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Pictures of the Heart

Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image

Joshua S. Mostow
Copyright Date: 1996
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt6wqffn
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  • Book Info
    Pictures of the Heart
    Book Description:

    "This book provides, for the first time in English, the kind of information that allows an accurate appreciation of the meanings and quality of Japanese poems.... Mostow's reception-oriented approach in this poem-by-poem discussion inspires an excellent essay on the history of English translations of this collection." --Choice "Joshua Mostow offers a brilliant and multifaceted exploration of Japanese poetics through translations, commentaries, and both literary and visual readings of the most influential of all poem anthologies. This book penetrates to the heart of traditional Japanese aesthetics." --Stephen Addiss, University of Richmond "...a rigorous and engaging study of an extremely important Japanese text. It is filled with information and shows a real appreciation for the often unarticulated assumptions that lay behind certain understandings--both Japanese and Western--concerning meaning and significance in a work of literature. The study breaks still further ground by articulating, and in the most persuasive fashion, issues relating to text and image that are central to the Japanese arts in virtually all periods. Professor Mostow has written a book that should interest not only specialists in the fields of Japanese literature and fine arts, but virtually anyone who enjoys reading poetry in an active and thoughtful fashion." --J. Thomas Rimer, University of Pittsburgh

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6395-1
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  4. A NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  5. CHAPTER 1 Introduction: A Poetics of Interpretation
    (pp. 1-20)

    TheHyakunin Isshu,orOne Hundred Poets, One Poem Eachcollection, is a sequence of one hundred Japanese poems in thetankaform, selected by the famous poet and scholar Fujiwara no Teika (1162–1241) and arranged, at least in part, to represent the history of Japanese poetry from the seventh century down to Teika’s own day. TheOne Hundred Poetsis, without a doubt, the most popular and most widely known collection of poetry in Japan—a distinction it has maintained for hundreds of years. As such, it has had a tremendous influence on Japanese literature, visual art, and...

  6. PART ONE THE HYAKUNIN ISSHU:: ITS FORMATION AND RECEPTION

    • CHAPTER 2 Historical Context
      (pp. 23-57)

      In the same fashion as imperially commissioned anthologies, individuals made their own personal anthologies of other people’s verses, calledshisen shū,or “privately edited anthologies.” Poems could be collected together for educational purposes, though in a society where almost everyone who read poetry also wrote it, the distinction between collections put together to illustrate the correct way of writing poems, and those put together for the pleasure of reading, is heuristic at best. The earliest extant treatise on Japanese poetry is theUta no Shiki,orRules of Poetry,written by Fujiwara no Hamanari (724–790) in 772.¹ It contains...

    • CHAPTER 3 Waka in Translation
      (pp. 58-86)

      All the issues we have discussed have an impact on theOne Hundred Poetsas a translated text. Because theOne Hundred Poetsis still used today as a school text for the history of Japanese poetry, the vast majority of Japanese and English editions interpret the poems according to scholars’ conclusions about the poems’ original meaning, rather than interpreting them either as Teika read them or as they were read in the Edo period, for instance. Even if we are not going to try to read theOne Hundred Poetsas an “integrated sequence,” if we are going to...

    • CHAPTER 4 The Poem-Picture Tradition
      (pp. 87-122)

      One of the aspects closely associated with the popularization and diffusion of theOne Hundred Poetsis the inclusion of pictures in the printed editions of the Edo period. These pictures are essentially of two types: pictures related to the poets (that is, imaginary portraits of the poets, calledkasen-e) and pictures that seem to relate in some fashion to the poems themselves.

      Kasen-ecan be traced back to the late twelfth century, concurrent with a more “realistic” style of secular portraiture that arose at the time and that is associated with the name of Fujiwara no Takanobu (1142–1205),...

