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Migration Policymaking in Europe

Migration Policymaking in Europe: The Dynamics of Actors and Contexts in Past and Present

Giovanna Zincone
Rinus Penninx
Maren Borkert
Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 452
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  • Book Info
    Migration Policymaking in Europe
    Book Description:

    This important work analyses immigration and immigrant inclusion policies in ten European countries, examining how such policies are formed and subsequently implemented. The study singles out the important role of usually overlooked factors and actors that significantly affect policymaking alongside the formal legal framework. It also identifies similarities and diversities in European immigration policies. This title is available in the OAPEN Library -

    eISBN: 978-90-485-1516-5
    Subjects: Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. Policymaking in the field of migration and integration in Europe: An introduction
    (pp. 7-18)
    Maren Borkert and Rinus Penninx

    International migration movements are often explained from an economic perspective. To do so, scholars may refer to the real or perceived differences in wage and employment opportunities between countries that cause ‘flows’ of labour and capital (Harris & Todaro 1970; Lee 1969; Piore 1979; Ravenstein 1885; Stark 1981, 1991; Stark & Levhari 1982). Structural forces such as unequal access to resources and power (Frank 1966; Massey 1989; Wallerstein 1974) must also be taken into account, along with migrant networks (Kritz et al. 1992; Mabogunje 1970; Portes & Böröcz 1987) and other constraining factors. When it comes to international migration, the...


    • 1 The case of Austria
      (pp. 21-60)
      Albert Kraler

      In the past two decades, Austrian migration policy as well as its making have undergone radical changes. Though once a subject dealt with mostly by small groups of experts within the administration, trade unions, labour market authorities and employers’ associations, migration has moved to the centre of political debate and to the centre of government. At the same time, there have been several shifts in the institutional framework dealing with migration beginning in the late 1980s. Initial monopolisation of all migration-related issues by the Ministry of Interior has given way to a subsequent emergence of new actors and institutions in...

    • 2 The case of France
      (pp. 61-94)
      Catherine Wihtol de Wenden

      France has been an immigration country for a long time. Always having hesitated between a policy of settlement and a labour force policy, it has had a highly specific policymaking path.

      During the second half of the nineteenth century, a shortage of labour and prospective future soldiers prompted a call for foreign workers. The objective was to enhance the population and development of France, despite the public debates were focusing on the risks immigration posed to French identity. Issues related to immigration were treated in a rather pragmatic manner, with no coherent policy. They were dealt with in a very...

    • 3 The case of Germany
      (pp. 95-128)
      Maren Borkert and Wolfgang Bosswick

      The making of migration policies is a multidimensional and complex process. It both involves and affects different spheres of society – local, regional, national, international – and calls for interaction across a multitude of social-political actors. What’s more, policies have a double nature: their intentions and outcomes are not necessarily one in the same. Besides intentionally constructed policies, it is important to consider the effects of shadow decision-making as well as the non-policies and contra-intentional outcomes of policy measures. These aspects of post-war Germany’s policy formulation and outcomes, both intended and unintended, will be described in this chapter. The following sections will...

    • 4 The case of the Netherlands
      (pp. 129-164)
      María Bruquetas-Callejo, Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas, Rinus Penninx and Peter Scholten

      In the post-war period, the Netherlands regarded itself an ‘overpopulated’ country. Both public opinion and government documents explicitly stated that the Netherlands was not – and should not become – an immigration country (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Volksgezondheid 1970). To the contrary, emigration was openly encouraged through government policies and, between 1946 and 1972, more than half a million Dutch citizens emigrated to countries such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Nevertheless, during that same period, the Netherlands did in fact become an immigration country. Migration statistics show that from the beginning of the 1960s, with the sole exception of the...

    • 5 The case of Switzerland
      (pp. 165-194)
      Gianni D’Amato

      A small country located at the crossroads of Northern and Southern Europe, Switzerland is renowned for its neutrality and peaceful attitudes, its ethnic and linguistic diversity and a decentralised government that makes most laws at the canton level.¹ Yet there is good reason for control and integration policies to figure large. This federalist country has been challenged since its birth – in the aftermath of the successful liberal Revolution of 1848 – by centrifugal forces at the religious, regional, political, social and ideological levels. Certain foreign scholars, puzzled by Switzerland’s apparent enduring stability (and overlooking a history of violent and disruptive conflicts...

