A biography of the cultural landscape in the eastern Netherlands: theory and practice of acquisition and propagation of knowledge
      (pp. 133-150)
      Jelle Vervloet, Roy van Beek and Luuk Keunen

      For many years, archaeologists and historical geographers have been aware of a significant lacuna in research on the eastern Netherlands. The region is among the least well known areas of the Netherlands and often appears as a ‘white space’ on the research maps used in both disciplines. Currently, urbanization, industrialization, water management measures and nature development projects have a growing impact on the landscape. This trend is very likely to continue over the coming decades, implying that a scientific catch-up operation is needed in order to create a reliable basis for the proper management of cultural heritage values in the...

    • 5. The protection and management of the historic landscape in Scotland in the context of the European Landscape Convention
      (pp. 151-160)
      Lesley Macinnes

      Many physical traces of past human impact can be seen in the landscape across Scotland. As elsewhere, a wide range of buildings, sites and monuments survive spanning the period since the last Ice Age. Scotland also has a rich legacy of relict landscapes, particularly deserted landscapes of the post-medieval period that were abandoned as a result of wholesale restructuring and land improvements in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. These can cover extensive areas on the ground, especially in the less improved uplands (Fig. 1).

      Other landscape elements are also the product of, or have been heavily influenced by, human actions...

    • 6. Assessing in situ preservation of archaeological wetland sites by chemical analysis of botanical remains and micromorphology
      (pp. 161-176)
      Martine van den Berg, Hans Huisman, Henk Kars, Henk van Haaster and Johan Kool

      Archaeological botanical remains, such as (cultivated) food plants, weeds (mainly occuring as seeds), pollen and wood are commonly found and are therefore well suited for systematic research of the past. These materials and their anthropogenic and natural context in archaeological soils provide relevant archaeological data and important contextual information on the occupation history by reflecting, among other things, the ecological setting at that time, food economics, dietary habits and (ship) building practices. These organic materials, however, are also very prone to deterioration in common soil conditions and therefore play an important role in estimating the preservation state of archaeological sites...

    • 7. The ancient quarry and mining district between the Eifel and the Rhine: aims and progress of the Vulkanpark Osteifel Project
      (pp. 177-186)
      Angelika Hunold and Holger Schaaff

      One of the largest mining areas for mineral resources in the ancient world was to be found in the north of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, between Andernach on the Rhine and Mayen on the border of the Eifel, in use in Roman times and the Middle Ages (Fig. 1). Millstones of basalt lava, blocks made from tuff and clay crockery were absolute top export goods for hundreds of years. These were then transported on the Rhine to customers in Switzerland, Britain and Scandinavia. Even now in the twenty-first century, the regional economic and social structure is characterized by the mining and processing...

  8. IV. IMAGINATION - FACTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

    • 1. Imagination: facts and constructions. About imagination, authenticity and identity, and the value of interpretative heritage research
      (pp. 189-202)
      Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers

      The core theme of this section is ‘imagination’. Imagination as used in this section primarily covers the ‘images’ of the archaeological-historical landscape, the images themselves and the process of creating and perceiving these images, i.e. imagination in and about the past, the present and the future. However, it can also indicate the meaning of images for those dealing with and living in the landscape in the past and the present, the actors’ involvement in ordering, analysing and interpreting landscapes and for the relationship between actors as part of the communication about different views on and the relationship between various interests...

    • 2. From Oer-IJ estuary to metropolitan coastal landscape. Assessing and preserving archaeological-historical resources from 4000 years of living between land and water
      (pp. 203-238)
      Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers, Gerard Alders, Robert van Heeringen, Marjolijn Kok, Heleen van Londen, Liesbeth Theunissen, Peter Vos and Gísli Pálsson

      The subject of this paper is one of the four regionally oriented studies of the PDL/BBO research programme dealing with the Oer-IJ area northwest of Amsterdam. First the programme as a whole will be outlined, followed by various subthemes, namely the two conceptual approaches of the PDL/BBO programme ‘action research’ and the cultural biography followed by two specific aspects of water, the religious meaning and the relevance for degradation, and an external view on the Oer-IJ programme.

