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Treacherous Texts

Treacherous Texts: An Anthology of U.S. Suffrage Literature, 1846-1946

Mary Chapman
Angela Mills
Copyright Date: 2011
Published by: Rutgers University Press
Pages: 352
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hj5gz
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  • Book Info
    Treacherous Texts
    Book Description:

    Treacherous Textscollects more than sixty literary texts written by smart, savvy writers who experimented with genre, aesthetics, humor, and sex appeal in an effort to persuade American readers to support woman suffrage. Although the suffrage campaign is often associated in popular memory with oratory, this anthology affirms that suffragists recognized early on that literature could also exert a power to move readers to imagine new roles for women in the public sphere.Uncovering startling affinities between popular literature and propaganda,Treacherous Textssamples a rich, decades-long tradition of suffrage literature created by writers from diverse racial, class, and regional backgrounds. Beginning with sentimental fiction and polemic, progressing through modernist and middlebrow experiments, and concluding with post-ratification memoirs and tributes, this anthology showcases lost and neglected fiction, poetry, drama, literary journalism, and autobiography; it also samples innovative print cultural forms devised for the campaign, such as valentines, banners, and cartoons. Featured writers include canonical figures such as Stowe, Fern, Alcott, Gilman, Djuna Barnes, Marianne Moore, Millay, Sui Sin Far, and Gertrude Stein, as well as writers popular in their day but, until now, lost to ours.

    eISBN: 978-0-8135-5075-6
    Subjects: History, Language & Literature, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. CHRONOLOGY OF THE U.S. WOMAN SUFFRAGE CAMPAIGN
    (pp. xi-xv)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-7)

    The story of the achievement of woman suffrage in the United States is a story worth telling, perhaps most significantly because what began as private conversations among women (and men) grew into one of the largest propaganda campaigns in the world: a campaign that culminated in the effective doubling of the number of eligible voters in one of the largest democracies in the world. By some estimates, as many as twenty million U.S. women were enfranchised when the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in August 1920. Never before or since has an act of legislation enfranchised so many people. It is...

  6. PART I Declaring Sentiments, 1846–1891

    • INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 10-17)

      The story of American women’s efforts to obtain the vote begins in the colonial period when individual women requested suffrage. In 1647, Margaret Brent requested a “place and voyce” in the assembly of colonial Maryland when she was appointed the governor’s executor and heir.¹ More than a century later, Lydia Chapin Taft, a wealthy Massachusetts landowner’s widow, was permitted to vote at a town meeting as her husband’s proxy.² And, in 1776, Abigail Adams begged her husband John Adams, a member of the Continental Congress, to “Remember the Ladies” in the code of laws the Congress was drafting for the...

    • “PETITION FOR WOMAN’S RIGHTS” (1846)
      (pp. 18-19)

      To the Constitutional Convention of the State of New York:

      Your Memorialists, inhabitants of Jefferson county, believing that civil government has its foundation in the laws of our existence, as moral and social beings, that the specific object and end of civil government is to protect all in the exercise of all their natural rights, by combining the strength of society for the defense of the individual—believing that the province of civil government is not to create new rights, but to declare and enforce those which originally existed. Believing likewise that all governments must derive their just powers from...

    • “DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS” (1848)
      (pp. 20-23)
      ELIZABETH CADY STANTON and FREDERICK DOUGLASS

      When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.

      We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among...

    • SPEECH AT AKRON, OHIO, WOMAN’S RIGHTS CONVENTION (1851)
      (pp. 24-25)
      SOJOURNER TRUTH

      I want to say a few words about this matter. I am a woman’s rights. I have as much muscle as any man, and can do as much work as any man. I have plowed and reaped and husked and chopped and mowed, and can any man do more than that? I have heard much about the sexes being equal; I can carry as much as any man, and can eat as much too, if I can get it. I am as strong as any man that is now. As for intellect, all I can say is, if a woman...

    • CHRISTINE, OR, WOMAN’S TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS (1856)
      (pp. 26-40)
      LAURA J. CURTIS and BULLARD

      More than two years had passed, during which the name of Christine Elliot had become known far and wide. She had toiled on unshrinkingly, undaunted by the obstacles that she encountered, and they were not few, sustained through all discouragements by the high hopes which she cherished of accomplishing her darling object, of seeing her sex placed, in all respects, on an equality with her brother man.

      To this one aim she bent all her energies; on this one altar she sacrificed all personal considerations.