    • 6 The case of the United Kingdom
      (pp. 195-244)
      Lucie Cerna and Almuth Wietholtz

      Immigration and integration policymaking in the United Kingdom have undergone a number of significant changes and paradigm shifts over the past decades. Naturally, policies have been affected by broader economic and social developments, such as the impact of globalisation on industries as well as labour demand for particular skills, and economic cycles, e.g. accelerating economic growth and increasing employment rates, followed by a decline with 2008’s economic crisis. In addition, party politics and external events have impacted policies, such as changes in government from Conservative in the 1970s and the 1980s to Labour in the 1990s, the terrorist attacks of...


    • 7 The case of Italy
      (pp. 247-290)
      Giovanna Zincone

      In the European context, Italy became a country of immigration relatively late. The first positive balance between emigration and immigration (return immigration included) dates to 1973. Inflows started after the oil crisis of 1973, when the United Kingdom, Germany² and, in particular, neighbouring France closed their borders to immigrants. Flows were partially diverted towards Southern Europe not only because more attractive receiving countries had introduced zero immigration policies, but also because during the late 1970s and early 1980s, regions of low productivity in Southern European countries started to face a labour shortage (King, Fielding & Black 1997: 13; Morén-Alegret &...

    • 8 The case of Spain
      (pp. 291-324)
      María Bruquetas-Callejo, Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas, Ricard Morén-Alegret, Rinus Penninx and Eduardo Ruiz-Vieytez

      Foreign migration to Spain is relatively recent and so, consequently, are policies related to both immigration¹ and the integration of immigrants. The first law dealing with these issues was the Ley de Extranjería, a law on the rights and freedoms of foreigners in Spain (from herein simply referred to as the Foreigners Law) that was enacted in 1985, just a year before Spain joined the European Communities. At that time, there were merely 250,000 legal foreign residents in the country (Watts 1998: 661). During the last two decades, however, immigration flows have swelled significantly to produce a completely new demographic...


    • 9 The case of the Czech Republic
      (pp. 327-346)
      Marek Čaněk and Pavel Čižinský

      The area that now constitutes the Czech Republic was, over the last centuries, characterised more by the phenomenon of emigration than by processes of immigration. Between 1850 and 1914, the territory of the Czech Lands experienced a net emigration of about 1.6 million inhabitants (Drbohlav 2004). The Czech Lands came to be characterised by more substantial immigration at the end of the twentieth century with the exception of return migration after 1918 and 1945. Before then, Czech emigration was mainly directed to other parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as well as to the United States and Canada. Migrants’ main motivates...

    • 10 The case of Poland
      (pp. 347-376)
      Anna Kicinger and Izabela Koryś

      The Cold War’s division of Europe impacted forms and directions of migratory movements on the continent. For both ideological and economic reasons, Poland was excluded from the modernisation process that occasioned mass immigration to Europe starting in the 1960s. As a result, the country did not experience rapid inflows; nor did it experience its consequences, such as the politicisation of migration issues.

      After the collapse of Communism and the dismantling of the whole Soviet Bloc, a rapid process of transformation started in Central European countries, affecting the majority of political and economic spheres of life. The highly developed countries of...

  7. Conclusion: Comparing the making of migration policies
    (pp. 377-442)
    Giovanna Zincone

    As the introductory chapter of this volume stated, there is substantial literature on migration and immigrant policies, but very little¹ on the processes by which such policies come about.² The contributors to this volume are trying to take a step towards filling that gap. We have done this in the first place by presenting as case studies ten analytical chapters on European countries and their immigration and integration policymaking in recent decades. These country reports are based on a common analytical frame-work that is, in turn, derived from a state-of-the-art study that I co-wrote (Zincone & Caponio 2006).³ In it,...

  8. List of contributors
    (pp. 443-444)
  9. Back Matter
    (pp. 445-452)