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Hasanlu V

Hasanlu V: The Late Bronze and Iron I Periods

Michael D. Danti
with contributions by Megan Cifarelli
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 520
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  • Book Info
    Hasanlu V
    Book Description:

    Hasanlu V provides archaeologists with a new, more accurate chronology of Hasanlu, the largest and arguably the most important archaeological site in the Gadar River Valley of northwestern Iran. This revised chronology introduces Hasanlu Periods VIa, V, and IVc for the first time. Based on new findings, the report overturns current constructions of the origins of the archaeological culture in Hasanlu, which sought to link the Monochrome Burnished Ware Horizon (formerly known as the Early Western Grey Ware Horizon) to the migration of new peoples into western Iran in the later second millennium B.C. Hasanlu V shows instead that the Monochrome Burnished Ware Horizon developed gradually from indigenous traditions. This reappraisal has important implications for our understanding of Indo-Iranian migrations into the Zagros region.

    eISBN: 978-1-934536-62-9
    Subjects: Archaeology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  4. List of Plates
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  5. List of Tables
    (pp. xix-xx)
  6. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  8. Preface
    (pp. xxv-xxviii)
  9. 1 Ušnu-Solduz and the Lake Urmia Region in the Later 2nd Millennium BC
    (pp. 1-24)

    This chapter presents the environmental and cultural backdrop of the core area of the Early Western Grey Ware (EWGW) archaeological horizon of the later 2nd millennium BC as defined by T. Cuyler Young (1965), which has long been associated with the earliest Iron age in Iran and wave migration and population replacement theories (Dyson 1977b). The area concerned, broadly construed, is northwestern Iran, but in particular our subject area is found at the heart of this upland zone, the lake urmia Basin and its premier excavated site, Hasanlu Tepe, located the solduz valley of the southern basin (Fig. 1.1; see...

  10. 2 “Hasanlu V”: Definition, Research Questions, and History of Scholarship
    (pp. 25-52)

    Since its initial definition by Robert H. Dyson, our understanding of “Hasanlu V” has been slowly and sporadically constructed through a rather unsystematic, accretive process. The mid-to-late 2nd millennium BC was not the primary focus of the Hasanlu Project given the expedience of excavating Period IVb on Hasanlu’s High Mound, yet through Dyson and Young’s writings, “Hasanlu V” played an inordinately central role in theories concerning the Iranian “Iron age”—or, more precisely, the northwestern Iranian late Bronze age and Iron I. The period in Ušnusolduz is of fundamental importance, as it is the best-attested component of Young’s EWGW archaeological...

  11. 3 The Reanalysis of “Hasanlu V”: Stratigraphy, Architecture, and Radiocarbon Dating
    (pp. 53-142)

    Reanalysis of Hasanlu “Period V” has resulted in substantial revisions to the chronological sequence of the later 2nd millennium BC, with the reassignment of a substantial portion of the former “Hasanlu V” to the re-envisioned Period IVc, the designation of Period VIa to cover the MBIII, the discovery of previously unreported and unanalyzed Period VIa–IVc exposures, and the reinterpretation of the later 2nd millennium BC settlements at Hasanlu. Hasanlu V is now considered to be the late Bronze age (1450– 1250 BC). The designation “ Iron I” now refers to Hasanlu IVc (1250–1050 BC), which Dyson previously used...

  12. 4 Overview of the Ceramic Assemblages of Hasanlu VIa–IVc
    (pp. 143-276)

    The archaeological cultures of the LBA and Iron I of the southern lake Urmia Basin have traditionally been viewed as a radical departure from those of the first half of the 2nd millennium BC (Dyson 1965:195; Muscarella 1994a)—albeit with a few notable exceptions (Medvedskaya 1982). as previously discussed, the punctuated nature and magnitude of this change—best attested by the ceramic assemblages—has been exaggerated by gaps in our sequence, conflations of chronological periods, and biased sampling and data presentation, leading to invalid comparisons and artificial lacunae. The most distinctive material from the graves of Hasanlu “Period V,” a...

  13. 5 The Middle Bronze, Late Bronze, and Iron I Graves of Hasanlu and Dinkha
    (pp. 277-312)

    The Hasanlu Project recovered graves of the 2nd millennium BC at Hasanlu, Dinkha Tepe, Dalma Tepe, and Hajji Firuz. sir aurel stein had previously excavated graves at Hasanlu and Dinkha in 1936 (stein 1940), and some graves had been excavated at Hasanlu on the low Mound by Mahmoud Rad in 1947 and ali Hakemi in 1949 (Hakemi and Rad 1950). Other Hasanlu graves were essentially plundered by the agents of commercial antiquities dealers in 1934–1935, with a small collection of finds later published by Ghirshman (1939: 78–79, pl. c).

    Having established a chronological framework for the MBIII, LBA,...

  14. The color insert and foldout seriation
    (pp. None)
  15. 6 The Personal Ornaments of Hasanlu VIb–IVc
    (pp. 313-322)
    Megan Cifarelli

    Analysis of the personal ornaments deposited in the burials in the low Mound cemetery which date to Hasanlu VIb–IVc is fraught with the same difficulties one encounters when studying the site as whole. The burials themselves were difficult to distinguish in the field, and they seem to have been hastily excavated, idiosyncratically recorded, and many of the finds discarded. Objects recorded as coming from a particular burial by the excavators in the field have occasionally been reassigned to another burial at a later date, and the placement and number of objects within the burial were not consistently recorded in...

  16. 7 Conclusions
    (pp. 323-330)

    Following the approach cogently argued for by Dittmann, we see the later 2nd millennium BC at Hasanlu and Dinkha in a new light: MBW emerges no later than the mid-2nd millennium and is rooted in MBA traditions regardless of whether such traditions are viewed as indigenous to northwestern Iran or typical of northeastern Mesopotamia and the southern Caucasus. Previous scholars who have examined this phenomenon have cited changes in the MBW ceramic horizon, burial practices, and architecture in Ušnu-Solduz as the primary indicators of major cultural disjunction/migration in the mid-2nd millennium BC. at the present time I see little evidence...

  17. Appendix I. Archaeological Survey and Reconnaissance of Ušnu-Solduz
    (pp. 331-352)
  18. Appendix IIa–e. Radiocarbon Dates
    (pp. 353-366)
  19. Appendix III. Concordance of Section Numbers and Stratum Descriptions
    (pp. 367-396)
  20. Appendix IVa. Catalog of Hasanlu Burials of Periods VIb–IVc by Periods
    (pp. 397-406)
  21. Appendix IVb. Catalog of Hasanlu Low Mound Burials
    (pp. 407-414)
  22. Appendix V. Architectural Dimensions
    (pp. 415-416)
  23. Appendix VI. Catalog of Personal Ornaments, Cemetery, Outer Town, Hasanlu Periods VIb–IVc
    (pp. 417-420)
  24. Bibliography
    (pp. 421-436)
  25. Plates
    (pp. 437-483)