      It had not been without a struggle that she had realized that she must lay...

    • “INDEPENDENCE” (1859) “SHALL WOMEN VOTE?” (1860)
      (pp. 41-42)
      FANNY FERN and SARA WILLIS PARTON

      “Fourth of July.” Well—I don’t feel patriotic. Perhaps I might if they would stop that deafening racket. Washington was very well, if hecouldn’tspell, and I’m glad we are all free; but as a woman—I shouldn’t know it, didn’t some orator tell me. Can I go out of an evening without a hat at my side? Can I go out with one on my head without danger of a station-house? Can I clap my hands at some public speaker when I am nearly bursting with delight? Can I signify the contrary when my hair stands on end...

    • “WOMAN AND THE BALLOT” (1870)
      (pp. 43-46)
      FREDERICK DOUGLASS

      In the number preceding the present the natural right of woman to a voice in the Government under which she lives and to which she is assumed to owe allegiance, and for the support of which she is compelled like male citizens to pay taxes, was briefly discussed. It is proposed now to adduce some reasons resting on other facts why woman should be allowed to exercise her indisputable natural right to participate in government through the same channels and instrumentalities employed by men. That society has a right to employ for its preservation and success all the mental, moral,...

    • “AUNT CHLOE’S POLITICS” (1871) “JOHN AND JACOB—A DIALOGUE ON WOMAN’S RIGHTS” (1885)
      (pp. 47-50)
      FRANCES ELLEN WATKINS HARPER
    • MY WIFE AND I; OR, HARRY HENDERSON’S HISTORY (1871)
      (pp. 51-61)
      HARRIET BEECHER STOWE

      [A]s I was sitting in my room, busy writing, I heard a light footstep on the stairs, and a voice saying, “Oh yes! this is Mr. Henderson’s room—thank you,” and the next moment a jaunty, dashing young woman, with bold blue eyes, and curling brown hair, with a little wicked looking cap with nodding cock’s-feather set askew on her head, came marching up and seated herself at my writing-table. I gazed in blank amazement. The apparition burst out laughing, and seizing me frankly by the hand, said—

      “Look here, Hal! don’t you know me? Well, my dear fellow, if...

    • “CUPID AND CHOW-CHOW” (1872)
      (pp. 62-73)
      LOUISA MAY ALCOTT

      Mamma began it by calling her rosy, dimpled, year-old baby Cupid, and as he grew up the name became more and more appropriate, for the pretty boy loved every one, every one loved him, and he made those about him fond of one another, like a regular little god of love.

      Especially beautiful and attractive did he look as he pranced on the doorsteps one afternoon while awaiting the arrival of a little cousin. Our Cupid’s costume was modernized out of regard to the prejudices of society, and instead of wings, bandage, bow and arrow, he was gorgeous to behold...

    • “TROTTY’S LECTURE BUREAU” (1877)
      (pp. 74-76)
      ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS

      “Our peoples do,” said Trotty. That was reason sufficient to Trotty’s mind for doing anything; and whether “our peoples” were three times as big as Trotty and thirty times as wise, or not, was a matter of not the slightest consequence in this young gentleman’s view of things.

      “Our peoples have a lecture bureau,” urged Trotty. “I want the spare-’oom bureau, mamma, vat’s got a marble top. Nita said it better have a marble top, and Nate, he said he’d just as lieve play int’ the spare-’oom as out the tool-house. My lecture is wroten and ready,” argued Trotty, persuasively....

    • “HOW I WENT TO ’LECTION” (1877)
      (pp. 77-85)
      MARIETTA HOLLEY

      I was a makin’ Josiah some cotton flannel shirts, and I lacked enough for the gussets and one shoulder band. I had also run out of shirt buttons….

      Josiah looked up from theWorld, and says he:

      “I am goin’ to Jonesville to ’lection bime by, Samantha; you’d better ride down, and get the stuff for my shirts.” Says he, “The Town Hall, as you know, is bein’ fixed, and the pole is sot up right in the store. It will be handy, and you can go jest as well as not.”

      But I looked my companion in the face...

    • FETTERED FOR LIFE, OR, LORD AND MASTER (1874) “A DIVIDED REPUBLIC: AN ALLEGORY OF THE FUTURE” (1885)
      (pp. 86-99)
      LILLIE DEVEREUX BLAKE

      …When [Laura] reached the house the door was opened for her by Mr. Moulder, who was in an unusually amiable frame of mind, and looked quite beaming; attired in his very best clothes, and with his red face redder than usual, from the frequent potations of his New Year’s calls.

