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Understanding the Arts and Creative Sector in the United States

Understanding the Arts and Creative Sector in the United States: Understanding the Arts and Creative Sector in the United States, Revised Edition

Joni Maya Cherbo
Ruth Ann Stewart
Margaret Jane Wyszomirski
Copyright Date: 2008
Edition: REV - Revised
Published by: Rutgers University Press
Pages: 224
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  • Book Info
    Understanding the Arts and Creative Sector in the United States
    Book Description:

    The arts and creative sector is one of the nation's broadest, most important, and least understood social and economic assets, encompassing both nonprofit arts and cultural organizations, for-profit creative companies, such as advertising agencies, film producers, and commercial publishers, and community-based artistic activities. The thirteen essays in this timely book demonstrate why interest in the arts and creative sector has accelerated in recent years, and the myriad ways that the arts are crucial to the social and national agenda and the critical issues and policies that relate to their practice. Leading experts in the field show, for example, how arts and cultural policies are used to enhance urban revitalization, to encourage civic engagement, to foster new forms of historic preservation, to define national identity, to advance economic development, and to regulate international trade in cultural goods and services.Illuminating key issues and reflecting the rapid growth of the field of arts and cultural policy, this book will be of interest to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, to arts educators and management professionals, government agency and foundation officials, and researchers and academics in the cultural policy field.

    eISBN: 978-0-8135-4505-9
    Subjects: Art & Art History, Business

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)
    Joni Maya Cherbo

    Can You Imagine contemporary life without art? Look around: almost everyone is doing something that could be considered artistic! Kids are drawing, presenting plays in school, taking band or ballet after school, and playing video games galore. Teenagers are listening to popular music, downloading and sharing tunes on iPods, and going to rock, rap, and country music concerts. People of all ages are attending opera, dance, theater, and symphony performances as well as art fairs and gallery openings. Most Americans are avid moviegoers, renting films for home use, watching them on television and, increasingly, on computers. When Americans travel, they...

  5. Part I Defining the Arts and creative Sector

    • Chapter 1 Toward an Arts and Creative Sector
      (pp. 9-27)
      Joni Maya Cherbo, Harold L. Vogel and Margaret Jane Wyszomirski

      The American Economy is becoming a knowledge-based one in which new technologies are connecting individuals and firms in ways that have never before been feasible. It feeds an ever-growing appetite for entertainment, media, and related content that requires the participation of artists and commercial and nonprofit arts organizations. Increasingly, technology is contributing to our potential prosperity as well as to the richness of our civic, social, and personal lives.

      We hear reference to the creative economy, creative cities, creative industries, concepts that reflect a common belief in the importance of innovation as an essential engine of economic and social development...

    • Chapter 2 Interrelations in the Arts and Creative Sector
      (pp. 28-38)
      Chris N. Burgess and David B. Pankratz

      This Chapter Examines the arts and creative sector’s highly interactive composition. Artists, arts organizations, and arts-related industries frequently interact, and in a variety of ways. They work together in creative clusters and have enough in common to be considered parts of a single sector of society—the creative sector.

      A dancer in a leading nonprofit, contemporary dance ensemble in New York City might well ask what he or she has in common with a dancer in a Las Vegas review. Yet both might have experienced similar initial training and must cope with issues related to job opportunities, career prospects, retirement...

    • Chapter 3 Field Building: The Road to Cultural Policy Studies in the United States
      (pp. 39-58)
      Margaret Jane Wyszomirski

      Various Streams of Scholarship have contributed to the construction of cultural policy studies in the United States. Understanding these intellectual roots is important to students and young scholars entering the field. It is a history and evolution that many authors in this volume lived through and helped shape within the academic community as interests in artistic practice and management, policy and planning, and disciplinary and interdisciplinary research came together. Indeed, one can think of these interest areas as the three pillars of the cultural policy community. Each pillar has influenced and interacted with the other pillars. In large part, cultural...

  6. Part II Field Issues

    • Chapter 4 The Universality of the Arts in Human Life
      (pp. 61-74)
      Ellen Dissanayake

      One of the most striking features of human societies, from the Palaeolithic to the present, is their prodigious involvement with the arts. In fact, most of what we know of past societies is revealed by their plastic or visual arts—cave wall paintings and engravings, pyramids and other tombs, temples, palaces, cathedrals, Buddhist stupas, ceramics, carvings, and stone sculptures both monumental and small. Although dance, music, dramatic stories, and body decoration seldom leave traces, we can assume that they too were widely practiced from early times. Like visual arts, they are prominent today in every society of the world so...

    • Chapter 5 About Artists
      (pp. 75-91)
      Joni Maya Cherbo

      Artists are as Integral to human life as water is to fish, although their accord, stature, training, expressive outlets, techniques, and tools will vary over time and place. The arts have held a special place in human life from the beginning of recorded history. The capacity to dance, sing, paint, dramatize, and write is part of our species’ capacities. In every society a select number of individuals will be chosen or will self-select to elevate these artistic capabilities into livelihoods. They become professional artists—individuals who create meaning, beauty, utility in their respective worlds, and who—on occasion—create some...

