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The Carnegie Maya III

The Carnegie Maya III: Carnegie Institution of Washington Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology, 1940-1957

Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 614
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  • Book Info
    The Carnegie Maya III
    Book Description:

    The third in a series of volumes intended to republish the primary data and interpretive studies produced by archaeologists and anthropologists in the Maya region under the umbrella of the Carnegie Institute of Washington's Division of Historical Research,The Carnegie Maya IIImakes available the seriesNotes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology.The series began in 1940 as an outlet for information that may have been considered too unimportant, brief, or restricted to be submitted for formal publication. However, these notes are often of great interest to the specialists for whom they are designed and to whom their distribution is restricted. The majority of the essays-most of which are on the Maya-are on archaeological subjects, epigraphy, ethnohistory and ethnography, and linguistics. As few original copies of theNotesseries are known to exist in U.S. and Canadian libraries, the book will make these essays easily accessible to students, academics, and researchers in the field.Purchase of the print book comes with free individual access to the Adobe Digital EditionsCarnegie Maya Series Ebook,which contains the complete set ofThe Carnegie Maya,The Carnegie Maya II,The Carnegie Maya IIIandThe Carnegie Maya IV, thus making hundreds of documents from the Carnegie Institution's Maya program available in one source.

    eISBN: 978-1-60732-061-6
    Subjects: Sociology, Archaeology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-X)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. XI-XV)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. XVI-XVI)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. XVII-XXII)

    This is the third in a series of volumes intended to make available the corpus of primary data and interpretative studies produced by archaeologists and anthropologists throughout the Maya region under the umbrella of the Division of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW).

    The history and many accomplishments and criticisms of the Carnegie Maya program are presented elsewhere (Weeks and Hill 2006; see also Black 1990; Brunhouse 1971; Castañeda 1996; Givens 1989, 1992; Harris and Sadler 2003; Sullivan 1989; Taylor 1948; Woodbury 1954) and need not be repeated here. Suffice it to say that between 1914 and...

  6. Preface
    (pp. 1-1)
  7. No. 1 Clay Heads from Chiapas, Mexico (1940)
    (pp. 2-2)
    A. V. Kidder

    By courtesy of Dr. Norman Hartweg of the University of Michigan it has been possible to examine four specimens (illustrated herewith) collected by him near Escuintla, in the southeastern part of the State of Chiapas, Mexico. They are human heads of unslipped, reddish brown clay, crudely finger-modeled.

    The noses are pinched up from the general surface of the face; eyes, mouth, earplugs, and the brow-band of the largest head are appliqué lumps or fillets. The brow-bands of the three smaller specimens are indicated by groove-incised lines and punctuations. The eye-lump in each case was indented by two horizontal strokes with...

  8. No. 2 Pottery from Champerico, Guatemala (1940)
    (pp. 3-6)
    A. V. Kidder

    During the winter of 1940 Dr. Erwin P. Dieseldorff visited the Salinas de Istan, some 5 km southwest of Champerico on the Pacific coast of Guatemala, in the Department of Retalhuleu. At about ground level in the center of a low mound then being leveled by its owner, Dr. Dieseldorff found a nest of 12 bowls which, although no bones were observed, had probably accompanied a burial. Through the kindness of Dr. Dieseldorff it has been possible to examine these specimens and about 50 sherds from the fill of the mound. The vessels, it is understood, are to be presented...

  9. No. 3 The Ruins of Culuba, Northeastern Yucatan (1941)
    (pp. 7-9)
    E. Wyllys Andrews

    In the winter of 1939–1940 I visited Tizimin, Yucatan, with the purpose of examining some ruins reported to be a short distance from this city but which actually are on properties owned by Eduardo Conde of Tizimin, some 28 km. farther east on a trail which ended at the settlement of Hoopel, about 8 km. beyond the ruins.

    The entire trip from Sucopo was made in blinding rain, and as I had come with no camping facilities, my stay at the ruins was limited to a few hours. As it was not possible to return later with proper equipment,...

  10. No. 4 The Missing Illustrations of the Pomar Relación (1941)
    (pp. 10-14)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The Relación de Texcoco, written in 1582 as one of the replies to the famous questionnaire of Philip II, contains a great deal of important ethnological information. It was published in 1891 by Joaquin García Icazbalceta as part of the third volume of hisNueva colección de documentos para la historia de México. Juan Bautista Pomar, the author, was, as García Icazbalceta points out in the preface, a grandson, on his mother’s side, of Nezahualpitzintli, supreme chief of Texcoco. His father was a Spaniard.

    In several passages Pomar refers to illustrations accompanying his text, but these were not with the...

  11. No. 5 An Ethnological Note from Cilvituk, Southern Campeche (1941)
    (pp. 15-16)
    E. Wyllys Andrews

    In the course of a reconnaissance in southwestern Campeche for Carnegie Institution of Washington in the winter of 1939–1940, the village of Cilvituk, on the east shore of the large lake of that name, was visited. A native guided me to a locality some 7 km south on the opposite shore where there was a single platform mound in the rain forest. It was 3 m square and approximately 40 cm high. On it were two broken clay incensarios, a badly smashed stone statuette 35 cm tall, and a fragment of another piece of sculpture. (These will be illustrated...

  12. No. 6 The Prototype of the Mexican Codices Telleriano-Remensis and Vaticanus A (1941)
    (pp. 17-18)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The identity of many of the illustrations and much of the text of Codex Telleriano-Remensis and Codex Vaticanus A (known also as Codex Rios or Codex Vaticanus 3738) has been explained by assuming that the latter was copied from the former. Dr. B. Reina (1925) has submitted cogent reasons for believing that Codex Vaticanus A was copied from an earlier, and now lost, codex with Italian text, which, he believed, in turn was a translation or amplification of Codex Telleriano-Remensis.

    There is, however, not inconsiderable evidence that Codex Vaticanus A is neither a direct nor an indirect reproduction of Codex...

  13. No. 7 Observations on Glyph G of the Lunar Series (1942)
    (pp. 19-20)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    In recent years associations of Glyph G of the Lunar Series with Calendar Round dates have been utilized to place the latter in their true Long Count positions at Copan (Thompson, Roys, and Long 1935), Palenque (Beyer 1935a), Yaxchilan (Beyer 1935b), Tonina (1939), and Balakbal (Thompson 1940).

    Two further examples occur on Monument 7, Tonina, Chiapas, first published as from Ocosingo by E. Seler (1901, Fig. 281). Sides b and c of this monument, apparently the pedestal of a stela, carry a Calendar Round date which is almost surely 1 Ahau 3 Uo, the only doubt being as to whether...

  14. No. 8 A New Pottery Style from the Department of Piura, Peru (1942)
    (pp. 21-23)
    John Howland Rowe

    Several examples of a very curious ware have lately found their way into private collections in Peru. The known examples are vessels with double spout and bridge, with surface decoration in Mochica (Early Chimu) style of drawing but in polychrome. They come, moreover, from the Department of Piura, whence nothing earlier than Late Chimu has so far been reported.

    One perfect specimen belongs to Dr. V. T. De Vault, of the British American Hospital in Callao, who kindly permitted me to study it on two separate visits to Lima, in August 1939 and September 1941. The appearance of the piece...

  15. No. 9 Archaeological Specimens from Yucatan and Guatemala (1942)
    (pp. 24-27)
    A. V. Kidder

    With the exception of the first three, the provenience of the specimens here presented is not a matter of absolute certainty. This distinction is stressed because specimens that are in private collections or that find their way into museums from private hands are sometimes unequivocally assigned, by the authors of archaeological publications, to definite sites or areas. In most cases the information upon which such allocations are based, is no doubt accurate, but as non-professional collectors often acquire pieces by purchase, gift, or exchange, and as few of them make catalogues of their cabinets, there is always possibility of errors...

  16. No. 10 The Payment of Tribute in the Codex Mendoza (1942)
    (pp. 28-29)
    R.C.E. Long

    In the part of Codex Mendoza containing the tribute roll each pair of pages (the verso and recto of sequent folios) lists the towns and a tally of tribute paid. Apparently each pair relates to a single taxation district, comprising all the towns in it, and the tribute enumerated was paid by the district as a whole. Major James Cooper Clark, in his [1938] edition of the codex, evidently takes this view as he gives a useful summary of the entire yearly tribute, showing how much of each kind of article was contributed.

    With the exception of folios 18v[19]–19...

  17. No. 11 A Note on Aztec Chronology (1942)
    (pp. 30-31)
    R.C.E. Long

    In theAmerican Anthropologist(1938) Dr. Vaillant has a paper “A Correlation of archaeological and historical sequences in the Valley of Mexico.” I think his chronological scheme should be amended slightly with regard to the Aztec. He says that the records for the Tenochca run back to 1163, the year One Flint (1 Tecpatl), the date of Huitzilopochtli. Presumably this is a printer’s error for 1168, which was a year 1 Tecpatl. This year 1 Tecpatl is the starting point of the count in the Boturini Codex, which has an unbroken sequence of 183 years from there to the year-binding...

  18. No. 12 Representations of Tezcatlipoca at Chichen Itza (1942)
    (pp. 32-33)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    Jean Charlot inThe Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, Yucatannotes under the heading “Mutilation” (Morris, Charlot, and Morris 1931:275) that there are five carvings of’ individuals who have one leg amputated above the knee. These are sculptured on columns, two of which (nos. 1 and 15) are in the Temple of the Warriors, two (nos. 31 and 49) in the adjacent Northwest Colonnade, and one (no. 3) in the Temple of the Chac Mool.

    After calling attention to the relative frequency in the art of Central Mexico of figures with one leg severed at the ankle, not above...

  19. No. 13 A Theory of Maya tš-Sounds (1942)
    (pp. 34-39)
    A. M. Halpern

    The account of the interrelationships and historical development of the Maya languages presented here differs in many respects from previous accounts. Though the conclusions are not unconditionally guaranteed, the author feels that he has achieved at least some methodological advances. For this reason, and because his work on Maya has been interrupted, he presents this interim report now.

    Data. Materials for this study were taken from the following sources: from the unpublished notes of the late M. J. Andrade, data on Cakchiquel (several dialects), Tzutuhil (several dialects), Quiché, Quekchi, Pokomam, Mam (dialect of San Juan Ostuncalco), Aguacatec, Jacaltec (of Santa...

  20. No. 14 A Reconnaissance on Isla de Sacrificios, Veracruz, Mexico (1943)
    (pp. 40-49)
    Wilfrido du Solier

    The oval-shaped island known as Isla de Sacrificios lies 5.5 km southeast of the port of Veracruz and has a north-south length of 368 m and a breadth of 192 m. Its greatest elevation is 4 m. The scant vegetation is confined to a few palms, some tallish trees calledchacas, someflor de Mayoand wild plum trees, large quantities of cane (carrizal) and a creeping ground plant generally calledfrijolillo. Our excavations proved what we had at first surmised, namely, that the island had been formed by artificially extending and raising the elevation of a sandbank, for much...