      Incorporated are the results of the research by Gerard Alders (formerly Province of North-Holland, now Cultureel Erfgoed Noord-Holland) dealing with the historical landscape,...

    • 3. Two sorting-machines for the Oer-IJ
      (pp. 239-262)
      Rob van Leeuwen

      The Belvedere Memorandum was published in 1999 (Belvedere 1999). In this document, the national government of the Netherlands assigned a guiding role to cultural history on the policy agenda for spatial development. Everyone supported this initiative, no one was against it. The national government, provinces, municipalities and water boards were unanimous in their conviction that it is better when the past is recognizable in spatial development than when it is not. This also applied to the Oer-IJ, the region in the province of North Holland where, on the surface and underground, traces can be found of the former estuary of...

    • 4. Images, attitudes and measures in the field of cultural heritage in Norway
      (pp. 263-272)
      Karoline Daugstad

      Cultural heritage as a concept, a field of research, public management responsibility and as a part of human practice and lifeworld is multi-faceted. Views, definitions, assessments and measures are numerous. Several actors or interests influence how cultural heritage is defined and valued and how it is physically manifested in our surroundings. This paper will address examples of ‘appointed heritage’ in a past and present context based on recent research and heritage policy trends within a Norwegian setting.

      National cultural heritage in a Norwegian context is strongly linked to rurality and to agricultural practices, objects and landscapes. This can be explained...

    • 5. The good, the bad and the self-referential. Heritage planning and the productivity of difference
      (pp. 273-290)
      Kristof Van Assche

      Heritage planning is an integrated approach to dealing with traces of the past in the ongoing organization of the landscape (compare the contributions in Ashworth/Howarth 1999). In current practice, the traces of the past dealt with usually represent a small part of those traces, a subset that is labelled ‘heritage’ in the administrative/scientific establishment of the country or region at stake. Sometimes there is a strong connection with the heritage as defined in broader cultural circles, sometimes not, depending on the closeness of the scientific observations present in the planning system to the observations and valuations made in society at...

    • 6. Interpretative heritage research and the politics of democratization and de-democratization. As illustrated by the plight of hard-working amateurs in the trenches of revamped policy arrangements
      (pp. 291-308)
      Martijn Duineveld, Raoul Beunen and Kristof Van Assche

      The scientific practices of historians, archaeologists, historic geographers and art historians can be described as interpreting the remains from the past (such as artefacts, documents and relics) and using these interpretations to construct new knowledge about the past (Lorenz 1998; Ashworth/Graham/Tunbridge 2007). There are also academics who do not study the past or relics but rather the way in which people relate to them. Society, science, policy and science-policy interfaces are objects of study for the social scientist. One can scientifically interpret and analyse the ways people construct and interpret the past and its material remains (Bloemerset al. 2001)....

    • 7. Past pictures. Landscape visualization with digital tools
      (pp. 309-320)
      Jörg Rekittke and Philip Paar

      The lion’s share of visualizations in the vast field of digital representation depict the future. Designers, investors and financiers are focusing on planned or projected results. Sciences however, most notably archeology and history, are also interested in visual representations and visual models of things from the past that became lost, buried or are uncertain. Landscape visualization with advanced digital tools can contribute to the understanding and exemplification of past landscapes and natural as well as man-made settings of all scales.

      Landscape planning and design are not exactly known for being cutting-edge disciplines, utilizing newest technologies or to be first to...

    • 8. Gazing at places we have never been. Landscape, heritage and identity. A comment on Jörg Rekittke and Philip Paar: ‘Past Pictures. Landscape visualization with digital tools’.
      (pp. 321-328)
      Rob van der Laarse

      Landscapes are markers of personal as well as national taste, memory and identity. Reflecting on the topic of landscape visualisation, such as presented in this volume by Rekittke and Paar (Rekittke/Paar 2008; Ch. IV.7), I find it fascinating to see how the visual and spatial turns in cultural sciences are radiating into the field of landscape studies. Of course, this should not surprise us since visualisation has always been pivotal to landscape planning and design. That landscapes are not simply there, but shaped and reshaped by human activities, has been well known since Marc Bloch (Bloch 1931) and Hoskins (Hoskins...

