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Immigration, Integration, and Security

Immigration, Integration, and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective

Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia
Simon Reich
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    Immigration, Integration, and Security
    Book Description:

    Recent acts of terrorism in Britain and Europe and the events of 9/11 in the United States have greatly influenced immigration, security, and integration policies in these countries. Yet many of the current practices surrounding these issues were developed decades ago, and are ill-suited to the dynamics of today's global economies and immigration patterns.At the core of much policy debate is the inherent paradox whereby immigrant populations are frequently perceived as posing a potential security threat yet bolster economies by providing an inexpensive workforce. Strict attention to border controls and immigration quotas has diverted focus away from perhaps the most significant dilemma: the integration of existing immigrant groups. Often restricted in their civil and political rights and targets of xenophobia, racial profiling, and discrimination, immigrants are unable or unwilling to integrate into the population. These factors breed distrust, disenfranchisement, and hatred-factors that potentially engender radicalization and can even threaten internal security.The contributors compare policies on these issues at three relational levels: between individual EU nations and the U.S., between the EU and U.S., and among EU nations. What emerges is a timely and critical examination of the variations and contradictions in policy at each level of interaction and how different agencies and different nations often work in opposition to each other with self-defeating results. While the contributors differ on courses of action, they offer fresh perspectives, some examining significant case studies and laying the groundwork for future debate on these crucial issues.

    eISBN: 978-0-8229-7338-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. List of Tables and Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  2. Preface and Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-xiv)
    Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia and Simon Reich
  3. 1 The Securitization of Immigration: Multiple Countries, Multiple Dimensions
    (pp. 1-22)

    Immigration policy has become a template for some of the key issues facing the West today. It links together what are conventionally regarded as diverse areas of public policy. These areas include national security policies concerning border controls; integration policies regarding assimilation and reciprocal acceptance of cultural rights; urban policies relating to housing and unemployment; and internal security policies linking the safety of societies with the equitable application of political liberties and civil justice. The definition of who constitutes an immigrant and the measures by which citizenship is attained have varied across time and now vary across space—in this...

  4. 2 Identity Discourse in Western Europe and the United States in the Aftermath of 9/11
    (pp. 23-43)

    The attacks of September 11, 2001, ended the post–World War II understanding of both international and domestic politics in the United States and Europe as well as in the Muslim world. The utilitarian notion of states and polities pursuing “rational” policies driven by the desire to maximize wellbeing and avoid another cataclysm as well as the belief in an ever-greater cultural convergence were both buried in the debris of the Twin Towers in New York City.

    In many ways the years from 1945 to 1991, shaped by post–World War II bipolarity, were a historical anomaly. One of the...

  5. 3 Religious Legacies and the Politics of Multiculturalism: A Comparative Analysis of Integration Policies in Western Democracies
    (pp. 44-66)

    Landmark events of global significance have repeatedly raised issues of policy convergence or divergence across nation-states, as well as issues of continuity or stability across time, or a combination of both. This is particularly true for events such as the end of the Cold War and 9/11, for the area of immigration and integration policies, and for the politics of citizenship and multiculturalism. These issues are addressed here with respect to cultural path-dependency. The need to include religion and religious legacies in the analysis of these policy areas is critical, underscored by the very fact that in many Western countries,...

  6. 4 The Emergence of a Consensus: Global Terrorism, Global Insecurity, and Global Security
    (pp. 67-94)

    Since the 1990s, an increasing number of scholars studying security, as well as security professionals, have come to the same conclusion: that internal security and external security are merging under the pressure of globalization. Traditionally, these two separate domains have essentially been the concern of different institutions—the police internally and the armed forces externally—but their domains now seem close to overlapping as new circumstances present themselves. The missions of the police and the armed forces converge on issues such as terrorism, organized crime, surveillance of people, and possible threats to identity. Terrorists, suspected terrorists, and members of transnational...

  7. 5 European Security and Counter-Terrorism
    (pp. 95-110)

    Since September 11, 2001, the EU and the United States have both been confronted—in very similar ways—by a new type of threat: Islamic terrorism organized on a global scale by a network of non-state actors structured in cells and located in approximately sixty countries. The transit attacks in Madrid (March 11, 2004) and London (July 7, 2005) as well as the failed plot to blow up civilian aircraft flying between Heathrow Airport and the United States (August 2006) furnish brutal proof of the vulnerability of Western societies in the teeth of this new scourge. The urgency of European...

  8. 6 Immigration Policy and Reactions to Terrorism after September 11
    (pp. 111-129)

    In reaction to security concerns following the events of September 11, 2001, new legislative initiatives to combat international terror are assumed to have had a deleterious effect on immigrants and immigration on both sides of the Atlantic. I address these assumptions by examining actual rules in place at the end of 2001 and subsequent changes to them in Britain, France, and the United States.

    As in many countries in Europe, there were terrorist incidents and attacks in both France and Britain for decades before September 11, 2001. These attacks had begun to accelerate in the late 1960s as a radical...

  9. 7 Migration and Security: Crime, Terror, and the Politics of Order
    (pp. 130-144)

    The intersection of migration and security ultimately entails questions of who is allowed access into the country and who can be removed. Migration scholars argue that the ability of policymakers in advanced industrial democracies to answer these questions—and ultimately deal with “unwanted” migration—has been constrained since the 1960s by the rise and institutionalization of rights-based protections for migrants.¹ In this context, the politics and the practice of immigration control since September 11, 2001, initially appear to have shifted dramatically. For the United States, the ramifications of who is trying to enter and who is already present clearly increased...

