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1989

1989: The Struggle to Create Post-Cold War Europe

MARY ELISE SAROTTE
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: REV - Revised
Pages: 368
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt6wq16w
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  • Book Info
    1989
    Book Description:

    1989explores the momentous events following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the effects they have had on our world ever since. Based on documents, interviews, and television broadcasts from Washington, London, Paris, Bonn, Berlin, Warsaw, Moscow, and a dozen other locations,1989describes how Germany unified, NATO expansion began, and Russia got left on the periphery of the new Europe.

    This updated edition contains a new afterword with the most recent evidence on the 1990 origins of NATO's post-Cold War expansion.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5230-7
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. PREFACE: A BRIEF NOTE ON SCHOLARSHIP AND SOURCES
    (pp. xi-xv)
  5. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. xvi-xviii)
  6. INTRODUCTION CREATING POST–COLD WAR EUROPE: 1989 AND THE ARCHITECTURE OF ORDER
    (pp. 1-10)

    On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall opened and the world changed. Memory of that iconic instant has, unsurprisingly, retained its power despite the passage of time. Evidence of its enduring strength was apparent in the decision by a later icon of change—Barack Obama—to harness it in his own successful pursuit of one of history’s most elusive prizes, the U.S. presidency. While a candidate in 2008, he decided that the fall of the wall still represented such a striking symbol that it was worth valuable time away from American voters in a campaign summer to attach himself to...

  7. CHAPTER 1 WHAT CHANGES IN SUMMER AND AUTUMN 1989?
    (pp. 11-47)

    It is 1981. In the United States, Reagan is president. In the Soviet Union, Irina Scherbakova’s seven-year-old daughter has just come home from school. Scherbakova asks her what she did that day. Her daughter replies that her class was given an assignment. The students were told to write an essay called “The Person I Hate the Most.” Surprised and not pleased by the teacher’s choice of assignment, her mother asks, who was your person?

    Adolf Hitler, her daughter replies. But I was the only one. All of the other students chose Reagan.²

    It is 1983. Superpower rivalry has reached a...

  8. CHAPTER 2 RESTORING FOUR-POWER RIGHTS, REVIVING A CONFEDERATION IN 1989
    (pp. 48-87)

    The East German street—meaning protesters old and new—had brought down the wall, with the help of the media. Most of the rest of the world had simply sat in front of a television set and watched in amazement. It was a good show; the contest between the power of the party and the power of the people played out on a grand scale. The end of the spectacle was the realization that the party and its Soviet backers were not willing to shed blood to maintain the Cold War order.² Clearly new models for order were needed, and...

  9. CHAPTER 3 HEROIC ASPIRATIONS IN 1990
    (pp. 88-118)

    Robert Havemann had carried out an unusual comparative study for a chemistry professor. He had—involuntarily—investigated the best methods for surviving both Nazi and Stasi interrogations. When he was interrogated in 1943 in the infamous cells of the Gestapo on Prinz Albrecht Street, he willed himself to believe that the blows of his captors did not hurt. Havemann drew pleasure from their obvious fury at his refusal to confess to helping Jews in hiding. His tactic for the Stasi in 1966, this time on Magdalenen Street, was different: confuse them with his extensive knowledge of the legal rights available...

  10. CHAPTER 4 PREFAB PREVAILS
    (pp. 119-149)

    On March 18, East Germans would have their first opportunity since the dawn of the Nazi era to cast their ballots freely. Roughly twelve million voters would choose among twenty-four parties. As their choices would highlight, these new voters were not persuaded by the dissidents and former dictators (who had become uneasy allies at the round table) that there was a future for an independent GDR. The idea of a revived East Germany, heroically blazing the trail for a new kind of socialism and property pluralism, seemed like too big of a risk. Kohl was confident that his party, the...

  11. CHAPTER 5 SECURING BUILDING PERMITS
    (pp. 150-194)

    By May 1990, it was apparent that the prefab model for the future had eclipsed all others. In architecture as in politics, however, winning does not automatically ensure that the victorious model will get built. To start work, both architects and politicians have to fight against backlash from the losers, secure building permits to start anew, and clear the site of detritus. Kohl was now in that position. He had achieved a critical mass of consensus. He had gotten the nod from the East Germans to construct their future. His party’s victory in their first free election enabled him to...

  12. CONCLUSION THE LEGACY OF 1989 AND 1990
    (pp. 195-214)

    Although unification was a done deal, there were still a number of loose ends to tie up after October 3. Kohl and his team worried about them mightily—U.S. attention, in contrast, was focused on the Gulf—but ultimately none seriously threatened German unity. The biggest outstanding problem was that the various treaties needed ratification by signatory countries. The one place where it seemed possible that they might not receive it was the Soviet Union, which could either oppose them or fall apart without conferring any final verdict. If it did the latter, the accords would forever be vulnerable to...

  13. AFTERWORD TO THE NEW EDITION REVISITING 1989–1990 AND THE ORIGINS OF NATO EXPANSION
    (pp. 215-230)

    The faded numbers on the concrete are gone now. Even if you had visited the site before the construction crews arrived and built the discount grocery store, you might still have missed them. They were hard to spot: large but faint white numbers, painted in a line across what used to be several lanes. One of my Berlin friends warned me in 2010 that construction workers were about to erase them, along with the other remaining traces of the old order—an electrical box here, dangling wires there. So we made a last trip to see those traces. It was...

  14. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. 231-234)
  15. NOTES
    (pp. 235-306)
  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 307-336)
  17. INDEX
    (pp. 337-350)