    • 9. ‘Green’ and ‘blue’ developments. Prospects for research and conservation of early prehistoric hunter-gatherer landscapes
      (pp. 329-338)
      Bjørn Smit

      About 50% of the time span of our cultural history consists of activities and land use by early prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Unfortunately, the archaeological remains of these activities hardly seem spectacular at first sight. In this article the focus will be on surface scatters roughly dating to the Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic (c. 12,300-4,900 cal BC). In particular, on dry Pleistocene coversands in the Netherlands these remains consist of nothing more than several flint scatters or pits filled with charcoal which presumably functioned in terms of food preparation. Based on these remains a picture may emerge of early prehistoric people spending...

    • 10. Presentation, appreciation and conservation of liminal landscapes: challenges from an Irish perspective (in response to the contribution by Bjørn Smit)
      (pp. 339-350)
      Michael O’Connell

      Establishing a ‘cultural biography of landscapes’ is a major challenge for practitioners involved in the interpretation, presentation and conservation of cultural landscapes. The challenge arises from the multifaceted character of landscapes that makes it difficult to view landscapes in a holistic way whether the practitioners are archaeologists, environmentalists, educators or planners.

      In this paper, some of the difficulties and possibilities are discussed from an Irish context and in the light of the considerations put forward by Bjørn Smit in his paper on the challenges facing Dutch authorities in improving awareness by the general public and planners of pre-farming cultures and...

    • 11. My story – your story: three levels for reflecting and debating the relationship between contemporary archaeological heritage management and the public. A comment from Germany
      (pp. 351-362)
      Ulf Ickerodt

      It is now almost three decades since archaeological research in Germany and its administrative arm, archaeological heritage management, began to become aware of the social effects of their work. Towards the end of the 1980s there was increasing interest in the political misuse of archaeology in the Third Reich. This issue made both academic and administrative archaeological circles conscious of the problem of reactivity.

      In sociology this term is used to describe the interference of society and science which, in fact, opened up a new field of research for archaeology. This step in the direction of a discipline dealing with...

  9. V. SHARING KNOWLEDGE - STORIES, MAPS AND DESIGN

    • 1. Introduction: sharing knowledge - stories, maps and design
      (pp. 365-386)
      Arnold van der Valk

      Raw data do not speak for themselves. Data have to be interpreted in order to make sense or transformed into meaningful information or knowledge (Popper 1966, 260). Interpretation starts from a theoretical frame of preconceived notions. That is where disciplines, discourses and power conflicts enter scientific narratives which help us make sense of the world we live in (Gibbonset al. 1994; Gieryn 1999). After the science wars in the 1990s a growing number of scientists aired their doubts about the rigidity of the old positivistic divide in facts and values (Funtowicz/Ravetz 1990; Flyvbjerg 2001; Ravetz 2007). The papers in...

    • 2. Revitalizing history: moving from historical landscape reconstructions to heritage practices in the southern Netherlands
      (pp. 387-406)
      Nico Roymans, Fokke Gerritsen, Cor van der Heijden, Koos Bosma and Jan Kolen

      There is a long tradition of regional landscape research in Dutch archaeology. By combining large-scale excavations with synthesizing academic research, the South Netherlands Project has established a special place within this tradition. This is the name often given to a loose collaboration of three archaeological institutes that have made this region a focal point of almost uninterrupted activity over the past thirty years (Fokkens 1996; Roymans 1996) Within various NWO-funded research programmes, we have constantly produced syntheses striving for theoretical and methodological innovation. As a result, the sandy landscape of the southern Netherlands now ranks among the best studied cultural...

    • 3. The role of historical expertise in today’s heritage management, landscape development and spatial planning. Comment on ‘The biography of a sandy landscape’ by Nico Roymans, Fokke Gerritsen, Cor van der Heijden, Koos Bosma & Jan Kolen
      (pp. 407-414)
      Jenny Atmanagara

      Roymanset al. (Ch. V.2) illustrate the biographical approach of landscape studies in the South Netherlands project alongside three narratives from the Urnfield period (700-400 BC), the Christianization period (1000-1300 AD) and the period of large-scale heathland reclamation (1850-1950 AD). These narratives highlight several core themes which are also relevant for today’s heritage management, landscape development and spatial planning:

      land appropriation and land use;

      identity constructions of the local communities;

      socio-cultural determinants of landscape change including aspects of institutional regime and participation; and

      polarization between intensification and extensification of land use.