      “Ah, Miss Stanley,” he said, in a very impressive manner, “I am glad you have come; there is a visitor waiting for you.”

      “Indeed! who?”

      “Judge Swinton.” …

      Mr. Moulder got himself out of the room, after a hearty grip of his honor’s hand, and Laura was alone with this...

    • “ANOTHER CHAPTER OF ‘THE BOSTONIANS’” (1887)
      (pp. 100-107)
      HENRIETTA JAMES and CELIA B. WHITEHEAD

      Inasmuch as Mr. James left the hero and heroines of his remarkable story at the most interesting period of their existence it seemed good to me to take them up and write “Another Chapter,” which I commend even at this late day to the thoughtful perusal of all who read the earlier chapters of “The Bostonians.”

      Henrietta James.

      “I am going to be hissed, hooted and insulted,” were the last words Olive Chancellor said before she ascended the platform and faced the Boston audience which had gathered to listen to Verena Tarrant. She began by telling the people who still...

    • WYNEMA: A CHILD OF THE FOREST (1891)
      (pp. 108-111)
      SOPHIA ALICE CALLAHAN

      “Oh, how nice it is to be home again!” cried Genevieve, looking into every remembered nook and cranny about the place.“Nothing changed, but everything seems to nod a familiar ‘How d’ye do.’ I declare, I don’t feel a day older than when I ran up the attic stairs and crawled out of the window into the old elm tree, where Robin and I had our ‘Robinson Crusoe’s house,’ and I was the ‘man Friday.’ Do you remember the day you fell out, Robin, when the bear got after you and you climbed out on the bough, when it broke? It...

  7. PART II Searching for Sisterhood:: Two Case Studies of Transnational Feminism, 1907–1914

    • INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 114-118)

      The U.S. suffrage movement has been transnational from the beginning. Until recently, however, its history has been represented as a “profoundly, even foundationally, national story.”¹ By focusing on the progress of either the federal campaign for a constitutional amendment or the state referendum campaigns, some scholars have lost sight of the complex interactions between the many campaigns taking place around the world at the same time. Recent studies have begun to document how suffragists in the United States both inspired and were inspired by international campaigns.² Several of the earliest women’s rights speakers, for example, came from Europe: Frances Wright,...

    • Interactions between U.S. and British Campaigns

      • FROM VOTES FOR WOMEN (1907)
        (pp. 120-132)
        ELIZABETH ROBINS

        Scene:The north side of the Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square [London]. The Curtain rises on an uproar. The crowd … is composed chiefly of weedy youths and wastrel old men and ‘beery’ out-o’works. Against the middle of the Column, where it rises above the stone platform, is a great red banner … —“VOTES FOR WOMEN” in immense white letters…. [A] working-class woman … is waving her arms and talking very earnestly, her VOICE for the moment blurred in the uproar…. At her side is the Chairman… Behind these two, …, are several other carelessly dressed women….

        Working Woman: (voice...

      • “THE MARCH OF THE WOMEN” (1911)
        (pp. 133-134)
      • “THE DIARY OF A NEWSY” (1911)
        (pp. 135-137)
        JESSIE ANTHONY

        I have promised to sell “Votes for Women” Fridays and think will keep a little record of whatever seems interesting to me and am positive couldn’t find a better use for this little notebook that came in a steamer letter from Florence. M. Florence is anantisuffragist.

        “Votes for Women” is published by Mr. and Mrs. Pethick Lawrence, and part of the suffrage propaganda of the Women’s Social and Political Union, of which I became a member last evening. [The WSPU] is selling it on the streets wearing a huge placard announcing the leading editorial and this morning in...

      • JULIA FRANCE AND HER TIMES (1912)
        (pp. 138-147)
        GERTRUDE ATHERTON

        … After dinner, [Julia] started for the moor. She wanted a spray of white heather and to walk in the paths of the Brontës. The long crooked street of [the village of Haworth] was deserted, the good people lingering over their Sunday meal. But Julia felt little interest in them. As she reached the end of the street and looked out over the great purple expanse undulating away until it melted into the low pale sky brushed with white, she was wondering which of these narrow paths had been Charlotte’s and trying to conjure up the tragic figure of Emily,...

      • “HOW IT FEELS TO BE FORCIBLY FED” (1914)
        (pp. 148-151)
        DJUNA BARNES

        I have been forcibly fed!