  21. No. 15 Pottery from the Pacific Slope of Guatemala (1943)
    (pp. 50-55)
    A. V. Kidder

    It seems worth while to make record of two small collections from the above area, even though precise data as to the provenience of individual specimens are lacking, for although very little is known of the antiquities of the Guatemala highlands, we are in even worse case as regards the south coast. Yet that narrow strip of land, between the ocean and the chain of volcanoes that closely parallels the Pacific, is at least as rich in prehistoric remains as any other part of the republic; and these are obviously of great archaeological importance because the flat coastal plain and...

  22. No. 16 Spindle Whorls from Chichen Itza, Yucatan (1943)
    (pp. 56-60)
    A. V. Kidder

    Spindle whorls are found, often abundantly, in many parts of Middle America. Certain types, marked by peculiarities of shape and decoration and by variations in size, appear to be characteristic of certain areas and periods. Thus, spindle whorls should be very useful to the archaeologist as indicators of cultural, commercial, and chronological relationships. For example, J.E.S. Thompson found in superficial deposits at San Jose, British Honduras, specimens ornamented with asphaltum, which suggested trade, toward the close of San Jose’s occupancy, with the Huaxtec region of Veracruz (Thompson 1939:153). However, little attempt has to date been made to classify spindle whorls...

  23. No. 17 Some Sculptures from Southeastern Quezaltenango, Guatemala (1943)
    (pp. 61-67)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    There is an important group of mounds and pyramids on the adjacent coffee farms of Santa Margarita and San Isidro Piedra Parada. These are situated on the road from Retalhuleu to Colomba, a few miles northwest of Asintal, ire the southeast of the Department of Quezaltenango. This is the site which. Karl Sapper (1897) marks in Map VIII of hisDas nordliche Mittel-Amerikaas having sculptures of the Santa Lucia Cotzumalhuapa type. It is probable that we did not observe all the sculptures at this site, but of those seen none was in that style. However, as Sapper places sculptures...

  24. No. 18 The Initial Series of Stela 14, Piedras Negras, Guatemala, and a Date on Stela 19, Naranjo, Guatemala (1943)
    (pp. 68-69)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The decipherment of the Initial Series of Stela 14, Piedras Negras, has been generally but reluctantly accepted as 7 Imix 19 Pax principally because the data given in the lunar series appeared to be in agreement with that decipherment. A reconstruction of the difficult Initial Series has to meet the following conditions:

    1. The katun coefficient must be 10, 14, 16, or 17 because the eye of the head form is round, the jawbone is prominent, and there is no headdress.

    2. The uinal coefficient must be 10, 14, 16, or 17 for the same reasons.

    3. The day...

  25. No. 19 Representations of Tlalchitonatiuh at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, and at El Baul, Escuintla (1943)
    (pp. 70-71)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The three friezes which gird the pyramid of the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, repeat with unrelieved monotony the same ritual. Jaguars, eagles, and an unidentified animal offer slightly conical objects to persons in recumbent positions. The animals are in pairs, set back to back, so that each faces a person. The latter, also in pairs, are placed feet to feet, but with their bodies twisted so that each faces outward toward an animal, at which he appears to point a highly ornamented staff or spear. Other sources of information permit of the ready identification of the...

  26. No. 20 Maya Epigraphy: Directional Glyphs in Counting (1943)
    (pp. 72-74)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The manner in which the Maya may have indicated whether a Secondary Series was to be reckoned backward or forward has puzzled Maya epigraphists for nearly half a century; and our inability to find the answer to this problem has hampered research, since in the many cases of suppressed starting or ending points of counts it has not been possible to make a reliable reconstruction and thereby fix with certainty the dates with which unknown symbols were associated.

    J. Thompson Goodman identified in a general manner a number of directional symbols in his epochal study of Maya glyphs. One of...

  27. No. 21 Notes on Sculpture and Architecture at Tonala, Chiapas (1943)
    (pp. 75-78)
    Linton Satterthwaite Jr.

    The railroad town of Tonala, about 150 km east of Tehuantepec and about the same distance west of Izapa, lies at the base of a high escarpment, which flanks the narrow coastal plain. C. Seler-Sachs (1900) and E. J. Palacios (1928) have described two ruins in the neighborhood: one, known as El Paredon, on the ocean side of the plain; the other, La Iglesia, on top of the escarpment and 3 leagues west of Tonala. My wife and I saw only the latter site in the course of a one-day visit at Tonala in 1937. Since then Edwin N. Ferndon...

  28. No. 22 Maya Epigraphy: A Cycle of 819 Days (1943)
    (pp. 79-85)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    In five Maya inscriptions the month position of an Initial Series is separated from the context by an intervening Secondary Series and date, together with six (in one incomplete text four) explanatory hieroglyphs. In four cases the Secondary Series is subtracted from the Initial Series to reach a day with a coefficient of one; in the fifth example a subtraction was almost certainly made to reach a day with a coefficient of one, although the Secondary Series and the day are destroyed. Only the month position remains.

    In one text (Stela K, Quirigua) the parenthetical clause interrupts the Lunar Series;...

  29. No. 23 The Periods of Tribute Collection in Moctezuma’s Empire (1943)
    (pp. 86-87)
    R. H. Barlow

    R. C. E. Long (The Payment of tribute in the Codex Mendoza. No. 10 of this series) has recently pointed out that the tributary provinces of Moctezuma’s empire made their payments yearly, half yearly, and “quarterly,” that is, what is termed every eighty days on the four festivals of Tlacaxipeualiztli, Etzalqualiztli, Ochpaniztli, and Panquetzaliztli. The present paper is intended as an extension of his remarks.

    As evidence for his quarterly tribute dates he cites the Humboldt Codex I, part of a manuscript originating, as Lic. Salvador Toscano (1943) has shown, in southeastern Guerrero. It may be added that these same...

  30. No. 24 Notes on Glyph C of the Lunar Series at Palenque (1943)
    (pp. 88-89)
    Heinrich Berlin

    Since J. E. Teeple (1931) established, according to four cases where he studied Glyph C, that the Maya of Palenque used exactly 6 moons to a group, nobody, so far as I can see, ever tried to prove or refute this theory; on the contrary it was generally accepted. Nevertheless, during the excavations made in 1940 and 1941 under the Mexican government two inscriptions containing Glyph C were found which do not at all harmonize with Teeple’s ideas.

    Let us examine the problem as it was set by Teeple. He compared the Initial Series of the Inscriptions of the Temple...

  31. No. 25 A Figurine Whistle Representing a Ball Game Player (1943)
    (pp. 90-91)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The pottery figurine whistle here illustrated was found somewhere in the vicinity of Icaiche, Quintana Roo, Mexico, by a former inhabitant of that now abandoned village. The finder, a shaman, subsequently moved to Kaxil Uinic and thence to San Jose, British Honduras, taking the figurine whistle with him. In 1931, when I saw it in his hut at San Jose, he was very reluctant to part with it, setting the impossible figure of twenty-five dollars as his final price. This high valuation was due to the fact that the figurine was endowed with great power in effecting cures. The owner...

  32. No. 26 Notes on a West Coast Survival of the Ancient Mexican Ball Game (1943)
    (pp. 92-96)
    Isabel Kelly

    These notes were obtained in the spring of 1939, during an archaeological survey of the west coast of Mexico. Originally I planned to publish them jointly with Mr. Carlos Linga, who, through his commercial agents in southern Sinaloa, has acquired several accounts of the same ball game from the Mazatlan district, but as this has not been feasible, my Nayarit data are recorded here, without benefit of his somewhat fuller information. The account comes chiefly from Valentin Zamorano, a former player and a manufacturer of balls, with a few supplementary details from his son, Basilio Zamorano. In former times this...

  33. No. 27 Animal-Head Feet and a Bark-Beater in the Middle Usumacinta Region (1943)
    (pp. 97-98)
    Linton Satterthwaite Jr.

    The accompanying photograph is recorded because J.E.S. Thompson (1943) has recently noted that “The Mexican period . . . is poorly developed in the Central Area,” and has used “tripod dishes with feet shaped as heads of animals or persons” as a criterion of the Mexican period. If animal-head feet are a proper criterion of the Mexican period, I think the pictured bowl is good evidence, hardly conclusive, for existence of Mexican-period high culture in the Middle Usumacinta part of the central area.

    In 1934 the following photograph-note, including information from the storekeeper, was made at Las Escondidas: “Tripod bowl...

  34. No. 28 New Photographs and the Date of Stela 14, Piedras Negras (1943)
    (pp. 99-101)
    Linton Satterthwaite Jr.

    Drawings of eroded inscriptions must, I think, be accepted as representing the possibly fallible judgment of the person who made them. While one may have confidence that the drawings of a given epigrapher are generally correct representations of what the Maya originally carved, if he proposes to make important deductions from a particular drawn detail, perhaps he should be careful to make it clear that the deduction is no better than the source and so subject to the same possibility of doubt. When it is possible to re-examine the stone itself, or otherwise confirm or correct the element of judgment...

  35. No. 29 Grooved Stone Axes from Central America (1943)
    (pp. 102-104)
    A. V. Kidder

    It has commonly been supposed, although I can find no statement to that effect in print, that grooved stone axes do not occur in Central America. It therefore seems desirable to record six specimens from that region which have recently come to notice; four from Guatemala, one from Nicaragua, and one from Costa Rica. There is no doubt as to the authenticity of these objects, or as to their approximate provenience, but data are lacking as to the circumstances of their discovery and as to associated finds. Their age is accordingly a matter of conjecture.

    All four Guatemala axes (Fig....

  36. No. 30 A Vase from Sanimtaca, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala (1943)
    (pp. 105-106)
    Elsie McDougall

    Figure 30.1 illustrates the design of a fragmentary vase, the pieces of which were amongst broken pottery of a cache, unearthed in 1927, at the mouth of a cave called Calajau, in a hill of that name. It was situated on, a property, Sanimtaca, in the Chama region of Alta Verapaz. At that time Sanimtaca was owned by Sr. Gustav Helmrich, who for about thirty years had owned and developed properties from his residential one, Finca Samac, just north of Coban and well into the Chama Valley. The cache was discovered by Sr. Hugo Doege, then employed on Sanimtaca, and...

  37. No. 31 A Human-Effigy Pottery Figure from Chalchuapa, El Salvador (1944)
    (pp. 107-110)
    Stanley H. Boggs

    In February 1943 Ing. don Agusto Baratta, Director of the National Museum of El Salvador, and I were informed by Sr. Domingo Mendoza of several antiquities which the latter offered far sale. All specimens had been discovered in the Chalchuapa Archaeological Zone and were subsequently purchased by the Museum.