      Though focussing on very diverse periods in the past,...

    • 4. The potential of remote sensing, magnetometry and geochemical prospection in the characterization and inspection of archaeological sites and landscapes in the Netherlands
      (pp. 415-430)
      Henk Kars, Alette Kattenberg, Stijn Oonk and Chris Sueur

      Recent developments in archaeological resource management in the Netherlands, induced by the regulations of the Valletta Convention (Valletta 1992) and recently implemented in the Dutch Archaeological Heritage Management Act (Wamz 2007), have had a tremendous impact on views regarding the sustainable protection and development of our archaeological resources. However, both scientists and policy-makers in the archaeological heritage field realize that there are several gaps in our knowledge needed for the implementation of these new views. One of the gaps deals with the inventorization and valuation of archaeological sites and landscapes (Fig. 1).

      It might be safely assumed for northwestern Europe...

    • 5. New developments in archaeological predictive modelling
      (pp. 431-444)
      Philip Verhagen, Hans Kamermans, Martijn van Leusen and Benjamin Ducke

      Predictive modelling is a technique that at a minimum tries to predict ‘the location of archaeological sites or materials in a region, based either on a sample of that region or on fundamental notions concerning human behaviour’ (Kohler/Parker 1986, 400). Predictive modelling departs from the assumption that the location of archaeological remains in the landscape is not random but is related to certain characteristics of the (natural) environment. The precise nature of these relations depends very much on the landscape characteristics involved and the use that prehistoric people may have had for these characteristics. In short, it is assumed that...

    • 6. Cultural heritage in environmental impact assessment – reflections from England and northwest Europe
      (pp. 445-460)
      Carys E. Jones

      In recent years the threat to cultural heritage within Europe has increased due to the increasing pressures of development, changes in farming techniques and the impact of natural processes. It is also important to remember that whilst sustainable development explicitly focuses on the broad themes of social, economic and environmental factors, cultural heritage is also an essential component that cuts across these three themes. Therefore there is a need to identify what is important about the historic environment and manage it appropriately for the benefit of present and future generations.

      Previous studies on cultural heritage in environmental impact assessment (EIA)...

    • 7. On the necessity of congruent meanings in archaeological heritage management. An analysis of three case studies from a policy science perspective
      (pp. 461-476)
      Anneke de Zwart

      It will be no surprise that in a densely populated country like the Netherlands conflicts over land use arise on many occasions. In this paper I will deal with a specific type of conflict, cases where new housing is planned on top of a site that is also (highly) valuable from an archaeological point of view. Theoretically speaking, an integration of both interests is quite possible, and moreover the 1992 Valletta Convention (Valletta 1992) expressly asks for such an integration. In practice, however, the parties involved find it very difficult and consequently very often do not succeed in attaining such...

    • 8. Protection and management of Spanish archaeological-historical landscapes. Possibilities and perspectives for the application of a protective and developmental approach
      (pp. 477-492)
      María Ruiz del Árbol and Almudena Orejas

      Landscape has, for several decades, been fully incorporated into Spanish archaeological research (see synthesis in Orejas 1995). However, the development in the last 10 years of archaeological landscape studies and the implementation of transdisciplinary research projects have allowed the recent revision of theoretical concepts and the development of methods and techniques of landscape analysis. Landscape is nowadays the core object of several historical and archaeological projects that consider it a spatial synthesis of social relations (see for example Criado/Parcero 1997; Burillo 1998; and more recently, Sánchez-Palencia/Orejas/Ruiz del Árbol 2005).

      This situation in research contrasts with the present practice in the...

