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Sexual Conflict:

Sexual Conflict:

Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 352
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  • Book Info
    Sexual Conflict:
    Book Description:

    The past decade has seen a profound change in the scientific understanding of reproduction. The traditional view of reproduction as a joint venture undertaken by two individuals, aimed at replicating their common genome, is being challenged by a growing body of evidence showing that the evolutionary interests of interacting males and females diverge. This book demonstrates that, despite a shared genome, conflicts between interacting males and females are ubiquitous, and that selection in the two sexes is continuously pulling this genome in opposite directions. These conflicts drive the evolution of a great variety of those traits that distinguish the sexes and also contribute to the diversification of lineages. Göran Arnqvist and Locke Rowe present an array of evidence for sexual conflict throughout nature, and they set these conflicts into the well-established theoretical framework of sexual selection.

    The recognition of conflict between the sexes is transforming our theories for the evolution of mating systems and the sexes themselves. Written by two top researchers in the field,Sexual Conflictis the first book to describe this transformation. It is a must read for all scholars and students interested in the evolutionary biology of reproduction.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5060-0
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Zoology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Göran Arnqvist and Locke Rowe
  4. 1 Sexual Conflict in Nature
    (pp. 1-13)

    During the mating season, male robber flies roam through the vegetation in search of females. When approached by a male, a female takes to the wing, and the male pursues. If overtaken and grappled by a male, females of most species struggle violently, often successfully, to free themselves. In a few species, however, females may use another strategy to achieve the same result; if grasped by a male, they play dead! Once a female stops moving, a male apparently no longer recognizes her as a potential partner, loses interest, and releases the female, who falls to the ground and flies...

  5. 2 Sexual Selection and Sexual Conflict: History, Theory, and Empirical Avenues
    (pp. 14-43)

    Since Darwin (1871), at least, the notion of conflict between the sexes has been present in discussions of sexual selection, sexual dimorphism, and the sex roles. However, it was a century after Darwin before sexual conflict, and its potential to shape the sexes and their interactions, was fully recognized. As mentioned earlier, we see two landmarks in this early period. The first was R. L. Trivers’ (1972) recognition that asymmetries between the sexes in parental investment, beginning with anisogamy, led to distinct roles for the sexes, and distinct evolutionary interests. Trivers’ fundamental insight offered a single explanation for widespread patterns...

  6. 3 Sexual Conflict Prior to Mating
    (pp. 44-91)

    In some species with sexual reproduction there is no direct interaction between individuals of each sex (e.g., some salamanders, most plants, and a variety of marine broadcast spawners). For these, the union of gametes does not require direct interactions between individual males and females. These species, though sexual, do not mate. More common and familiar to biologists are those species where direct interaction (mating) is required. Here mating may be the foremost and in many cases the only interaction between the two sexes. This temporary union has often been described as a harmonious affair, where males and females, after a...

  7. 4 Sexual Conflict after Mating
    (pp. 92-155)

    Darwin’s (1871) definition of sexual selection (“the advantage which certain individuals have over other individuals … in exclusive relation to reproduction”) was not limited to processes occurring prior to pairing, but his subsequent discussion was. The literature on sexual selection has ever since been preoccupied with male-male competition over mates on one hand and female mate choice on the other (Andersson 1994). It is only about 30 years since the concept of sexual selection was first expanded to include processes that generate variation in reproductive success among males after mating has taken place; namely, sperm competition (Parker 1970c, Birkhead and...

  8. 5 Parental Care and Sexual Conflict
    (pp. 156-178)

    In the two preceding chapters, we have argued that males and females often have conflicting interests over the initiation of mating, the interactions during mating, and the termination of mating. When either parent cares for eggs or offspring, with increased offspring fitness as a consequence, we refer to this behavior as parental care (see Clutton-Brock 1991). Parental care comes in many different forms, ranging from short-term protection from predators to the extended periods of nurturing and caring for altricial young observed in several vertebrate groups. At first glance, one might think that the relationship between male and female parents is...

  9. 6 Other Implications of Sexual Conflict
    (pp. 179-215)

    In chapters 3–5, we have discussed reproductive conflicts between the sexes based on whether they occur prior to, during, or after mating. However, there is also a range of topics that fall somewhat outside this classification scheme but are nevertheless highly relevant to this book. In this chapter, we will discuss some of the more important of these topics, and will also look a bit more closely at the potential role of sexual conflict in the evolution of reproductive isolation.

    In species in which there is strict and lifelong genetic monogamy, the total genetic contribution to the mutual offspring...

  10. 7 Concepts and Levels of Sexual Conflict
    (pp. 216-225)

    Like most quickly growing fields, the study of sexual conflict is rich in debate over concepts, assumptions, and interpretation, and much of the debate revolves around terminology. One striking feature of this field is the diversity of scholars that have become interested in questions relating to sexual conflict. Contributions have been made by evolutionary geneticists, game theoreticians, behavioral ecologists (students of sexual selection and mating systems), developmental biologists, evolutionary psychologists, molecular biologists, reproductive physiologists, and evolutionary biologists interested in speciation. Although the broad relevance of the field makes it a very interesting one, it has also led to problems because...

  11. 8 Concluding Remarks
    (pp. 226-228)

    The main aim of this book has been to build the case that we may need to revise the traditional view of coevolution between genes expressed in the two sexes and the consequences of this process for the differences we now see between the sexes. Reproduction in sexual species is rife with conflicts of interest between males and females. Most of this book has been a journey through the natural history of a selection of adaptations in both sexes that we believe have been shaped by such conflicts (chapters 3–6). Even though the combined weight of all these examples...

  12. References
    (pp. 229-304)
  13. Author Index
    (pp. 305-320)
  14. Subject Index
    (pp. 321-330)