    One of these acquisitions, a hollow, modeled; pottery effigy of a man, affords a valuable addition to our knowledge or ancient art in El Salvador and offers some interesting suggestions regarding late preconquest cultural influences in Central America.

    Unfortunately, this effigy was not found by trained excavators; consequently, data on its...

  38. No. 32 A Preconquest Tomb on the Cerro del Zapote, El Salvador (1944)
    (pp. 111-115)
    Stanley H. Boggs

    In November 1943, while engaged in cleaning the grounds immediately north of the National Museum of San Salvador, workmen accidentally discovered a small stone cyst containing a badly decomposed human skeleton and two pottery vessels. Further investigation uncovered a third vessel lying a short distance south of the tomb. Ing. don Agusto Baratta, Director of the Museum, and carefully excavated, measured, and photographed all finds. The ceramic material is at present on display in the Museum.

    As may be seen in Figure 32.1, the find was made slightly east of the laAvenida Sur and north of the Museo Nacional,...

  39. No. 33 A Tentative Identification of the Head Variant for Eleven (1944)
    (pp. 116-118)
    Heinrich Berlin

    In 1942 during the regular season of field work undertaken at Palenque by the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia de Mexico, I had an opportunity to start cleaning House XVIII, where F. Blom (1926–1927, Fig. 135) previously had found on the back wall of the inner room a stucco inscription. During the excavation there appeared about 90 more hieroglyphs, scattered among the debris which filled the room. Unfortunately, heavy rains and lack of workmen made it impossible to clean the room entirely and therefore a few hieroglyphs probably remain buried. These are essential, since the excavated glyphs, although...

  40. No. 34 A Possible Lunar Series on the Leyden Plate (1944)
    (pp. 119-119)
    Karl-Heinz Nottebohm

    Little attention has been paid to ‘the glyphs on the Leyden Plate following the record of Glyph G5 and Yaxkin in A7a. It is, however, quite probable that the remaining glyphs form a Lunar Series. Because of the positions of Glyph G5 and Yaxkin, I assume that the four sections comprising each of the two remaining glyph blocks are to be read in the sequence A7a upper, A7a lower, A7b upper, and A7b lower, and then the A8 block in the same order. There are, of course, many precedents for this manner of reading divided glyph blocks. A7b upper and...

  41. No. 35 Stucco Decoration of Early Guatemala Pottery (1944)
    (pp. 120-123)
    A. V. Kidder and Anna O. Shepard

    Stucco was used for the embellishment of prehistoric Mexican and Central American pottery in various ways: as a coating, tinted in plain colors, for whole vessels or parts of vessels; as a surface upon which more or less elaborate designs were painted; and as a background of which parts were cut away and filled with colored substances, paint cloisonné. These methods and their distribution have been discussed by Linné (1934) and Ekholm (1942). A fourth process, which has apparently not hitherto been reported, and which, as far as we are aware, involves the earliest known employment of stucco in Mesoamerican...

  42. No. 36 Certain Pottery Vessels from Copan (1944)
    (pp. 124-125)
    A. V. Kidder

    Encroachment of the Copan River upon its right bank a short distance below the Acropolis of Copan resulted in the washing out of human bones and pottery. Following this clue, Mr. Gustav Strömsvik, in 1942, trenched into its bank and discovered a number of graves of different periods, and refuse beds of considerable depth, which yielded valuable stratigraphic data. Shortly thereafter Mr. Strömsvik entered service in the Norwegian Navy and he has therefore been unable to publish the many mortuary vessels or to make studies of the great number of potsherds recovered from the refuse. The cylindrical tripods and basal-flanged...

  43. No. 37 Archaeological Specimens from Guatemala (1944)
    (pp. 126-132)
    Robert E. Smith

    The pottery and other artifacts herein illustrated are contained in various private collections. Precise data as to the circumstances under which most of them were discovered are lacking, but the proveniences assigned them by their owners are probably correct. They should therefore be useful for distributional studies. Furthermore, representatives of pottery or other artifact types now recognized, or which may be recognized in the future, have value in adding to the corpus of information regarding those types; and in the case of categories of pottery that are known to archaeologists only in the form of sherds, whole pieces such as...

  44. No. 38 Jottings on Inscriptions at Copan (1944)
    (pp. 133-140)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The purposes of this paper are to propose alternative readings of some dates at Copan, and to suggest that for a short while at Copan lunar data were recorded in some system which increased the recorded moon ages of dates by two or three days from what might have been expected.

    At 12 Ahau 8 Ceh the priest-astronomers of Copan were extremely active, to fudge by the number of stelae erected there at that time. No less than seven monuments (Stelae 2, 3, 10, 12, 13, 19, and 23) commemorate that katun-ending or record dates immediately anterior thereto. Certain...

  45. No. 39 The Dating of Seven Monuments at Piedras Negras (1944)
    (pp. 141-148)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    Morley (1938) has reaped a rich harvest of skillful decipherments from the large body of hieroglyphic texts at Piedras Negras However, fields are seldom reaped so clean that nothing is left for the gleaner, and that is the case with the Piedras Negras texts. New datings are given below for seven monuments. In the order of their decipherment these are: Stela 8, Altar 1, Stela 23, Lintel 3, Miscellaneous Sculptured Stone 16, Lintel 7, and Miscellaneous Sculptured Stone 1. In the discussion that follows readings not offered as amendments are those of Morley except for decipherments credited to Beyer, Proskouriakoff,...

  46. No. 40 Archaeological Finds near Douglas, British Honduras (1944)
    (pp. 149-154)
    A. Hamilton Anderson and Herbert J. Cook

    In building the road from San Pablo westward to Douglas in northern British Honduras, workmen used soil dug from two Indian mounds, in the larger of which they penetrated two chambers containing skeletal material and pottery. These mounds form part of the site of Noh Mul, partially excavated by T. Gann.

    When A. H. Anderson arrived on the scene, he discovered that the first mound was in the nature of a fairly extensive platform, about 4.5 m above the surrounding land and composed of marl and limestone. Accurate observation of the whole mound is exceedingly difficult because of the heavy...

  47. No. 41 The Vienna Dictionary (1944)
    (pp. 155-160)
    Ralph L. Roys

    In the National Library at Vienna a Spanish-Maya dictionary of considerable importance has come to light in recent years. Miss Eulalia Guzman is reported to have discovered this manuscript, for a photostatic copy of which we are indebted to S. G. Morley.

    The first page bears the title “Bocabulario De mayathan por su abeceario,” followed by the heading “A, ante, B.” At the top of the page above the title is written “de Diego Rejon” in a hand which appears to be much later than the manuscript itself. On the last page of the manuscript in the same hand is...

  48. No. 42 Ixtla Weaving at Chiquilistlan, Jalisco (1944)
    (pp. 161-164)
    Isabel T. Kelly

    At the time of the Spanish conquest, clothing of maguey fiber was common over a large area of western Jalisco and southern Nayarit. There are specific statements written in 1525 of its use in Tenamaxtlan, Ayutla, Autlan, Tequesquitlan (then in the Purificacion), Etzatlan, Ocotitlan, Aguacatlan, Ixtlan (del Rio), and in most of the settlements listed as subject to those just mentioned. For the first two pueblos and for one subject to Autlan, only maguey clothing is noted; the others are credited with both cotton and maguey. These data come from a 1525 visita, made the year following the entry of...

  49. No. 43 Worked Gourds from Jalisco (1944)
    (pp. 165-172)
    Isabel T. Kelly

    So few crafts in modern Jalisco can be considered even potential survivals of pre-Cortesian arts that the working of gourds is of sufficient interest to warrant being placed on record.

    Ayotitlan. The chief center of manufacture is the village of Ayotitlan, in the modern municipality of Autlan, not far from the Colima border. It lies in the rugged country (Fig. 43.1a) which drains to the Rio Sihuatlan (Marabasco) from the north and which, at the time of the Spanish conquest, constituted the western zone of the famous old Provincia de Amula. This whole area was better known in the sixteenth...

  50. No. 44 The Graphic Style of the Tlalhuica (1944)
    (pp. 173-175)
    R. H. Barlow

    One of the means by which the boundaries of prehispanic Mexican cultures may be traced is by mapping the codical and petroglyphic styles of different zones. Connections between these areas and linguistic or ethnic groups will then often become clear.

    It is true that we now know with certainty that the Nuttall and Vindobonensis group come from such towns as Tilantongo and Teozacualco in Oaxaca, as Caso has established on the basis of the unpublished codex of the latter town. This same style of painting obtained as far west as Tecomaixtlahuacan (Schmieder 1930, Appendix I), and other frontiers can doubtless...

  51. No. 45 Variant Methods of Date Recordings in the Jatate Drainage, Chiapas (1944)
    (pp. 176-179)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    In most Maya inscriptions which include several Secondary Series, reckonings are made by additions to or subtractions from the last recorded date. Thus, if A is the Initial Series and B, C, and D are Calendar Round dates, an inscription will usually run: A ± lst D.N. = B; B ± 2nd D.N. = C; C ± 3rd D.N. = D. Here D.N. stands for distance number.

    In the only two lengthy and fairly legible inscriptions now known from the Jatate drainage of eastern Chiapas a somewhat different arrangement is followed. The distance numbers are not cumulative, that is to...

  52. No. 46 The Venus Calendar of the Aztec (1944)
    (pp. 180-181)
    R.C.E. Long

    Sahagun says that the Aztec festival of Atamalqualiztli occurred every eight years, sometimes in the month of Tepeilhuitl and sometimes in the month of Quecholli, and that after seven days of fasting the principal ceremony took place on the eighth day. Nothing is said as to when these festivals fell, so they cannot be fixed in the calendar, nor is there any indication of the days of the month or of the tonalpoualli on which they fell. The statement that they were sometimes in one month and sometimes in another is not made about any other festival. The commentator of...

  53. No. 47 An Inscription on a Jade Probably Carved at Piedras Negras (1944)
    (pp. 182-184)
    Tatiana Proskouriakoff

    Finely carved jades were doubtless regarded by the Maya as objects of great value. They could be passed on from generation to generation and could be traded in distant parts. In most cases one cannot rely on the circumstances of their discovery to evince their origin, and often the only clue is the style of the carving itself, at best an uncertain criterion, especially since conclusions must be based largely on analogy with arts of different technique. Fortunately, a few jades were inscribed with dates, and when these dates can be related to inscriptions on monuments they sometimes furnish more...

  54. No. 48 Costumes and Wedding Customs at Mixco, Guatemala (1945)
    (pp. 185-187)
    Lilly de Jongh Osborne

    Santo Domingo Mixco is a Pokoman-Maya village in the Department of Guatemala, 15 km west of Guatemala City. Despite the proximity of the capital and many Cakchiquel villages in the immediate vicinity, the Pokoman of Mixco still retain many of their old customs, particularly those relating to the important ceremonial occasions such as baptisms, weddings, and burials.