    • Chapter 6 Art and Cultural Participation at the Heart of Community Life
      (pp. 92-104)
      Maria Rosario Jackson

      A Community’s Art—its creative and cultural expression in the form of music, dance, theater, visual arts, and crafts—embodies its essence and is crucial to its well-being. Through making art—amateur and professional, formal and informal¹—communities preserve, invent, and assert their identities; transmit heritage; and comment on their existence. Art and cultural participation contribute to community conditions in education, economic development, civic engagement, and to stewardship of place (Jackson et al. 2003; Jackson and Herranz 2002).

      Based on years of research, we know that murals, altars, choirs, music bands, ethnic dance troupes, embroidery and quilting groups, drumming circles,...

    • Chapter 7 The Arts and Artist in Urban Revitalization
      (pp. 105-128)
      Ruth Ann Stewart

      The Arts Have Helped to define and shape urban life in significant ways throughout America’s history. This chapter explores the vital role played by the arts and cultural sector in the rise and fall and, in the last two decades, rise again of the great American city.

      City culture was of little consequence during the colonial period and drew its artistic inspiration almost entirely from European modes. With the establishment of the American Republic, cities quickly became a destination for creative, newly minted Americans seeking opportunity, inspiration, and community with like-minded individuals. Historian Neil Harris observes that the very urbanism...

    • Chapter 8 The Evolution of Arts and Cultural Districts
      (pp. 129-142)
      Ann M. Galligan

      Arts and Cultural Districts¹ have gained recognition as important policy tools for municipalities with respect to community planning and redevelopment. As a strategy for revitalizing urban landscapes, as well as reinvigorating local economies, cultural districts serve as important catalysts in developing vibrant and regenerated areas that transform often blighted or underused urban spaces (and a growing number of suburban ones) by attracting tourists and visitors, generating revenues, and acting as magnets for both for profit and non profit organizations, including theaters, galleries, convention centers, hotels, restaurants, and retail shops. In the last three decades many cities and towns have expanded...

    • Chapter 9 Capital, Commerce, and the Creative Industries
      (pp. 143-154)
      Harold L. Vogel

      Artists Create Objects, emotional reactions, expressions, and thoughts through books, paintings, recordings, music, films, performances, and programs. To do any of this at a professional level requires not only inborn talent but also skills and techniques honed and acquired by dedicated years of learning and practice. However, money and capital and commerce—subjects that are typically seen, especially by young artists, as being from a foreign and alien world—will affect decisions at all stages of an artist’s life through the economic tradeoffs that will inevitably, though often reluctantly, have to be made.

      This chapter will describe both the economic...

    • Chapter 10 Internet as Medium: Art, Law, and the Digital Environment
      (pp. 155-170)
      Phu Nguyen

      The Exploration of Alternative Media for creative expression has been one of the major artistic endeavors of the last century. From Kurt Schwitters’s cavernous apartment Merzbaus to Donald Judd’s manufactured industrial constructions to Nam June Paik’s vision of art through a television screen, artists have been expanding the definition of art and the context within which it can reside.

      The twenty-first century offers a new way to universalize art and to develop alternative forms of creative expression. Along with altering the state of international commerce and information exchange, the Internet offers not only another space for the presentation and distribution...

    • Chapter 11 Historic Preservation in the United States
      (pp. 171-176)
      Antoinette J. Lee

      Prior to Passage of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, American preservationists traveled to the United Kingdom and European countries to learn about protecting historic buildings and sites. Unlike the United States, these countries appeared to be well equipped with legislation, funding, and professional training that supported preservation. Americans marveled at the ability of foreign countries to protect their countryside, preserve their historic town centers, and invest in major restoration efforts.¹ They too wanted an effective national historic preservation program that would counter the effects of sprawl, urban renewal, and construction of highways and other public works projects that...

    • Chapter 12 Between Cooperation and Conflict: International Trade in Cultural Goods and Services
      (pp. 177-196)
      J. P. Singh

      The Famous French Historian Ferdinand Braudel perhaps optimistically overestimated the effects of intercultural exchange by noting the following: “No civilization can survive without mobility: all are enriched by trade and the stimulating impact of strangers” (Braudel 1963/1993, 10). In terms of trade, as this chapter will show, such exchanges feature both stimulation and conflicts. These exchanges are especially the case with the continually rising trade in cultural goods and services, collectively referred to as cultural products here. Cultural goods usually refer to tangible commodities such as films, audio-recordings, books, periodicals, and art objects. Cultural services include such intangibles as tourism,...

    • Chapter 13 Identity and Cultural Policy
      (pp. 197-212)
      Kevin V. Mulcahy

      Any Discussion of Cultural Policy must take into account the importance of public culture and tradition “in giving a sense of uniqueness and meaning to the individual political cultures” (Pye and Verba 1965, 19). Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of a nation’s development involves not only its political institutions and cultural well-being, but its cultural identity as well. The distinguishing characteristic of cultural policy in countries characterized by a legacy of coloniality is the importance of questions of identity and the politics that are involved in formulating its definition. “As with politics in general, cultural politics involves the expression of the...

  7. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 213-214)