  10. 8 The Security Myth: Punishing Immigrants in the Name of National Security
    (pp. 145-163)

    In times of national crisis, the U.S. government has a consistent history of responding by incarcerating, and in many cases removing, large numbers of foreign nationals or groups that are seen as “foreign” based on their national, racial, ethnic, or religious background.¹ The U.S. government’s actions after the attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, presented another example of the classic response to crisis in the United States. Many potential “suspects” were identified primarily on the basis of racial and ethnic profiling. As in the past, these suspects were detained on immigration-related charges on lower...

  11. 9 National Security and Political Asylum
    (pp. 164-180)

    Since September 11, 2001, the United States has made significant changes in its political asylum policy, restricting access to asylum for many applicants in the name of the war on terror. The debate over these reforms draws from two competing visions of national security. The first views national security as essentially aligned with international human security and emphasizes the need to ensure protection for asylum applicants by approving legitimate claims. The second views national security as dependent primarily on defending a domestic safe zone against threats that are primarily foreign, identifiable, and excludable, so long as sufficiently stringent measures are...

  12. 10 Immigration Enforcement and Federalism after September 11, 2001
    (pp. 181-202)

    Since 2001, the U.S. federal government and Congress have proposed and, in some cases, adopted policy initiatives that aggressively seek to involve state and local government institutions more extensively and directly in the day-today regulation of immigration status and the so-called “interior enforcement” of federal immigration laws. Traditionally, federal immigration enforcement efforts in the United States have tended to prioritize enforcement activities at the border itself, rather than focus on interior enforcement. Interior enforcement has increased since enactment of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which instituted civil and criminal sanctions against employers who hire non-U.S. citizens...

  13. 11 Immigration, Security, and Integration in the European Union
    (pp. 203-228)

    A series of paradoxes illustrates the evolution of immigration policy in Europe. First, European governments and, to a larger extent, public opinion support policies designed to lower overall immigration levels. But immigration is crucial to Europe for demographic and economic reasons. According to the UN’s Population Division, the population of the EU is projected to decline by forty-one million between 2005 and 2050.¹ The contribution of immigrants to sustaining the size of the labor force and the solvency of European welfare systems is therefore crucial.

    The second paradox is related to the ambivalent immigration policies implemented for the last twenty...

  14. 12 Muslims and the State in Western Europe
    (pp. 229-253)

    The state has been an ascendant and indispensable actor in Muslim integration in contemporary Europe, in particular through successive governments’ development of representative councils for the Muslim religion. I argue against the current tide of postnationalism, in which migrants are said to appeal to powers higher than the national state for access to cultural and legal rights. I find that even in an age of globalization and transnational movements, the state is alive and well. This view militates an increasing political consensus that this relatively new Islamic presence challenges not only the integrative capacity of democratic institutions but also Enlightenment...

  15. 13 Dissonance between Discourse and Practice in EU Border Control Enforcement: The Spanish Case
    (pp. 254-282)

    In October 2005, the images of hundreds of potential migrants from sub-Saharan Africa trying to jump over the fences that separate the Spanish North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla from Moroccan territory made headlines around the world. Officials strengthened border controls in these two cities, but those trying to reach Spain turned toward the coasts of the Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, and Gambia. They hoped to board rafts that would take them to the Canary Islands, creating a new humanitarian crisis over the summer of 2006. Beyond the temporary media attention granted to those seeking new lives in Western...

  16. 14 The Challenge to Integration in France
    (pp. 283-299)

    September 11, 2001, shed new light on multiculturalism in France and in Europe. Before these tragic events, immigration and cultural and ethnic diversity were issues raised only by the extreme-right parties, the best known being the Front National, and only a small part of the French electorate considered terrorism to be the nation’s most important political issue.¹ After the reelection of Jacques Chirac in 2002, the situation changed dramatically. France has since engaged in serious debate on the relationships between Islam and the Republic (the Islamic scarf, the Mohammed cartoons and freedom of speech, the creation of the Conseil Français...

  17. 15 “Weak Immigrants” in Britain and Italy: Balancing Demands for Better Support versus Tougher Constraints
    (pp. 300-320)

    The presence of political refugees and undocumented immigrants is a contentious issue in many contemporary democracies. These immigrants are also at the core of the ongoing construction of a common policy framework across Europe. They are also intertwined with other contentious issues on which contributors to this volume have shed some valuable light. These issues include the enforcement of border controls, threats to national security, the radicalization of Islam, and the position of Muslims in democracies. Despite their decreasing numbers, asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants have gained salience in recent years. Their presence has brought about similar political developments across...

  18. 16 Immigration: Tensions, Dilemmas, and Unresolved Questions
    (pp. 321-340)

    Much has been made on both sides of the Atlantic about the current debates over immigration. These debates focus mainly on the economic and social impact of immigration as well as on the relationship between border controls and state sovereignty. Each debate replays controversies that have been going on for decades in Europe and the United States. The perception of immigrants as a threat is therefore unoriginal. The securitization of immigration issues began before 9/11, but the terrorist attacks of that day reinforced the linkage to border control and national security. The linkage between immigrants and security is perhaps more...