    The women have changed their everyday costume considerably, but for great ceremonies they still keep to the old traditions. The everyday costume is distinguished by a well-made huipil, woven either in Quetzaltenango (although in only two sections instead of the three of the...

  55. No. 49 Combinations of Glyphs G and F in the Supplementary Series (1945)
    (pp. 188-190)
    Sylvanus G. Morley

    The two glyphs known as G and F were once believed to have formed part of the Lunar or Supplementary Series. In the past ten years Thompson (1935: 84–85; 1940; 1944) and Beyer (1935a–b; 1939) have called attention to occurrences with Calendar Round dates of either Glyph G alone or, less frequently, of Glyphs G and F together. In such cases they stand between day and month signs, and are completely dissociated from any Lunar Series.

    The purpose of this paper is to bring together further evidence that Glyph F is not a part of the Lunar Series....

  56. No. 50 Moon Age Tables (1945)
    (pp. 191-196)
    Lawrence Roys

    Following Goodman’s idea of giving Maya dates in tabular form, I present here two charts which link the age of the moon to a series of Maya dates.

    The first, and simpler of the two, needs little explanation beyond the legend. The dates shown in the chart are of conjunctions five lunar years apart. Intermediate conjunctions, or new-moon dates, can be determined by interpolation. It is suited to problems handled best with our decimal system, and demands the preliminary step of converting Maya vegesimal dates into decimal counting, conveniently defined as Maya Day dates by R. W. Willson (1924: 17)....

  57. No. 51 A Second Tlaloc Gold Plaque from Guatemala (1945)
    (pp. 197-197)
    Karl-Heinz Nottebohm

    It has been supposed until recently that one of the Zacualpa gold disks (Fig. 51.1a) originated in Peru and was of Chavin workmanship. Lately, however, the disk was said to represent the Mexican rain god Tlaloc, a claim which seems to be confirmed by a second and similar disk hitherto unreported (Fig. 51.1b).

    Unfortunately the exact provenience of this new disk is not known, although it is believed to have come from the western part of Guatemala near the Mexican border. Probably it comes from a burial, as it shows a light red patina and traces of soil in some...

  58. No. 52 Rock Paintings at Texcalpintado, Morelos, Mexico (1945)
    (pp. 198-200)
    M. A. Espejo

    At the end of September 1943 some people from Hueyapan, Morelos, reported to the Mexican National Museum of Anthropology the discovery of a great number of figures painted on a rock at a place called Texcalpintado in the state of Morelos. With the permission of the director of the museum I went to see these paintings with Mr. R. H. Barlow and seven other persons.

    The site is situated about 7 km south of Hueyapan. The River Amatzinac at that point is bounded on its left bank by a very high cliff. About 8 m above the stream there projects...

  59. No. 53 A Pyrite Mirror from Queretaro, Mexico (1945)
    (pp. 201-202)
    Gordon F. Ekholm

    The pyrite mirror described herein holds considerable interest because of the technique of manufacture and the nature of the carved design on its reverse side (Fig. 53.1). It was acquired by the American Museum of Natural History (Cat. no. 30.1-618) in 1931 along with a small collection of other objects. Information as to its exact place of origin is lacking, but we can rely with some certainty on the testimony of the collector that it was found is an excavation at as archaeological site near the town of Tequiaquiapan in the southeastern portion of the state of Queretaro.

    The mirror...

  60. No. 54 Informe sobre la existencia de jugadores de pelota mayas en la cerámica escultórica de Jaina (1945)
    (pp. 203-204)
    Salvador Toscano

    Durante la última visita que J. Eric S. Thompson realizara a México, tuve oportunidad de informarle de la existencia de dos figurillas de barro, procedentes de la Isla de Jaina, Campeche, representado jugadores de pelota, informe que venía a completer su noticia sobre un jugador de pelota maya modelado en un silbato encontrado en Quintana Roo. Como al Sr. Thompson le pareciera de interés un informe de esta naturaleza para lasNotes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnologyde la Institución Carnegie, me invitó a que las describiera y reprodujera en las mencionadasNotes.

    En efecto, la presencia de jugadores...

  61. No. 55 Un sello cilíndrico con barras y puntos (1945)
    (pp. 205-206)
    José García Payón

    Encontrándome de paso en la ciudad de Jalapa, Veracruz, aproveché mi corta estancia pare efectuar una visita a mi buen amigo al Sr. Ingeniero Cástulo Villaseñor, gran amigo de los arqueólogos y entusiasta coleccionador de nuestras antigüedades, que son la misma atención de siempre me mostró ufano sus últimas adquisiciones de piezas arqueológicas. Dicho señor es propietario de una bonita colección, de la que algunas piezas, las principales, son bien conocidas por los arqueólogos y del público amante de esta ciencia, por haber sido expuesta por mí, con la anuencia de su dueño, en el provisional Museo Arqueológico Veracruzano que...

  62. No. 56 The Inscription on the Altar of Zoomorph O, Quirigua (1945)
    (pp. 207-212)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The inscription on the altar of Zoomorph O, Quirigua, is very hard to decipher because of erosion, but also because of other difficulties. Carelessness on the part of the composers of the original text as well as unwonted urge for brevity, manifested in the suppression of month signs, make the translation far from easy. Morley (1938:5:185–196) has offered an interpretation, in which for the most part he expresses little confidence.

    Messrs. Morris and Strömsvik made of this monument a cast which was subsequently presented by Carnegie Institution of Washington to the United States National Museum. Recently, through the kindness...

  63. No. 57 Archaeological Discovery at Finca Arizona, Guatemala (1945)
    (pp. 213-223)
    Edwin M. Shook

    Many important discoveries in the field of archaeology as well as in other sciences are made by nonprofessionals. So significant are some of these that one often hears wailing and gnashing of teeth by professionals who were not present for the unveiling and therefore were unable to record the exact circumstances surrounding the find. The excavations here reported were made by a layman, Sr. Juan Petrilli, but he, having kept in touch with the work of Carnegie Institution at Kaminaljuyu, realized the importance of careful observation. He had fortunately also been stimulated sufficiently to experiment in his own backyard. In...

  64. No. 58 The Initial and Supplementary Series of Stela 5 at Altar de Sacrificios, Guatemala (1945)
    (pp. 224-227)
    Sylvanus G. Morley

    I first saw Stela 5 at Altar de Sacrificios in the spring of 1914, when the drawing of its corresponding Initial Series shown in Figure 58.1 was made. Beyer had not then discovered the meaning of the variable central element of the Initial Series introducing glyph, and there was no reason for doubting the reading that I then suggested: 6 Eznab 16 Ceh.

    In 1931 Beyer (1931) announced his decipherment of the variable central element of the Initial Series introducing glyph as “the month-sign indicator.” This formula, the accuracy of which is now universally recognized by Maya epigraphers, showed...

  65. No. 59 Mausolea in Central Veracruz (1945)
    (pp. 228-232)
    Jose García Payón

    For some time I have been interested in some curious small structures, first reported by Isidro A. Gondra (1836). Sr. Gondra’s account was based on some clippings from newspapers of Veracruz which described the discovery of some pre-Colombian ruins in the Mizantla region, and on a verbal account by Sr. Mariano Jaimes who visited the nearby Ranchos de Monte Real that same year.

    In 1844 Col. Ignacio Iberri published inMuseo Mexicano(3:21–24) a report on these ruins, together with a map. In 1864 Sr. Gondra, having obtained fuller details and utilizing the colonel’s report, published a second article...

  66. No. 60 Archaeological material from the Club Internacional, El Salvador (1945)
    (pp. 233-239)
    Stanley H. Boggs

    In 1939, during construction of the present building of the Club Internacional in the center of the city of San Salvador, workmen excavating the basement discovered a deposit of prehistoric objects associated with a stratum of volcanic ash. This material, according to Sr. Don Jose Maria Duran, architect and building contractor in charge of the work, was found mixed together in a very small area. No burials or structures of pre-Columbian age have been reported within at least 1 km of the finds.

    Many visitors to San Salvador have viewed some of the specimens discussed in the presentNote, and...

  67. No. 61 Some Uses of Tobacco among the Maya (1946)
    (pp. 240-242)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    These scant jottings on “the weed” have lain among my notes for many years. I have not attempted to improve the mixture by seeking more gleanings to blend with it, but offer it more or less as garnered without any pretense that it adequately covers the subject. Information on the use of tobacco among the Maya of the sixteenth century is extraordinarily scarce. Bishop Landa has a single and rather obscure reference to ceremonial blowing of smoke in an initiation ceremony for children, but it is not even certain that that was tobacco smoke. The chaplain, Juan Diaz, of the...

  68. No. 62 Observations on Altar Sites in the Quiche Region, Guatemala (1946)
    (pp. 243-249)
    Elsie McDougall

    In February 1928, while a guest in the Protestant mission house in Santo Tomas Chichicastenango, I was told of abrujeriawhere Indians worshipped. A group of town picnickers had discovered it on the wooded summit of a hill, about 1 km west of the town. Starting before midmorning of March 1, Harry Grainger, the missionary, a young townswoman, and I visited the hilltop. We took the road west from the convent part of the imposing sixteenth-century Catholic church, where Indians were praying and burning incense in a forge like altar at the foot of the steps and on the...

  69. No. 63 Tattooing and Scarification among the Maya (1946)
    (pp. 250-253)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    There is a considerable body of material, both in the literature and in archaeological collections, on the practices of tattooing and scarification among the Maya. In view of the world-wide interest in the subject, it has seemed advisable to bring together in print such items as have come to my attention. I would emphasize that these notes, jotted down at random over the past two decades, almost certainly do not exhaust the subject.

    Conforming to well-established tradition, we shall refer first to thatvade mecumof all students in the Maya field, the venerated writings of Bishop Landa. The prelate...

  70. No. 64 The Tamiahua Codices (1946)
    (pp. 254-255)
    R. H. Barlow

    Three lithographed maps, tinted in bright watercolor, were given me for publication in 1944 by Sr. Guillermo Echaniz, who retained duplicates. Another collection was shown me later by Sr. Pompa y Pompa, in the library of the Alzate Society. Obviously intended for publication in the nineteenth century, they bear no identification other than the phrases “Tip. y lit. Correo Mayor 410, Mex.,” “Lam. 2” and “Lamina 3a,” the remaining map obviously representing Lamina 1. Each drawing measures 28.5 by 36 cm, exclusive of the legends.

    Though abounding in hieroglyphics, only the third bears inscriptions in the Roman alphabet. This identifies...