    • 9. Knowledge and legal action: a plea for conservation. Comment on ‘Protection and management of Spanish archaeological-historical landscapes. Possibilities and perspectives for the application of a protective and developmental approach’, by María Ruiz del Árbol & Almudena Orejas
      (pp. 493-500)
      Martin Vollmer-König

      The PDL/BBO symposium showed that there are two opposing positions in archaeology towards the way in which archaeological heritage should be protected. One refuses legal protection and legalistic action. The protection and management of archaeological-historical resources has to happen on a different level (Ruiz del Árbol/Orejas Ch. V.8, 487). This position is based on the idea that protection can only be accomplished if accompanied by a change of mind in society. A new understanding of the value of archaeological heritage should make everyone feel responsible. However, for the other position, definitely mine, it is indispensable to exhaust all legal possibilities...

  10. VI. SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS

    • What have we learnt?
      (pp. 503-518)
      Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers, Henk Kars and Arnold van der Valk

      Research activities in the field of cultural landscape heritage and management as presented in the sections before have often been stimulated and legitimated by the Valletta Convention (Valletta 1992) and the European Landscape Convention (Florence 2000). In turn the initiation and acceptance of these conventions reflect the growing awareness in the late 1980s and 90s among researchers and policy-makers of the need for anticipatory and integrative approaches of landscape transformation. The core issue now is what progress we have made in achieving the goals and ideas represented by these conventions and other formal statements on landscape planning and integrative research...

  11. VII. MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE

    • 1. The management of knowledge for integrative landscape research: an introduction
      (pp. 521-528)
      Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers

      It is useful to explain why a special section of this book on integrative landscape research and heritage practice is devoted to the theme of knowledge management and what is understood by this term.

      Knowledge management as it is used in the context of this section is not only the usual development of research themes within a particular research policy and the organization of the appropriate assessment of research proposals, the allocation and control of the money flow and of reporting about progress and output. This is of course a basic condition for implementing research focused on specific new themes...

    • 2. Elephant and Delta. In search of practical guidelines for interdisciplinary and strategic research
      (pp. 529-544)
      Arnold van der Valk

      A popular Dutch saying has it that two heads are better than one. Unfortunately, this does not always apply to science. The situation in scientific research all too often shows more similarity with an old Indian fable in which six blind men investigate the phenomenon which people who can see refer to as an ‘elephant’.

      The blind men jointly investigate something which for them is an abstraction. They are keen to explore an elephant by getting in touch with it, literally, thus collecting empirical evidence for its existence. They hear that the thing is standing in front of them and...

    • 3. LANDMARKS. A project based on transnational and interdisciplinary scientific co-operation
      (pp. 545-556)
      Almudena Orejas and Guillermo-Sven Reher

      LANDMARKS was conceived as a scientific co-operation project with two converging lines of interest, sharing research experiences and expertise on the historical dimension of cultural landscapes and generating tools based on that knowledge that would assist their management and foster the dissemination of scientifically-based programmes. That is why the participation of academic institutions was combined with administrative bodies and local/regional development organizations. In this way the project intended to extend the knowledge of the past into today’s management strategies with a keen interest in preserving landscapes threatened by the abandonment of traditional lifestyles. Both approaches were part of one unified...

    • 4. The Planarch experience
      (pp. 557-564)
      John H. Williams

      The Planarch 1 project came into being in 1999, after a gestation period of about two years, and continued until 2002 with partners in southern England, northern France, the Netherlands and Belgium. For Planarch 2, which ran from 2003 to 2006, these same countries were involved, if with some changes in actual partners and with the addition of the Rhineland in Germany (Fig. 1-2). The projects were financed mainly by a combination of partner contributions and European Interreg funding for the North-West Europe region, the IIC stream for the first project and IIIB for the second. The following paper briefly...

    • 5. Management of knowledge within the international and intersectoral research project ‘Cultural Landscapes’
      (pp. 565-576)
      Józef Hernik

      Cultural landscapes have been shaped through evolving local and regional land use and, in turn, contribute towards shaping regional and local identity since they reflect the history and coexistence of people, the environment and nature. One of the most important factors of all landscapes is the way in which they have constantly evolved, a feature that must be both celebrated yet viewed with caution since, taking into consideration a conscious impact of humankind on the process of creating them, the rate of evolution in current and future times could lead to the elimination of their character, leading to a greater...

