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Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11

Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11: Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective

Copyright Date: 2010
Published by: Rutgers University Press
Pages: 318
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  • Book Info
    Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11
    Book Description:

    America's approach to terrorism has focused on traditional national security methods, under the assumption that terrorism's roots are foreign and the solution to greater security lies in conventional practices. Europe offers a different model, with its response to internal terrorism relying on police procedures.Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11compares these two strategies and considers that both may have engendered greater radicalization--and a greater chance of home-grown terrorism. Essays address how transatlantic countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands have integrated ethnic minorities, especially Arabs and Muslims, since 9/11. Discussing the "securitization of integration," contributors argue that the neglect of civil integration has challenged the rights of these minorities and has made greater security more remote.

    eISBN: 978-0-8135-4942-2
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. xi-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia and Simon Reich
  6. 1 Quandaries of Integration in America and Europe: An Introduction
    (pp. 1-19)

    On June 24, 2008, Levar Haney Washington—a Los Angeles Islamic convert who planned to finance terrorist activities through armed robberies—was sentenced to twenty-two years in federal prison. He was convicted on terrorism conspiracy charges. At his sentencing hearing, he told a federal judge he belonged to a prison-based Islamic terrorist cell. Documents found at the scene of their arrest included plans to attack the Los Angeles International Airport, the Israeli consulate, army recruiting centers, and local synagogues.¹ Washington claimed that he and three other defendants were members of Jam’iyyat Ul-Islam Is-Saheeh, a militant Islamic organization formed in California...

  7. 2 Security and/or Participation: On the Need to Reconcile Differing Conceptions of Migrant Integration
    (pp. 20-39)

    Managing diversity poses a multifaceted challenge on both sides of the Atlantic today. The process of integrating migrants has set off fierce arguments over identity, social order, and crime. While their specific foci and contours may differ, these debates have been joined in Europe and in the United States with increasing intensity. Implicated are public policies in a wide range of areas, encompassing “national security policies concerning border controls; integration policies regarding assimilation and reciprocal acceptance of cultural rights; urban policies relating to housing and unemployment; and internal security policies linking the safety of societies with the equitable application of...

  8. 3 Security and the Integration of Immigrants in Europe and the United States
    (pp. 40-58)

    Is the integration of migrant populations in receiving countries a national security issue? For scholars of international migration, the integration and assimilation of immigrants have long been central issues of concern, particularly in the discipline of sociology as well as in anthropology, law, and history.¹ For these scholars, the social, economic, and political integration of immigrants represents a kind of social “high politics,” for these issues can strongly affect the magnitude and type of future migration flows, the domestic economy of the host country, and the sociopolitical stability in the receiving society. For international relations (IR) scholars focused on the...

  9. 4 Security and Antiterror Policies in America and Europe
    (pp. 59-78)

    Since the atrocities of September 11, 2001, the U.S. government and many private institutions have responded by closely watching immigrant communities from predominantly Muslim countries and “securitizing” virtually all relationships to those communities, especially immigration. This set of policies and practices, which have remained fairly consistent over the years since the attacks, sees immigrants in particular as security threats. The immigrant communities in return have been affected by these policies and practices. While neither pervasive nor inevitable, two consequences are notable: first, that the integration of these and other immigrants is retarded, possibly rolled back, in America; and second, that...

  10. 5 Integration, Security, and Faith Identity in Social Policy in Britain
    (pp. 79-97)

    While demands for equal treatment—rooted in the humiliation of discrimination and of lives scarred by social, economic, and cultural marginalization—have motivated the political mobilization of marginalized groups in the public sphere, British social policy—focused on tackling racial and ethnic discrimination—has until recently ignored the impact of religious discrimination and failed to recognize the increasing importance of religion to the identity of Muslim communities, particularly for second- and third-generation children of immigrants. The reluctance of social policy in Britain to engage with the religious identity of Muslims blunted the effectiveness of earlier policies addressing discrimination, disadvantage, and...

  11. 6 The Clash of Perceptions: Comparison of Views among Muslims in Paris, London, and Berlin with Those among the General Public
    (pp. 98-113)

    Although Muslims have been living in some areas of western Europe in relatively large numbers since the second half of the twentieth century, their presence generated political debate only when it became associated with a possible threat after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Many alarmists considered Europe’s Muslim communities guilty by association, and anti-immigration parties wrote about European Muslims’ perceived lack of loyalty to their Western host countries.

    Negative stereotypes of Muslims, however, are not restricted to pundits on the extreme right, but are fairly widespread in European countries. Perceptions that Islam represents a violent culture intent on...

  12. 7 How to Make Enemies: A Transatlantic Perspective on the Radicalization Process and Integration Issues
    (pp. 114-136)

    There is a broad assumption on both sides of the Atlantic that the people who pose the highest threat to homeland security are immigrants and their children (irrespective of their legal status), and, more precisely, Muslim foreigners and Muslim nationals. The category of foreign-born inhabitants groups together legal and illegal foreign Muslims, perceived as alien to their host countries and thus suspected of being potentially radicalized and unwilling to integrate. The category of domestically born citizens is obviously the most troubling in terms of internal security, as illustrated by the profiles of those who committed the Madrid and London bombings...