  71. No. 65 The Malinche of Acacingo, Estado de Mexico (1946)
    (pp. 256-256)
    R. H. Barlow

    Below Tenancingo (Estado de Mexico) lie the small settlement of Acacingo and, to the west of this, the Cerro de la Malinche. On the latter exist various carvings, or remains of carvings, for in one place an outcropping of petroglyphs has recently been blasted with dynamite by someone eager to detach salable portions. Elsewhere appear fortifications, sentry posts (reminiscent of Nezahualocoyotl’s Bath), and a shrine. These are on the west side of the hill, commanding an ample view of Tecualoyan, Zumpahuacan, Iztapan de la Sal, and other towns in the southern part of the state.

    During a brief visit to...

  72. No. 66 Three Zapotec Stones (1946)
    (pp. 257-258)
    Heinrich Berlin

    When I was at San Miguel Sola, Oaxaca, at the beginning of this year, my attention was called to three archaeological stories in the neighboring village of San Juan Sola. Father Jose Aurelio Garcia, the Catholic priest of San Miguel, gave me the information about their discovery.

    Some time ago when visiting San Juan he happened to stroll around the small jail, at the back of which he found the three stones built into the wall. He had them removed to the small plaza of the village. It is supposed that they came from the neighboring hills, which apparently hold...

  73. No. 67 Blowguns in Guatemala (1946)
    (pp. 259-261)
    Edwin M. Shook

    The blowgun is in use today among the Mam Indians of western Guatemala and their neighbors on the east, north, and west. These are the Quiche, Cakchiquel, Tzutuhil, Ixil, Kekchi, Chuj, Jacalteca, and several Indian groups to the west of the Mam in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico.

    In an effort to protect small game and particularly the quetzal bird, the Guatemalan national symbol of freedom, a law was passed about 15 years ago prohibiting the use of the blowgun. In areas where administration of the law was possible it was so rigorously enforced that the blowgun as a hunting...

  74. No. 68 A Reconnaissance of El Rincon del Jicaque, Honduras (1946)
    (pp. 262-267)
    Gustav Strömsvik and John M. Longyear III

    The backbone of organized resistance offered by the Indians of western Honduras to Spanish rule was finally broken in April 1530, when Hernando Chaves besieged and conquered the stronghold of the Maya chieftain, Copan Calel. The story of this siege, told by Francisco Antonio Fuentes y Guzman in 1689 (Morley 1920, App. V), is well known to all students of the literature concerning Copan. In recent years, coincident with the revival of archaeological activity at Copan, much thought has been directed toward locating this conquest site. It would be almost impossible today, however, to find the spot described by Guzman:...

  75. No. 69 “Rim-Head” Vessels from Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala (1946)
    (pp. 268-270)
    A. V. Kidder and E. M. Shook

    From time to time there have turned up at the great archaeological site of Kaminaljuyu, in the northwestern outskirts of Guatemala City, fragments of an interesting type of presumably ceremonial vessel, whose rim bore large human heads. Some of these were brought in for sale by people living in the vicinity, others were found by us among sherds of the Miraflores phase thrown out from road cuts and adobe makers’ pits. We therefore believed the vessels to have formed part of the Miraflores complex, the earliest so far surely identified at Kaminaljuyu and thought, because of the nature of its...

  76. No. 70 Some Mexican Figurines of the Colonial Period (1946)
    (pp. 271-272)
    R. H. Barlow

    The manufacture of “idolitos” did not, of course, stop with the conquest, though there must have been some shift in their function. Sr. Miguel Covarrubias, who owns ten of the eleven figurines depicted in the accompanying illustration, observes that all sorts of little clay figures are sold in the markets today, for various occasions or merely as toys. In any case, it seems worthwhile publishing specimens of transitional ceramic figures as documents for the history of Mexican art and as a reminder that native civilization did not collapse operatically as the curtain closed on Cuauhtemoc.

    No. 1 was purchased by...

  77. No. 71 The Dating of Structure 44, Yaxchilan, and its Bearing on the Sequence of Texts at That Site (1946)
    (pp. 273-278)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The hieroglyphic texts at Yaxchilan are the most tantalizing of all Maya inscriptions. Most of them, despite their generally fine state of preservation, cannot be used with assurance, for the Calendar Round dates, fully rigged with explanatory dates, are in general adrift, bereft of the anchors of Initial Series or the fair havens of Period Endings. Until the bearings of such dates are known, the investigation of the explanatory glyphs of unknown meaning which accompany them can have but meager results.

    The longest text in a reasonable state of preservation at Yaxchilan is situated in Structure 44, where it occupies...

  78. No. 72 The Codex of the Derrumbe del Templo Mayor (1946)
    (pp. 279-280)
    R. H. Barlow

    According to the text of 1553, Costumbres de Nueva España (1943: 1, 57) “. . . llegado que fue el marqués del prendimiento de naruaez a su jente le halló herido a moteçuma y mandó el marques dar fuego a todos los cues y altares que tenián y como se quemauan se caían y al caer vn cu grande hizo gran ruido y preguntando moteçuma que ruido era aquel le dixeron que auia caido el cu y de este enojo murió . . .”

    In the accompanying plate we have a portrayal of the blowing up of the Temple of...

  79. No. 73 Some Examples of Yeztla-Naranjo Geometric Ware (1946)
    (pp. 281-282)
    R. H. Barlow

    A new type of painted pottery, corresponding closely to that from the old Tepuzteco area, was found by Mr. R.J. Weitlaner and myself in the southern drainage of the upper Balsas River (Rio de las Truchas). We published two complete pieces inTlalocan(1944: 1, Pl. 4) and Hendrichs published a third, from Ichcatepec, north of Balsas, inTierras Ignotas(1945–1946: 1, Fig. 106). To this scanty record of illustration it seems appropriate to add my drawing of four sherds which we acquired for the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia in 1944 (Fig. 73.1a–d) and a photograph of a...

  80. No. 74 The Treble Scroll Symbol in the Teotihuacan and Zapotec Cultures (1946)
    (pp. 283-286)
    Horace Neys and Hasso von Winning

    There exists in the art of Teotihuacan an ornament consisting of three simple scrolls, which form a whorl. This design has also been used by other peoples, especially the Zapotec, and by all of them in such a particular way that it must be taken not as a mere decoration but as a symbol.

    The simple scroll usually is repeated in a horizontal band or as a frame and represents water. We think that this trilobe derives from the horizontal scroll band and is also a sign relating to water.

    Various appearances of the treble scroll will be described. All,...

  81. No. 75 The Book of Chilam Balam of Ixil (1946)
    (pp. 287-292)
    Ralph L. Roys

    Most of the so-called Books of Chilam Balam are essentially almanacs. They are written in the Maya language of Yucatan and in the European script adapted by the missionaries to express the sounds not found in Spanish. Brinton (1890:257) tells us that “in whatever village it was written, or by whatever hand, it always was, and to-day [1890] still is, called The Book of Chilam Balam.” Crescencio Carrillo y Ancona (1937: 12) had already made a similar statement, so no doubt this was true during the middle years of the nineteenth century.

    At the present time the term appears to...

  82. No. 76 The “Tortuga” of Coatlan del Rio, Morelos (1946)
    (pp. 293-293)
    R. H. Barlow

    The accompanying figure represents a monolith which stands in the plaza of Coatlan del Rio, Morelos. I am obliged to Dr. Robert West of the Smithsonian Institution for the photographs and the opportunity to visit the monument.

    In Coatlan, which lies on the edge of the Chontal de Guerrero zone, the monument is assumed to be a turtle, but it seems more likely to be a composite of giant phallus and articulated animal. In the upper figure what appears to be the prepuce is on the right and the animal’s claws are at the left. Below, the monster is clearer:...

  83. No. 77 Drawings of Tajumulco Sculptures (1947)
    (pp. 294-300)
    Antonio Tejeda

    During the winter of 1938–39, the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico carried on archaeological excavations at the small ruin site of Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. A report on that work,Excavations at Tajumulco, Guatemala, was published as Monograph 9 of the School of American Research, November 1, 1943.

    On seeing some of the cultural material and photographs sculptures, Dr. A. V. Kidder deemed the stone carvings of sufficient importance to merit sending the staff artist of the Carnegie Institution’s Guatemala Office to the site to make detailed drawings of them. We were...

  84. No. 78 Otomi Looms and Quechquemitls from San pablito, State of Puebla, and from Santa Ana Hueytlalpan, State of Hidalgo, Mexico (1947)
    (pp. 301-311)
    Bodil Christensen

    The looms to be described below are used for weaving a capelike garment worn by Indian women in several parts of Mexico and called aquechquemitl, from the Nahuatlquechtli, “neck,” andtlaquemitl, “garment.” The Otomi word for the same garment ismonhuí.

    The quechquemitl is a pre-Cortesian garment. In codices and documents written shortly after the Spanish conquest we find illustrations of goddesses and noble women wearing quechquemitls, whereas women of the lower classes are pictured wearing huipiles. We also find representations of quechquemitls on pre-Cortesian stone sculptures and on clay figurines.

    The quechquemitl is usually made of two...

  85. No. 79 Maya Calendar Round Dates Such as 9 Ahau 17 Mol (1947)
    (pp. 312-315)
    Tatiana Proskouriakoff and J. Eric S. Thompson

    It has been known for very many years that the positions in the months held by each day were one less in Yucatan at the time of the Spanish conquest than they had been in the cities of the Central area during the Classic or Initial Series Period. That is to say, combinations such as 12 Kan 1 Pop, 6 Imix 3 Yax, or 13 Ahau 17 Mol were used at that time in Yucatan, whereas in the Central area during the Classic Period those dates would normally have been written 12 Kan 2 Pop, 6 Imix 4 Tax, and...

  86. No. 80 Stone Objects from Cocula and Chilacachapa, Guerrero (1947)
    (pp. 316-318)
    R. H. Barlow

    At the Fourth Mesa Redonda, Sr. Covarrubias presented a typology of the stone figures which abound in the region of Mezcala and other parts of Guerrero. When available in a formally published version, this typology will help to anchor the lithic work of Guerrero, which appears frequently in private and public collections but lacks exact information. As distribution in space demands attention, certain pieces found by Ing. Weitlaner and myself are herewith put on record.

    Cocula, which was Matlatzinca-speaking in contrast to its Chontal neighbors (Toussaint 1931), provides one “idol”, the word may not describe the real function of such...

  87. No. 81 Easter Ceremonies at San Antonio palopo, Guatemala (1947)
    (pp. 319-324)
    Elsie McDougall

    The small village of San Antonio Palopo is situated on the northeast shore of Lake Atitlan, a mile or two east of Santa Catarina Palopo. The villagers, Cakchiquel Maya, have no canoes; except for fish weirs, of stone or sod, their interests are in the land. Their principal industry is agriculture; their main crops are maize and anise. They cultivate every possible patch or pocket of soil on the steep slopes, at the base of which their village nestles. At the time of my visit (1929) there was only one non-Indian in the village. He was Ernesto Cabrera, who filled...