        In just what relation to the other incidents in my life does this one stand? For me it was an experiment. It was only tragic in my imagination. But it offered sensations sufficiently poignant to compel comprehension of certain of the day’s phenomena.

        The hall they took me down was long and faintly lighted. I could hear the doctor walking ahead of me, stepping as all doctors step, with that little confiding gait that horses must have returning from funerals. It is not a sad or mournful step; perhaps it suggests suppressed satisfaction.

        Every now...

    • Interactions between U.S. and Chinese Campaigns

      • “THE INFERIOR WOMAN” (1910)
        (pp. 153-162)
        SUI SIN FAR and EDITH MAUDE EATON

        Mrs. Spring Fragrance walked through the park, admiring the flowers and listening to the birds singing. It was a beautiful afternoon, with the warmth from the sun cooled by a refreshing breeze. As she walked along, she meditated upon a book which she had some notion of writing. Many American women wrote books. Why should not a Chinese? She would write a book about Americans for her Chinese women friends. The American people were so interesting and mysterious….

        As she turned down a by-path, she saw Will Carman, her American neighbor’s son, coming towards her; and by his side a...

      • “THE OPPRESSION OF WOMEN” (1915) “IN ALL EARNESTNESS, I SPEAK TO ALL MY SISTERS” (1915)
        (pp. 163-164)
        ANONYMOUS
      • “CATCHING UP WITH CHINA” BANNER (1912)
        (pp. 165-166)
        NEW YORK SUFFRAGE PARTY
      • “HEATHEN CHINEE” CARTOON (1912)
        (pp. 167-167)
        ANONYMOUS
  8. PART III Making Woman New! 1897–1920

    • INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 170-176)

      In 1897, the future looked promising for the cause of woman suffrage. Almost everything demanded nearly fifty years earlier in the “Declaration of Sentiments”—a woman’s right to personal freedom, to education, to earn a living and claim her wages, to own property, to make contracts, to obtain divorce, and to retain custody of children—had been achieved in the intervening years. The sole exception was the enfranchisement of women, and, even on this radical claim, substantial progress had been made. The National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association had resolved their historic differences over the enfranchisement...

    • “WOMEN DO NOT WANT IT” (1897) “THE ANTI-SUFFRAGISTS” (1898) “THE SOCIALIST AND THE SUFFRAGIST” (1911)
      (pp. 177-181)
      CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN
    • “THE AUSTRALIAN BALLOT SYSTEM” (1898)
      (pp. 182-185)
      MABEL CLARE ERVIN

      … [The Brunette and I] have met someone who looks exactly like me, and clothes have nothing to do with it, for he is a boy.

      He came to live at our lodgings, and the first time we met was at the dinner-table. He was given a seat beside me, and as I took my chair a murmur of pleased surprise went up from the Brunette. She looked in his face and in mine and then remarked:

      “You have no idea how much you and Mr. Hart look alike, Madge.”

      I smiled in a dreary way and tried to look...

    • PORTIA POLITICS (1911–1912)
      (pp. 186-189)
      EDITH BAILEY
    • “Disfranchisement” from Mother Goose as a Suffragette (1912) “Taffy” from Mother Goose as a Suffragette (1912)
      (pp. 190-192)
      NEW YORK WOMAN SUFFRAGE PARTY
    • “WOMEN MARCH” (1912)
      (pp. 193-199)
      MARY ALDEN HOPKINS

      On Saturday afternoon, May 4, in New York City, ten thousand women and men swung up Fifth Avenue from Washington Square toward Carnegie Hall in a spring time of hyacinthine bloom. Have you ever seen a crocus bed five women wide and two hours long? Flags and pennants and banners streamed over their heads like irises, jonquils, tulips, and the green of lily leaves—all in yellow sunshine. The liliacious color swayed to familiar music. Footsteps fell like the meter of old ballads—“Will ye tell me, Shaun O’Farrell, Where the meeting is to be?

      The procession formed in Washington...

    • “THE ARREST OF SUFFRAGE” (1912)
      (pp. 200-205)
      ETHEL WHITEHEAD

      (As curtain rises Adelaide enters. She is quietly but tastefully dressed, wears a large yellow rosette, “votes for women” pin, and carries a bundle of Woman’s Journals and Progressive Woman. She crosses to center as if to pass out, pauses, and looks at benches.)