    • 6. ‘Changing Landscapes’: an interdisciplinary Danish research centre
      (pp. 577-584)
      Per Grau Møller

      ‘Changing Landscapes’² (in Danish:Foranderlige Landskaber) was a research centre established for the period 1997-2001 by a grant from the Danish Strategic Environmental Research Council (c. 40 million kroner in total, corresponding to c. 5 million euro). In Danish terms the word ‘strategic’ means applied or political and therefore the resulting research was primarily intended for a national audience in national governmental institutions and universities and an international research public. The purpose of grants in this programme was to fulfil strategic research purposes as basic research aims. The background for the Danish Strategic Environmental Research Programme was to pool research...

    • 7. The PDL/BBO research programme analysed from the perspective of knowledge management
      (pp. 585-604)
      Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers

      One of the most unexpected personal experiences as one of the initiators of the PDL/BBO programme, as chairman of the Programme Committee and as participating researcher has been the absence of professional management expertise during the PDL/BBO research programme. The size, complexity and duration of a programme like this needs professional management to make the most of it. Management is not only the organization of the appropriate assessment of research proposals, of the allocation and control of the money flow and of reporting about progress and output. This is of course a basic condition for implementing research focused on specific...

    • 8. Cultural landscapes in the mirror. What information systems reveal about information management and cultural landscape research
      (pp. 605-628)
      Sophie Visser

      These days, information systems are a fact of life in practices concerning cultural and historical landscapes. While their purpose, to store and to provide knowledge, information and values, appears to be straightforward, their usability can be quite problematic. Usability means the ability to fulfill the information needs of (potential) users, which requires the makers to be well aware of what an information system really is about. But when circumstances change, be it in actors, purposes, concepts or otherwise, the information needs will change accordingly. Awareness of informational viewpoints such as these are core issues in disciplines like information systems science...

  12. VIII. AGENDA FOR THE FUTURE

    • 1. Agenda for the future. What do we see and what do we take?
      (pp. 631-640)
      Tom (J.H.F.) Bloemers

      In many of the contributions in this volume on the archaeological-historical landscape and its heritage the authors have stated that the past has to be viewed from the present, with an eye on the future. Consequently, in the last section of this book we will consider the central theme of this volume and future directions. Koos Bosma will do so for the Dutch context, discussing the position of cultural heritage in spatial planning after a decade of Belvedere policy (Belvedere 1999) and its follow-up in the near future. Graham Fairclough and his co-author Heleen van Londen present their view on...

    • 2. Heritage policy in spatial planning
      (pp. 641-652)
      Koos Bosma

      The reconstruction of town and countryside in the Netherlands during the last decade was accompanied by ample attention to history and tradition. In full awareness of the risks and the transience in society, texts, images and matter evoked memories of the pretensions and magnificence of the Netherlands created by human hand. The search for the country of former times can be said to have worked as a balm for our pessimistic soul, while cultural pessimism revealed itself in mourning for the loss of the familiar chain of locally coloured identity and binding group cultures formerly discernible as a social reality...

    • 3. Changing landscapes of archaeology and heritage
      (pp. 653-670)
      Graham Fairclough and Heleen van Londen

      Landscape can be object and subject, material as well as perceptual, metaphor as well as reality. Rather than dividing the field of research and practice, however, this diversity and multiplicity helps to provide a broad field of common ground. Landscape is above all a shared idea and creates an unparalleled nexus for debate, dialectic and difference within humanities and sciences. It is a place for researchers and practitioners from many varied fields to meet and discuss, using the idea of landscape as a virtualagora, thing or parlement, within which landscape meanings and significances can be contested as well as...

  13. IX Summary
    (pp. 671-674)
  14. X. APPENDIX

    • X.1 List of selected abbreviations
      (pp. 677-678)
    • X.2 Glossary of specific subject-related concepts and terms used in this book
      (pp. 679-684)
    • X.3 Protecting and Developing the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape/Bodemarchief in Behoud en Ontwikkeling (PDL/BBO): projects and programmes
      (pp. 685-692)
    • X.4 List of authors, fields of activity and addresses
      (pp. 693-728)
  15. Subject index
    (pp. 729-736)
  16. Index of places and regions
    (pp. 737-739)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 740-740)