  88. No. 82 Cuchumatan Textiles: The Course of an Error (1947)
    (pp. 325-326)
    Oliver La Farge

    A relatively unimportant error is capable of spreading and perpetuating itself in a remarkable way. One such, originally little more than a bit of carelessness, has developed to the point at which published correction is required, having infected not only one of my own publications (La Farge and Byers 1931), but also Dr. Lila M. O’Neale’s magnificentTextiles of Highland Guatemala(1945). As an example and a warning, also, the story is not without interest.

    Among other specimens I brought back from Los Altos Cuchumatanes of Guatemala to Tulane University in 1927 was a San Mateo Ixtatan huipil, somewhat less...

  89. No. 83 Representations of Temple Buildings as Decorative Patterns on Teotihuacan Pottery and Figurines (1947)
    (pp. 327-330)
    Hasso von Winning

    Miniature clay temples occur frequently in the Aztec cultural horizon, as well as in western Mexico, but they do not appear in the Teotihuacan period. Nevertheless, the pattern of temple façades has been widely applied by the Teotihuacanos as decorative motifs on pottery and moldmade figurines. Its use has been conventionalized as have many other patterns in this culture period.

    A number of selected specimens manifest the gradual changes which this motif has undergone.

    The first example to be considered is a champleve tripod vase on which has been incised four times g temple construction, alternating with a Tlaloc face...

  90. No. 84 The Codex of Tonayan (1947)
    (pp. 331-334)
    R. H. Barlow

    The Codex of Tonayan, or Plano de San Juan Chapultepec, was painted a short distance north of Xalapa, Veracruz, in the year 1665. What has become of the original is unknown, but it still existed in 1849, when a watercolor copy was made. In 1852 it was copied again, this time in oils, and this second copy survived in Xalapa until at least 1911, after which it disappeared. The 1852 copy was published in a defective halftone by Ramon Mena, in theMemorias de la Sociedad Alzate(30:397–402). The 1849 watercolor has not been published heretofore. In order to...

  91. No. 85 Elements of Maya Arithmetic with Particular Attention to the Calendar (1947)
    (pp. 335-340)
    Charles C. Fulton

    Maya (Calendar) arithmetic seems to have had the following well-marked characteristics:

    1. Monadic counting and day counts

    2. Vigesimal numeration and tun counting

    3. Positional notation

    4. Use of zero symbols

    5. Cyclical time-counting

    Maya arithmetic was characterised by virtually complete absence of fractions. No doubt the Maya understood simple fractions such as one-half, onequarter, and one-third. But quantities, including those we think of as continuous and indefinitely divisible were, for them, strictly counted values of “indivisible” units. This is, indeed, characteristics of primitive arithmetic everywhere. For us the concept of the monad, or “indivisible unit,” has almost disappeared, but...

  92. No. 86 Certain Types of Stamped Decoration on Pottery from the Valley of Mexico (1947)
    (pp. 341-346)
    Hasso von Winning

    In discussing a collection of pottery from Texcuaco on the Rio Coyolate, Department of Escuintla, Guatemala, Dr. A. V. Kidder (Note 15) refers to a vase which bears two rectangular panels, impressed by the same stamp (Fig. 86.1.1). Each panel is outlined, after stamping, with an incised line. Near the base are three small heads, made in the same mold and luted to the wall. The ringstand or pedestal base has been broken. Precise data as to the provenience of this specimen are lacking. So far Dr. Kidder’s commentary. For reasons of harmonious composition the panels are stamped in such...

  93. No. 87 Observation of the Sun among the Ixil of Guatemala (1948)
    (pp. 347-349)
    R.C.E. Long

    Through the courtesy of the Division of Historical Research I have been able to see the microfilm of the notes on the Ixil by the late J. Steward Lincoln (1946). Appended to it is a diagram entitled “So-called sun observatory. Nebaj. Stone markers extending from behind Campo Santo up to top of high hill west of town. From Campo Santo to top approximately 1 1/2 km. Sun rises on lines a–b and x–y observed from stones O and P, on March 19, 1910, 2 days before the equinox. Sun rose this day at6 degs 31 1/2 ms....

  94. No. 88 Some Remarks on Maya Arithmetic (1948)
    (pp. 350-351)
    R.C.E. Long

    J. Eric S. Thompson (1942) has set out very fully how the Maya might have used an abacus for calculating and he has given a diagram of such an abacus. Although I am in general agreement with his paper, I think that no abacus was used and that it is useful to consider the methods of reckoning used in Europe and very fully given by Francis P. S. Barnard (1916) with illustrative diagrams. He abstracts information given in ten arithmetical works of the sixteenth century. All give the method of calculation “by ciphers,” that is, our ordinary arithmetical rules, but...

  95. No. 89 Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala: Addenda and Corrienda (1948)
    (pp. 352-356)
    A. V. Kidder

    In the recent report by Kidder, Jennings, and Shook (Kaminaljuyu, hereafter referred to as KJS) on the great archaeological site of Kaminaljuyu in the outskirts of Guatemala City, it was stated that four cultural phases were there represented: Miraflores, an Archaic or Middle Culture development; Esperanza, of the Early Classic Period; Amatle and Pamplona, which we assigned to the first part of the Late, or post-Classic, Period. We believed that in the terminal half of the Classic Period either Kaminaljuyu was not occupied or we had failed to hit upon remains which might have been laid down during that time....

  96. No. 90 Did the Maya Have a Zero? The Meanings of Our Zero and the Maya “Zero” Symbols (1948)
    (pp. 357-359)
    Charles C. Fulton

    Did the Maya have a zero? They had several symbols which have been translated by means of our zero, and the real question, naturally, is whether the translations are correct. Perhaps the answer might be either yes or no. Our symbol 0 represents several different concepts, according to the way it is used. The Maya also had at least two “zero” concepts, distinct if not entirely different, and represented by different symbols: these have both been translated “zero” or transliterated with our symbol 0. Spinden and other archaeologists have held that the Maya invented zero long before the Hindus, while...

  97. No. 91 Jades from Guatemala (1949)
    (pp. 360-365)
    A. V. Kidder

    In 1946 and 1947, A. L. Smith excavated two mounds at a large archaeological site in the outskirts of the town of Nebaj in the Department of El Quiche. The jades recovered are of much importance for the study of Mesoamerican ornaments of this material because of the fact that the age relative to each other of the tombs and caches in which they were found was determinable by stratigraphy; their cultural age, on the basis of the pottery they contained. Thus the jades, of which there were many fine carved specimens, can be assigned to three sequent periods: Early...

  98. No. 92 Certain Archaeological Specimens from Guatemala I (1949)
    (pp. 366-376)
    A. V. Kidder

    Most of the objects treated in this Note were incidental finds or purchases made in the course of Carnegie Institution’s field work. As such, they will not find a place in papers devoted to major excavations and surveys. The rest are in private collections which are unlikely ever to be published and always risk loss or dispersal. Some of the specimens are well documented. The exact provenience or the cultural affinity of others is doubtful, but among these are pieces that throw light on technological processes or provide well-preserved examples of types hitherto known only in fragmentary condition. It therefore...

  99. No. 93 Some New Discoveries at Coba (1949)
    (pp. 377-381)
    William R. Coe and Michael D. Coe

    In December 1948, we made a trip to Coba for the purpose of photographing the ruins. Starting from Valladolid, we went to Chemax, thence on mule back to Tsinup, approximately 12 km beyond. About halfway between Chemax and Tsinup we observed, across a milpa to the right of the trail, some rather large and well-preserved buildings, which appeared to be on an acropolis. Leaving Tsinup at six o’clock in the morning, we traveled the 20 km to Coba over a very bad trail in about seven hours, and made camp on the shore of Lake Macanxoc.

    The destination of Sacbe...

  100. No. 94 Tlaloc Incensarios in the Baratta Collection, El Salvador (1949)
    (pp. 382-387)
    Stanley H. Boggs

    The collection of prehistoric pottery vessels owned by Prof. Augusto and Doña Maria Baratta of San Salvador, El Salvador, includes many fine specimens, most of which, unfortunately, are of unknown provenience. The five incensarios with which this paper deals were purchased by Doña Maria in 1944 from a workman who stated that they had been discovered on the Hacienda Chanmico, property of Don Alfonso Quiñonez. This farm lies immediately south of the Hacienda Sitio del Niño and is geographically at least within the San Andres Archaeological Zone, in sight of the mounds forming the Sitio del Niño group of that...

  101. No. 95 Certain Archaeological Specimens from Guatemala II (1950)
    (pp. 388-392)
    A. V. Kidder

    Like specimens from Guatemala recorded in an earlier paper in this series (Note 92), the objects here described are incidental finds, purchases, or gifts and therefore will not be included in reports dealing with Carnegie Institution’s major archaeological undertakings. All are now in the Guatemala National Museum.

    Figurine arm from Kaminaljuyu(Fig. 95.1a). A surface find, this finely finished whiteware arm from a jointed figurine is doubtless of the Archaic Miraflores Phase. A leg of the same ware and finish, also from Kaminaljuyu (Fig. 92.5e), possesses a similar perforated protuberance designed to fit into a cup in the body of...

  102. No. 96 Tlaloc Effigy Jar from the Guatemala National Museum (1950)
    (pp. 393-395)
    Stephan F. de Borhegyi

    The large Dieseldorff Collection, donated to the Guatemala National Museum in 1942, includes many fine specimens, most of which, unfortunately, are of unknown provenience. The anthropomorphic jar representing a bearded individual, with which this paper is concerned, is believed to have come from Kaminaljuyu, the large archaeological site near Guatemala City. No other information concerning the association and age of the specimen is available.

    The jar is of coarse, unslipped, reddish brown ware, the surface unpolished but fairly well smoothed. The paste is a warm brown, showing small particles of white temper. The flaring rimmed, straight necked jar has a...

  103. No. 97 Rim-Head Vessels and Cone-Shaped Effigy Prongs of the Preclassic Period at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala (1950)
    (pp. 396-404)
    Stephan F. de Borhegyi

    In July 1949 I received a grant from the Viking Fund of New York to organize the study material of the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia of Guatemala. While engaged in the organization of the large figurine collections, composed of material from the Dieseldorff Collection, the “desconocido” or unreliably recorded material of the Museum, and the collections donated by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, I encountered some unusual specimens deserving of special notice.

    On examination it appeared that much of what had formerly been considered part of the Preclassic figurine complex of the Guatemalan highlands was actually part of...

  104. No. 98 A Polychrome Maya Plate from Quintana Roo (1950)
    (pp. 405-406)
    Frans Blom

    In a private collection in Oaxaca City is a Maya plate which probably is one of the most magnificent pieces of Maya ceramics and certainly one of the most intriguing (Fig. 98.1a). It was found in Quintana Roo, Mexico, not far from Chetumal Bay. I am much indebted to the owners for permission to reproduce it; it was first called to my attention by Mr. Frederick A. Peterson.