      Adelaide: I might just as well get rid of these; there is no one about. (She puts a paper on each bench.) There! Oh, how warm it is!(Sits on bench L at back.)

      (Enter Molly at L. She is shabbily dressed, though neat and tidy, and carries a large bundle of dirty clothes. She crosses...

    • “BROTHER BAPTIS’ ON WOMAN SUFFRAGE” (1912)
      (pp. 206-206)
      ROSALIE JONAS
    • “MIRANDY ON ‘WHY WOMEN CAN’T VOTE’” (1912)
      (pp. 207-210)
      DOROTHY DIX and ELIZABETH MERIWETHER GILMER

      “De reason dat women ain’t got no say so in de government,” said Mirandy, “is becaze you has got to wuk dish heah votin’ machine wid yo’ spine, an’ women ain’t got no mo’ spine dan a fishin’ worm. The trouble wid women is dat dey ain’t got no backbone, an’ dey ain’t to blame for dat becaze hit’s a long of de way dat dey was made. Now last night Brer Jenkins preached in our chu’ch ‘bout dat man down in Egypt, or some odder foreign city, what is a diggin’ around in de place whar de Gyarden of...

    • HAGAR (1913)
      (pp. 211-219)
      MARY JOHNSTON

      A pool of June sunlight lay on the library floor…. The room was by no means book-lined, but there were four tall mahogany cases, one against each wall, well filled for the most part with mellow calf. Flanking each case hung Ashendyne portraits, in oval, very old gilt frames. Beneath three of these were fixed silhouettes of Revolutionary Ashendynes; beneath the others, war photographs,cartes de visite, a dozen in one frame. There was a mahogany escritoire and mahogany chairs and a mahogany table, and, before the fireplace, a fire-screen done in cross-stitch by a colonial Ashendyne….

      In the parlour,...

    • “THE PARADE: A SUFFRAGE PLAYLET IN ONE ACT AND AN AFTER-ACT” (1913)
      (pp. 220-224)
      MRS. ALLAN DAWSON and NELL PERKINS DAWSON

      (As the curtain rises Mother is seen sitting by table examining dress samples. Mary stands by her, also looking at samples. Kitty sprawls on the couch, looking at a fashion magazine….)

      Mother: I’m sure I don’t see how you are going to march even a few blocks in the suffrage parade if we are to be ready for [the seamstress] Miss McCarty to-morrow. The last thing she said last night was, “Now do have everything in the house, and I’ll get along so much faster.” You know how it is when one of us has to stop every five minutes...

    • “The Woman with Empty Hands: The Evolution of a Suffragette” (1913)
      (pp. 225-230)
      ANONYMOUS and MARION HAMILTON CARTER

      “How did you—you of all women—ever become a Suffragette?”

      The words, in tones of sad indignation, were flung into my face at a street corner by a friend I had not seen for years, and his reproaching eyes and the entire pose of his lank body said what his tongue was too polite to utter—that he was cruelly disappointed in me; that I had fallen in his esteem and carried down with me many of his cherished ideals.

      He was a Southern gentleman of the old school, chivalrous and elderly, and I, once a respected and admired...

    • “HOW IT FEELS TO BE THE HUSBAND OF A SUFFRAGETTE” (1914)
      (pp. 231-234)
      ANONYMOUS

      You are the party aimed at. You who stood on the sidewalk and urged passionately that we who marched go home and wash the dishes or mind the baby. Nobody answered you then. To be frank, you didn’t say much that sounded worth considering; besides, it’s not good form for a procession to indulge in acrimony. But don’t you think for a moment that the forlorn little corporal’s guard marching at the tail end of the first suffrage parade down Fifth Avenue didn’t feel acutely every hostile taunt. It takes a good deal better man than I’ve met yet to...

    • “OUR OWN TWELVE ANTI-SUFFRAGIST REASONS” (1914) “REPRESENTATION” (1914) “THE REVOLT OF MOTHER” (1915) “A CONSISTENT ANTI TO HER SON” (1915)
      (pp. 235-238)
      ALICE DUER MILLER

      1. Because no woman will leave her domestic duties to vote.

      2. Because no woman who may vote will attend to her domestic duties.

      3. Because it will make dissension between husband and wife.

      4. Because every woman will vote as her husband tells her to.

      5. Because bad women will corrupt politics.

      6. Because bad politics will corrupt women.

      7. Because women have no power of organization.

      8. Because women will form a solid party and outvote men.

      9. Because men and women are so different that they must stick to different duties.

      10. Because men and women are so much alike that men, with one vote each, can...

    • “A PLEA FOR SUFFRAGE” (1915)
      (pp. 239-240)
      M. M. and MARIANNE MOORE

      To the Editor of the Sentinel, Sir:—

      The following has appeared as a suffrage argument in some papers, and I should like to see it in The Sentinel:

      “Among unthinking citizens, the antisuffrage slogan, “Woman’s place is in the home,” is regarded as a clinching reason for not giving her the vote. When one stops to analyze that catch phrase, however, the fact which it sets forth—that woman’s place is in the home—makes it one of the strongest possible reasons for giving her a voice in the government. For during the past fifty years the home interests have...

    • “THE PRESIDENT’S VALENTINE” (1916)
      (pp. 241-242)
      NINA E. ALLENDER
    • FANNY HERSELF (1917)
      (pp. 243-253)
      EDNA FERBER

      The first week in June found [Fanny] back in New York. That month of absence had worked a subtle change. The two weeks spent in crossing and recrossing had provided her with a let-down that had been almost jarring in its completeness. Everything competitive had seemed to fade away with the receding shore, and to loom up again only when the skyline became a thing of smoke-banks, spires, and shafts. She had had only two weeks for the actual transaction of her business. She must have been something of a revelation to those Paris and Berlin manufacturers, accustomed though they...

    • The Sturdy Oak, chapter 7 (1917)
      (pp. 254-262)
      ANNE O’HAGAN

      Mr. Benjamin Doolittle, … the manager of Mr. George Remington’s campaign, sat in his candidate’s private office, and from time to time restrained himself from hasty speech by the diplomatic and dexterous use of a quid of tobacco.

      He found it difficult to preserve his philosophy in the face of George Remington’s agitations over the woman’s suffrage issue.

      “It’s the last time,” he had frequently informed his political cronies since the opening of the campaign, “that I’ll wet-nurse a new-fledged candidate. They’ve got at least to have their milk teeth through if they want Benjamin Doolittle after this.”

      To George,...

    • FOR RENT—ONE PEDESTAL (1917)
      (pp. 263-269)
      MARJORIE SHULER

      Barbara, My Dear:

      Behold me, Delight Dennison of Verner College and nowhere, with a manner befitting the ladies of Cranford. Fortified with a pair of tortoise-shell rimmed spectacles. They make me look heaps older. Swathed in a linen waist with choking collar. “Young ladies, young ladies,” shrills the principal of this school, “teachers should never wear low collars in the school room.” Perish the thought that once I broke a record at hurdle jumping.

      For ten days I have patiently wiped the nose of Little Italy. I have extracted yards of raffia from the blouse of thieving Young Poland. One...

    • “President Wilson says ‘Godspeed to the Cause’” Cartoon (1917) “Come to Mother” Cartoon (1917)
      (pp. 270-272)
      NINA E. ALLENDER
    • “PRESIDENT WILSON’S WAR MESSAGE” BANNER (1917)
      (pp. 273-274)
      ANONYMOUS and NATIONAL WOMAN’S PARTY MEMBERS
    • “TELLING THE TRUTH AT THE WHITE HOUSE” (1917)
      (pp. 275-279)
      MARIE JENNEY HOWE and PAULA JAKOBI

      Officer:(raps his club authoritatively) Silence! Silence in the name of the law!

      (Enter thirteen prisoners bearing suffrage banners, two other white women and two colored women….)

      First Colored Woman: Say, they’s a lot o’ white folks heah today! What they in foh? They been drinkin’?

      Second Colored Woman: No, you nigger! They don’t drink.

      First C.W.: (intently) They been anykine disorderly?—fightin’ maybe?

      Second C.W.: Not that I knows of—Say, I ain’t God Almighty!

      First C.W.:(edges over to white prisoner seated next to her on the bench; she has been looking very thoughtful) Doan’ mine, Honey! doan’...

    • “WE WORRIED WOODY WOOD” (1917)
      (pp. 280-281)
      ANONYMOUS and JAILED MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL WOMAN’S PARTY
    • “PRISON NOTES, SMUGGLED TO FRIENDS FROM THE DISTRICT JAIL” (1917)
      (pp. 282-283)
      ROSE WINSLOW and RUZA WENCLAWSKA

      If this thing is necessary we will naturally go through with it. Force is so stupid a weapon. I feel so happy doing my bit for decency—for our war, which is, after all, real and fundamental.