  13. 8 Security and Immigrant Integration Policy in France and the United States: Evaluating Convergence and Success
    (pp. 137-164)

    Incorporation of immigrant populations has been the subject of widespread debate in recent years. Scholars have frequently compared various “models” of incorporation as if most countries have well thought out policies based on either national traditions or reasoned strategies for “making” foreigners into Frenchmen or Americans, for example. The two countries that are the subjects of this chapter appear to be committed to very different ways of integrating immigrant populations that vary by the use of state institutions, the kinds of policies pursued (indeed, whether or not they actually have explicit policies of integration), and the assumptions behind these policies....

  14. 9 Toward a European Policy of Integration? Divergence and Convergence of Immigrant Integration Policy in Britain and France
    (pp. 165-177)

    The current decade has been a momentous one for debates on immigration, diversity, and national identity in European countries.¹ In a context of renewed defiance against immigrants after 9 /11, in particular Muslims, hostility toward outsiders was brought to new levels across the continent. Some notable examples of this include heated debates on Islam in the Netherlands, the creation of a Ministry of Immigration and National Identity in France, and new levels of xenophobia against Romanian immigrants in Italy. At the same time, ethnocultural diversity stemming from decades-old migration waves was becoming an ever deeper and entrenched phenomenon in all...

  15. 10 Typologizing Discriminatory Practices: Law Enforcement and Minorities in France, Italy, and the United States
    (pp. 178-191)

    Barack Obama’s election as president of the United States has generated a lively debate on the integration of minorities in Western countries. France is struggling with its “universalistic republican” model, which suppresses minority claims in the name of national unity. The bipartisan support for the veil ban illustrates the French reluctance to embrace diversity. Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi’s dubious joke on Obama’s “tan” has highlighted the prevalence of overt racism in contemporary Italy. Meanwhile, violence against immigrants and police brutality have become widespread in this new immigration country. Yet Obama’s election has not resolved the American racial fracture: African...

  16. 11 The Security Implications in the Demand for Health Care Workers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands
    (pp. 192-211)

    On June 30, 2007, a dark green Cherokee jeep in flames drove at high speed into the glass entrance of Glasgow International Airport.¹ Security guards prevented the two attackers from entering the terminal and immediately apprehended them. Five people were injured, but, fortunately, no one was seriously hurt. Eventually, eight people were arrested in connection with this terrorist attempt. The two main attackers were also charged with planting two car bombs in a London parking lot thirty-six hours earlier. The police defused these bombs and foiled that terrorist attempt.

    The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) reported that of the eight people...

  17. 12 Asylees and Refugees: A Comparative Examination of Problems of Integration
    (pp. 212-232)

    The effects of 9 /11 were felt both in the United States and in Europe. Subsequent acts of terror in London and Spain added impetus to the need for security on both continents. This chapter examines the effects after 9 /11 of the growing primacy of security concerns on policy toward refugees and asylum seekers, and their integration into the societies that give them refuge. It focuses on the connections among security, government policies, and the integration of refugees on both sides of the Atlantic, although its primary emphasis is the United States.

    As is made clear elsewhere in this...

  18. 13 Culturalization of Citizenship in the Netherlands
    (pp. 233-252)

    Western European countries are heatedly debating how much and what kind of cultural differentiation is to be allowed in the public domain. Many have witnessed the rise of right-wing populist parties that see migrants as a threat to social cohesion and national identity.¹ The “culture” debate rages on a wide scale.² Much of this debate has a nostalgic character, based on a reifying, ahistorical notion of culture. Culture is portrayed as a closed, timeless, and conflict-free whole, carried by citizens who all basically share the same beliefs, norms, and traditions. On the basis of this closed conception of culture, the...

  19. 14 Comparative Integration Contexts and Mexican Immigrant-Group Incorporation in the United States
    (pp. 253-275)

    Since 9 /11, national security issues have become decidedly more prominent on the public policy agendas of most postindustrial countries. With several of the hijackers involved in 9 /11’s catastrophic events having entered the United States on nonimmigrant visas,¹ the political and practical salience of entry policies of all types has risen dramatically in public consciousness.² Longtime restrictionists have seized on the perceived need for security as a new and potent framework for promoting policy. Particularly among U.S. natives with reasons to feel insecure about their economic futures, controlling the border often seems to have become a symbol of guarding...

  20. 15 Conclusion: Lessons Learned and Their Policy Implications
    (pp. 276-284)

    The studies presented in the preceding chapters are the product of several years of work, three major meetings, and a series of collaborative initiatives linking American to European experts. The contributors to this volume highlight various crucial aspects of the continuities in integration policies (legal, cultural, economic, political, and social), as well as the critical changes that have taken effect since 9 /11 . In combination, they therefore generate a healthy debate. They offer arguments emphasizing contrasting explanatory factors, employing differing techniques, and focusing on different levels of analysis. Furthermore, from their contrasting perspectives, they advocate varying conceptual approaches and...

    (pp. 285-288)
  22. INDEX
    (pp. 289-301)