    The plate measures 44 cm in diameter. Its surface is divided into two fields of equal size, the upper of which is covered with a multitude of figures and scrolls painted in...

  105. No. 99 “Olmec” Pictographs in the Las Victorias Group, Chalchuapa Archaeological Zone, El Salvador (1950)
    (pp. 407-410)
    Stanley H. Boggs

    During a rather hurried reconnaissance of the Chalchuapa Archaeological Zone in 1942, a large, irregularly shaped boulder, decorated on four surfaces with incised human figures, was found in the Las Victorias coffee plantation about 2 km east of the city of Chalchuapa. At that time, I prepared a brief note of this discovery which was published in 1944 by Longyear (1944:17). No photographs of the stone accompanied the text, and the only conclusions then reached were that “the style of carving is very different from that usually found in El Salvador and may relate to the technique and time of...

  106. No. 100 A Group of Jointed Figurines in the Guatemala National Museum (1950)
    (pp. 411-415)
    Stephan F. de Borhegyi

    A small group of “Archaic” figurines, thought to be of interest to students of Middle American archaeology, came to light during organization of the large study collection of the Guatemala National Museum. This project is being made possible by a fellowship granted by the Bollingen Foundation of New York to the writer, who wishes to express his indebtedness to this institution, as well as to Dr. Heinrich Berlin for helpful suggestions and to Sr. Antonio Oliveros for careful drawings. A description of two figurines from Kaminaljuyu, on the outskirts of Guatemala City, and one from the ruins of Tazumal in...

  107. No. 101 A Study of Three-Pronged Incense Burners from Guatemala and Adjacent Areas (1951)
    (pp. 416-428)
    Stephan F. de Borhegyi

    Since the recent discussion (Note 97) of a group of cone-shaped effigy heads and three-pronged incense burners from the Preclassic period at Kaminaljuyu, the large archaeological site just outside Guatemala City, some interesting new specimens have come to light. Their study has brought about new concepts and filled several gaps unavoidably left open in the earlier report, as well as necessitated some slight alterations in the theories previously advanced. This study was made possible by a grant-in-aid from the Bollingen Foundation of New York, to which institution I am greatly indebted.

    Thanks go to Dr. A. V. Kidder for unfailing...

  108. No. 102 Some Archaeological Specimens from Pomona, British Honduras (1951)
    (pp. 429-437)
    A. V. Kidder and Gordon F. Ekholm

    During the winter of 1950 the writers and Mr. Gustav Strömsvik had opportunity to conduct an archaeological reconnaissance of the Bay Islands and northwest coast of Honduras and the southern coast and cays of British Honduras. This was made possible by Mr. Charles Sumner Bird, who, through the sponsorship of the Institute of Andean Research, chartered the yachtIrmayfor the purpose. We are also under much obligation to His Excellency Ronald H. Garvey, Governor of British Honduras, for the necessary permit to explore and excavate in the Colony; as well as to Mr. W. H. Kieffer of the United...

  109. No. 103 “Loop-Nose” Incense Burners in the Guatemala National Museum (1951)
    (pp. 438-446)
    Stephan F. de Borhegyi

    In July 1950 the Guatemala National Museum received a donation from Don Guillermo Batres containing many interesting archaeological specimens which originally belonged to the private collection of his brother, the late Lic. Carlos Batres. It is thought that most of this material came from his property which formerly constituted part of the great archaeological site of Kaminaljuyu on the outskirts of Guatemala City. Numbered among the collection are three incense burners of particular interest. These were compared with three similar ones from the Dieseldorff Collection of the Guatemala National Museum., with four in the Chichicastenango Museum, and with four excavated...

  110. No. 104 Ethnological Material from British Honduras (1951)
    (pp. 447-448)
    William R. Coe and Michael D. Coe

    While excavating not far from the village of Socotz, in the Cayo District of British Honduras, during the summer of 1949, our Maya workmen supplied us with some interesting ethnological material. The story was told to us by Ascension Alfaro, an Indian born in the vicinity of Lake Peten Itza in Guatemala, where he learned the tale. The rest of the material was given us by Jacinto Cunil, our foreman from Socotz.

    Once upon a time a farmer had a corn shed in his milpa. A bold squirrel came to eat the farmer’s corn. In the milpa shed lived Aunt...

  111. No. 105 Further Notes on Three-Pronged Incense Burners and Rim-Head Vessels in Guatemala (1951)
    (pp. 449-457)
    Stephan F. de Borhegyi

    During March 1951, I spent a weekend at Finca El Progreso near Chiquimulilla, Department Santa Rosa, at the invitation of the owner, Faustino Padilla. The purpose of my visit was to investigate the spot where a three-pronged incense burner now located in the Guatemala National Museum (Fig. 97.7) was found in 1936. It was discovered, together with another fragmentary specimen, by the members of the Padilla family during the digging of a drainage canal connecting a natural spring with a wash basin. I had hoped that more material could be obtained by further excavation at the same spot and by...

  112. No. 106 Notice to Replace Note 106 (1952)
    (pp. 458-458)
    Morris R. Jones

    Since the issue of “Map of the Ruins of Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico,” by Morris R. Jones, as Note 106 (December 4, 1951), a new series of papers,Current Reports, has been initiated by this Department. These reports will deal at the outset largely with the results of field work at Mayapan. Constant reference will be made to the map of the ruins, which is, of course, an important document in support of the work there. It consequently seems advisable that the map should become Current Report 1 of the new series.

    Report 1 is a re-issue of the text of...

  113. No. 107 The Ruins of Cotio, Department of Guatemala, Guatemala (1952)
    (pp. 459-463)
    Edwin M. Shook

    Throughout the Guatemala valley there are known at present over 50 scattered archaeological sites. The largest, Kaminaljuyu, on the southwest outskirts of Guatemala City, is more or less centrally located; spreading out in all directions from this great ceremonial center are others ranging in size from a single isolated mound to clusters of 20 or more. Surface collections of pottery from, and observations of, these valley sites strongly indicate than Kaminaljuyu was the seat of civic, cultural, and political power during the long Preclassic, Early Classic, and Late Classic periods. Thereafter all major activities apparently ended here and elsewhere in...

  114. No. 108 A possible Early Classic Site in Northern Yucatan (1952)
    (pp. 464-465)
    William R. Coe

    While recently in Valladolid, I heard of the discovery of ruins near Colonia Yucatan, the center of the Yucatecan plywood industry. As they are in an area little known archaeologically, a visit promised to be of some value. The site is approximately 1.5 km south of Triplay, which in turn is said to be 31 km south of El Cuyo, a coastal port, and 48 km north of Tizimin. A good road connects all three points.

    The five principal mounds constituting the site (though workers in the area report scattered, relatively insignificant mounds peripheral to the main group) are arranged...

  115. No. 109 Waxen Idols and a Sacrificial Rite on the Lacandon (1952)
    (pp. 466-467)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    In documents referring to a little-known entrada, under the leadership of Juan de Morales Villa Vicencio, into Lacandon territory in 1586, published inBoletin del Archivo General del Gobierno(Reducción 1937), there are interesting references to the use of waxen idols by the Lacandon. These are the only references which I know to this custom among the lowland Maya of the sixteenth century, although the high ceremonial importance of black candles of native beeswax, as compared with those of white wax sold commercially, would indicate an important use of beeswax in prehispanic ceremony.

    After the inglorious retirement of Villa Vicencio’s...

  116. No. 110 The Introduction of Puuc Style of Dating at Yaxchilan (1952)
    (pp. 468-471)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    In a study of dating which yields a month coefficient of a Calendar Round date one less than in the normal system (e.g., 1 Kan 1 Pop in place of the normal 1 Kan 2 Pop) it was noted that this style is followed on two monuments at Yaxchilan (Note 79). To describe that system of dating the term Puuc way suggested because from present evidence the style is most prevalent in that area, and possibly originated there. At least, the earliest known examples ( and are on monuments at the Puuc site of Edzna.

    The two monuments at...

  117. No. 111 Zutugil Dugout Canoes (1952)
    (pp. 472-475)
    Samuel K. Lothrop

    Some time ago we published a brief account of the unique type of dugout canoes employed by the Quiche, Cakchiquel, and Zutugil Indians who dwell on the shores of Lake Atitlan, Guatemala (Lothrop 1929). Several years later, while dwelling in the town of Santiago Atitlan and excavating in the vicinity for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, we chartered one of these vessels to transport our men from the town to the various places where we worked. Although we used an outboard motor, which more than doubled her speed even with a dozen people on board, there were various occasions when...

  118. No. 112 The Survival of the Maya Tun Count in Colonial Times (1952)
    (pp. 476-480)
    Tatiana Proskouriakoff

    On pages 124 and 125 of the Codex Perez, now in the possession of the Escalante family of Merida, Yucatan, there is a table which consists of a list of 17 Christian years beginning with 1758, correlated with data of the Maya calendar. This table, as it is reproduced on pages 246 and 247 of the translation of the codex by Dr. Ermilo Solis Alcala, differs in important particulars from a photographic copy of the original obtained for the Carnegie Institution of Washington by Sylvanus G. Morley in 1936. The following is transcribed from the photographic facsimile (tz’ is substituted...

  119. No. 113 A Decorated Vessel Support from Acapulco, Mexico (1953)
    (pp. 481-482)
    Hasso von Winning

    In recent years explorations in Mexico have yielded a type of vessel support previously unknown in prehispanic pottery. These supports are up to 20 cm high, plano-convex, and hollow. The flat exterior bears a stamped decoration. Although, as far as I know, no complete vase or dish has been recovered, it is generally assumed that they were tripods. Their occurrence has been noted at several points west of Acapulco (Ekholm 1948:99). The purpose of this paper is to supplement the few extant pieces with a rather elaborately decorated dish support purchased some 15 years ago at the Embarcadero in Acapulco...

  120. No. 114 The Language of the Archaeologic Huastecs (1953)
    (pp. 483-485)
    Morris Swadesh

    The Huastecs of the region of northern Vera Cruz have spoken a Maya language from earliest historic times. How long has this tongue been in the area? When and where in the ancient past did the forerunners of the modern Huastecs form part of a linguistic community with the other Maya? The problems raised by the linguistic connections are stated by Gordon F. Ekholm (1944: 330):

    “. . . Huastec is unique in being geographically isolated from all other members of the stock to which it belongs and which are distributed in a single block in Guatemala, Yucatan and adjacent...