      The women are all so magnificent, so beautiful. Alice Paul is as thin as ever, pale and large-eyed. We have been in solitary for nine weeks. There is nothing to tell but that the days go by somehow. I have felt quite feeble the last few days—faint, so that I could hardly get my hair combed, my arms ached so. But today...

    • “SWITCHBOARD SUFFRAGE” (1920)
      (pp. 284-288)
      OREOLA WILLIAMS HASKELL

      Come right in, Annie Lee. How’d you dodge your job so early in the day? Haven’t any at present, so thought you’d drop in and haul me out to lunch? Lunch, hey? In the midst of a suff campaign; worse than in the midst, along toward the tail end? Lunch? Sounds pretty if strange. Hello. Yes. Woman Suffrage Party. Miss Hale? Just a minute. Say, Eva, see whether Miss Hale’s in or out. She’s in, but I think she’s out to this peach, you know it’s the crank who’s got an A1, rubber-tired plan to clinch the politicians and ballywhack...

  9. PART IV Carrying the Suffrage Torch, 1920–1946

    • INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 290-293)

      When the state of Tennessee ratified the Nineteenth Amendment by the narrowest of margins on August 18, 1920, the decades-long struggle for woman suffrage seemed over, history made. As many as twenty-six million U.S. women were eligible to vote. Assessing the scope of the suffrage movement’s accomplishment, constitutional historian Akhil Reed Amar affirms, “[i]n terms of sheer numbers, the Woman Suffrage Amendment represented the single biggest democratizing event in American history. Even the extraordinary feats of the Founding and Reconstruction had brought about the electoral empowerment or enfranchisement of people numbering in the hundreds of thousands, not millions.”¹

      Predictably, the...

    • JAILED FOR FREEDOM (1920)
      (pp. 294-297)
      DORIS STEVENS

      Of the hundreds of women who volunteered for the last Western campaign, perhaps the most effective in their appeal were the disfranchised Eastern women.

      The most dramatic figure of them all was Inez Milholland Boissevain, the gallant and beloved crusader who gave her life that the day of women’s freedom might be hastened. Her last words to the nation as she fell fainting on the platform in California were, “Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?” … She never recovered from the terrific strain of the campaign which had undermined her young strength. Her death touched the heart...

    • “UPON THIS MARBLE BUST THAT IS NOT I” (1923)
      (pp. 298-299)
      EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY

      To Inez Milholland

      Read in Washington, November eighteenth, 1923, at the unveiling of a statue of three leaders in the cause of Equal Rights for Women

      Upon this marble bust that is not I

      Lay the round, formal wreath that is not fame;

      But in the forum of my silenced cry

      Root ye the living tree whose sap is flame.

      I, that was proud and valiant, am no more;—

      Save as a dream that wanders wide and late,

      Save as a wind that rattles the stout door,

      Troubling the ashes in the sheltered grate.

      The stone will perish; I shall...

    • “THE SUFFRAGE TORCH: MEMORIES OF A MILITANT” (1929)
      (pp. 300-305)
      LOUISINE W. HAVEMEYER

      I was visiting on Long Island about a week later when one morning what was my surprise to see suffrage leader Mrs. [Harriot Stanton] Blatch’s secretary come to my hostess’ door, and have her thrust into my hand a piece of wood that looked to me something like a torch. Well, itwasthe celebrated Liberty Torch, as great a piece of campaign publicity work as Mrs. Blatch ever did.

      “Here, take it,” said the secretary out of breath. “It has been at Montauk, the eastern coast, and you are to take it to the western limit of New York...

    • THE MOTHER OF US ALL (1946)
      (pp. 306-310)
      GERTRUDE STEIN

      Susan B. Anthony busy with her housework

      Anne: (Comes in) Oh it was wonderful, wonderful, they listen to nobody the way they listen to you.

      Susan B.: Yes it is wonderful as the result of my work for the first time the word male has been written into the constitution of the United States concerning suffrage. Yes it is wonderful.

      Anne: But

      Susan B.: Yes but, what is man, what are men, what are they. I do not say that they haven’t kind hearts, if I fall down in a faint, they will rush to pick me up, if my...

  10. NOTES
    (pp. 311-320)
  11. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF U.S. SUFFRAGE LITERATURE
    (pp. 321-324)
  12. INDEX
    (pp. 325-334)
  13. Back Matter
    (pp. 335-335)