  121. No. 115 A Stela at San Lorenzo, Southeastern Campeche (1953)
    (pp. 486-488)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    The small site of San Lorenzo lies 4 km north and slightly west of the chicle camp and water hole of the same name. These, in turn, are about 30 km in a direct line west by south of Aurora (Rio Bec) and about 8 km south by east of Hormiguero (Ruppert and Denison 1943, Fig. 1). It was visited by J. C. Harrington, Conrad Kratz (now Father Lawrence, O.S.B., and myself in 1936. The map was made by Harrington. The presence of a hieroglyphic stela in this region, where Peten and Rio Bec styles of architecture interlock, gives importance...

  122. No. 116 Ceremonial or Formal Archway, Uxmal (1954)
    (pp. 489-490)
    A. L. Smith and Karl Ruppert

    During the latter part of April 1953, we spent several days, by invitation of Dr. Alberto Ruz Lhuillier, at the Mexican Government’s archaeological headquarters at Uxmal for the purpose of investigating house mounds at the site and its environs.

    While exploring south of the main group, we came upon the badly fallen remains of an unreported archway (Fig. 116.1) about 3 km south of the Governors Palace. It faces north and south and rests on a large platform. No evidence of a raised road or sacbe could be found associated with it. On the south side, 11.2 m from the...

  123. No. 117 Miscellaneous Archaeological Specimens from Mesoamerica (1954)
    (pp. 491-505)
    A. V. Kidder

    In the present Note are included various objects that do not form part of collections made in the course of Carnegie Institution’s excavations, and therefore fail to find publication in reports on the Institution’s field work. Although the exact provenience of few is known, all are of interest in one way or another. Some of the pottery vessels are of types hitherto unrecorded or ordinarily found only in fragmentary condition; some vessels and artifacts of stone and metal are of superior craftmanship; others illustrate unusual or little-understood technological processes. Unless otherwise noted, all are from Guatemala and in the Museo...

  124. No. 118 Pottery Specimens from Guatemala I (1954)
    (pp. 506-512)
    Robert E. Smith

    All save three (Fig. 118.4a–c, at present in the National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Guatemala) of the 50 specimens herein illustrated came from the collection of General Frederico Ponce, who was at different times Jefe Politico of the Departments of Peten and Progreso. In 1944 Sr. Frederico Gonzalez acquired the collection, and that year I published an article (Smith 1944:39) in which were included five specimens reported to have been found on the north shore of Lake Peten Itza. These belonged to the Ponce collection; four of them (Smith 1944, Figs. 2g, h; 3a, b) undoubtedly came...

  125. No. 119 Drawings of Glyphs of Structure XVIII, Palenque (1954)
    (pp. 513-516)
    Miguel Angel Fernandez

    During his ten years’ work at Palenque from 1935 to 1945, the late Miguel Angel Fernandez, artist rather than notebook-filling archaeologist, used his pencil primarily for drawing new finds. Through the courtesy of his heirs it is possible to present his drawings of the glyphs of Structure XVIII at Palenque; photostats of a few drawings of material from other parts of Palenque are on file at Carnegie Institution’s Department of Archaeology, but many are still missing. The publication of those of Structure XVIII will furnish the student of glyphs with fresh material and at the same time fix permanently the...

  126. No. 120 Memoranda on Some Dates at Palenque (1954)
    (pp. 517-520)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    In a discussion of lunar systems at Palenque, Heinrich Berlin (1943) argued that Palenque had adopted the uniform system of reckoning moons. The evidence was not entirely satisfactory because of the two dates which he used to support his idea: one (Templo Olvidado) fell outside the period of uniformity with an IS 3 Oc 3 Pop (Berlin 1944), and the other was incomplete.

    This incomplete record was a fragmentary text found in 1942 by Miguel Angel Fernandez in clearing the substructure of the Temple of the Sun. Berlin suggested that it be restored as 5 Eb 5 Kayab....

  127. No. 121 Snares and Traps in the Codex Madrid (1954)
    (pp. 521-524)
    Jose Luis Franco

    Codex Madrid contains several divinatory almanacs (pp. 42c, 44–49, 90a–92a2, 92a3–93a2), with illustrations of animals in traps. Of the 76 animals pictured, 20 are deer, two are peccaries, two are turkeys, and two are armadillos. I follow the usual identification of the animals, a topic extensively discussed and, I believe, settled by now. The matter of traps, though, has hardly been considered, the only detailed discussion, to my knowledge, being that by Cyrus Thomas (1882:97). Thomas correctly identified the snares (Fig. 121.1, nos. 1–4), but only suggests the necessity of some kind of triggering device. Contradicting...

  128. No. 122 Two New Gallery Patio-Type Structures at Chichen Itza (1955)
    (pp. 525-526)
    Karl Ruppert and A. L. Smith

    While at Chichen Itza, April 5 to 14, 1954, for the purpose of locating and examining house mounds, we found two new gallery-patio type structures. Thirteen structures of this type are now known at Chichen Itza, but so far none has been reported from any other site.

    In looking for house mounds it was necessary to examine inconspicuous terraces and platforms where no large mounds are indicated or identified by numbers on the map (1952, Fig. 151). Thus some areas that had not been seen since the map was made in 1924 were examined with considerable care.

    One of the...

  129. No. 123 Easter Ceremonies at Santiago Atitlan in 1930 (1955)
    (pp. 527-532)
    Elsie McDougall

    The ceremonies of Easter week at the Zutuhil village of Santiago Atitlan are a strange blending of Christian and pagan rites which have briefly been described by S. K. Lothrop (1929a, 1929b) and E. B. Lothrop (1948).

    The relatively large village lies at the foot of Volcano Atitlan, on an inlet of the lake of the same name, and is dominated by the seventeenth-century church, once imposing but now badly damaged by repeated earthquakes.

    When I reached the village on the morning of Wednesday of Holy Week (April 16, 1930), the main door of the church was open, and a...

  130. No. 124 Pottery Specimens from Guatemala II (1955)
    (pp. 533-535)
    Robert E. Smith

    The thirteen specimens described here belong to the Montano collection, and all, save one (Fig. 124.1a), are in the National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Guatemala. The donor, the late Dr. Hector Montano Novela of Guatemala, was an enthusiastic amateur archaeologist and collector.

    The items illustrated are reported to have originated from three different parts of Guatemala: a–f, Ilón, northwestern Quiché; a-j, Panajachel, on Lake Atitlan, Solola; k–m, La Flojera, on tie Rio Salinas midway between Delicias to the north and Caribe to the south and not far from the northern border of Alta Verapaz.

    Fig. 124.1a-f....

  131. No. 125 Pottery Vessels from Campeche (1955)
    (pp. 536-538)
    Robert E. Smith

    In 1949 I paid a brief visit to the small but well-organized Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Campeche, Mexico. Among the many handsome Maya objects on exhibit, the nine pottery vessels here illustrated were of special interest to me. The director of the museum, Raul Pavon Abreu, was most co-operative. He not only supplied the information that all these specimens, save Figure 125.1e (from the Chenes area), were found in a single mound bisected by the highway from Champoton to Escarciga, a mound later completely destroyed, but was kind enough to have the museum artist, Hipolito Sanchez, make paintings of...

  132. No. 126 Selected Pottery from Tabasco (1955)
    (pp. 539-541)
    Heinrich Berlin

    The pottery and other artifacts here illustrated were found during two field seasons of survey of Tabasco in 1953 and 1954. For the “setting” of the specimens and the location of the sites, the reader is referred to Berlin (1953). Most of the material excavated during the two seasons consisted either of untempered Fine Paste wares or of pottery closely associated with them, and will be published separately. There remained, however, some pieces which because of their peculiar shapes or because of their distribution should be placed on record. Capitalized color readings are taken from Ridgway (1912) and are followed...

  133. No. 127 Chronological Decipherments from Uaxactun, Naranjo, and Ixlu, Peten (1956)
    (pp. 542-544)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    Stela 14, Uaxactun, is broken in many pieces, and Morley (1938:1:215) despaired of wresting its dedicatory date from it. It is difficult to make much of the published fragments (Morley 1938:1, P1. 64; note that d is inverted). On stylistic grounds, Morley favored a late placement, and very tentatively suggested the position Proskouriakoff (1950:125, 197) saw no late traits and opted for a date around The reading here advanced was made before I had consulted Proskouriakoff’s study; its close agreement with her stylistic dating of the monument is yet another confirmation of the accuracy of her system, were...

  134. No. 128 Notes on the Use of Cacao in Middle America (1956)
    (pp. 545-552)
    J. Eric S. Thompson

    Cacao attracted the keen interest of the first Spaniards to reach Middle America partly because of its importance as a beverage, partly because of the unusual method of cultivation dependent on the shade-giving “mother” tree, but principally because it was to Europeans, forgetful of the ’origin of the Latin petunia, that novelty, a perishable currency. Thus, in one of the earliest (1525) accounts of the fruit we meet with a philosophical attitude: “But it is very needful to heare what happie money they use, for they have money, which I call happy, because for the greedie desire and gaping to...

  135. No. 129 Tohil Plumbate and Classic Maya Polychrome Vessels in the Marquez Collection (1957)
    (pp. 553-563)
    Robert E. Smith

    This collection, located in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, belonged to the late Alberto Márquez, a collector for twenty-five years. It consists for the most part of Maya archaeological material. At present there is a preponderance of ancient Maya and Mexican pottery, including several thousand Jaina figurines both modeled and moldmade, some 200 X Fine Orange vessels, about 100 fine gray specimens, over 50 Tohil Plumbate pieces, a dozen or more Classic Peten-like Polychrome examples, and some miscellaneous ceramic types. This note has to do with 53 Tohil Plumbate and 12 Classic Peten-like Polychrome vessels.

    The exact provenience of the specimens is...

  136. No. 130 A New Inscription from the Temple of the Foliated Cross at Palenque (1957)
    (pp. 564-565)
    Heinrich Berlin

    In Note 120 of this series J.E.S. Thompson stated that a fragmentary text from the Temple of the Sun at Palenque, published by the writer in Note 24 of this same series, fitted another fragment seen by Thompson in the Palenque storeroom. This statement is incorrect. Although the fragment published by Thompson fits the hieroglyphic text published in Note 24, it does not fit the actual fragments of the stone. His reading, however, remains valid.

    When I was at Palenque in 1956 I had time to inspect the storeroom. Among the pieces there I noticed many carved stone fragments marked...

  137. No. 131 The Marquez Collection of X Fine Orange Polychrome Vessels (1957)
    (pp. 566-593)
    Robert E. Smith

    Approximately 200 X Fine Orange and fine orange polychrome vessels, the latter in small number, are included in the collection of the late Alberto G. Marquez of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. The specimens, mostly whole and in excellent state of preservation, are said to have been found for the most part on Isla de Jaina and at Huaymil. The latter site, sometimes called Huaymin, is located 16 km north of Jaina (Shook 1955) on the northern coast of Campeche. Although the provenience of these vessels is by no means certain, there is no doubt about their belonging to, or being associated...

  138. References
    (pp. 594-606)
  139. Index
    (pp. 607-614)