    • CHAPTER 5 Pictorialization as Reception
      (pp. 123-136)

      TheOne Hundred Poets, One Poem Eachcollection has been, since at least the fourteenth century, Japanese literature’s preeminent collection of exemplary poems. Yet, as we have seen, its role and function in the urban culture of the early modern Edo period (1600–1868) are in some ways the most compelling part of its history. A charming example of the wide diffusion of these poems to all levels of society is found in a late Edo-periodrakugostory centered on the well-known Poem 5, by Sarumaru-Dayū:

      An impoverished wagon-driver took a samurai on board, going toward Shinagawa.

      “Master, you’re in...

    • Color plates
      (pp. None)
  7. PART TWO TRANSLATION, COMMENTARY, AND PICTURES

    • A NOTE ON TEXTS AND SOURCES
      (pp. 139-140)

      This part of the book presents a complete translation of theHyakunin Isshu. The translations represent modern scholars’ best estimate of how Fujiwara no Teika, the compiler of the collection, interpreted the poems. To each translation is appended the name of the imperial anthology from which the poem was chosen and a list of other exemplary collections in which it was included. A brief biography of the poet is given, too, emphasizing his or her representation in imperial anthologies through the ages and his or her relationship to other poets in the collection.

      The Commentary is meant to help the...

    • POEM 1 Emperor Tenji
      (pp. 141-144)

      Tenji Tennō (626–671) ruled 668–671; he is numbered as the thirty-eighth emperor. Son of Emperor Jōmei and Empress Kōgyoku (also known as Empress Saimei), he was also called “Prince Katsuragi” and “Prince Naka no Ōe.” Together with Nakatomi no Kamatari (614–669) he destroyed the power of the Soga clan in 644–645 by assassinating Soga no Iruka. As crown prince he took part in the Taika Reform; as emperor he published a legal code called theŌmi–ryō. Since the time of Emperor Kōnin (r. 770–781), Tenji has been revered as the progenitor of the imperial...

    • POEM 2 Empress Jitō
      (pp. 145-148)

      Jitō Tennō (645–702), ruled 687–696 and is counted as the forty-first sovereign. She was the second daughter of Emperor Tenji (Poem 1); her mother was the daughter of Soga no Ochi and empress to Emperor Tenmu. She marched with Tenmu during the Jinshin Disturbance (672) and succeeded him at the age of forty–two, moving the court to Fujiwara no Miya. After eleven years she abdicated in favor of her nephew Monmu. TheMan’yō Shūincludes twochōka(one on the death of Tenmu) and fivetankaby her, including this one. She made many tours, or “imperial...

    • POEM 3 Kakinomoto no Hitomaro
      (pp. 149-151)

      Hitomaro (dates unknown) was a court poet under Empress Jitō (Poem 2) and Emperor Monmu (r. 697–707). He served as a low-ranking official and is said to have died (ca. 707–708) while posted to Iwami province (modern Shimane prefecture). The representativeMan’yō Shūpoet, with eighteenchōkaand sixty-seventanka,he was venerated and worshiped as the saint of poetry since the middle ages.The Collected Poems of Kakinomoto (Kakinomoto Shū)is a posthumous collection. Some 248 poems attributed to him appear in theKokinshūand later imperial anthologies, but as these are all drawn from theKakinomoto...

    • POEM 4 Yamabe no Akahito
      (pp. 152-154)

      Akahito (dates unknown) was an early Nara-period (646–794) court poet and a contemporary of Hitomaro (Poem 3), with whom he is ranked in theKokinshūpreface. One of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, he has thirteenchōkaand thirty-seventankaincluded in theMan’yō Shū,all composed during the reign of Emperor Shōmu (r. 724–749), including poems composed for Shōmu’s visits to Yoshino, Naniwa, and Kii. He has about forty-six poems in the imperial anthologies, starting with theGosenshū,though all are of doubtful authenticity.The Collected Poems of Akahito (Akahito Shū)is a later compilation.

      The original poem...

    • POEM 5 Senior Assistant Minister Sarumaru
      (pp. 155-157)

      Absolutely nothing is known about Sarumaru-Dayū (also read “Sarumaru Taifu”). In the Chinese preface(manajo)to theKokinshū,Ōtomo no Kuronushi (830?–923?) is described as the stylistic inheritor of the “Illustrious Sarumaru,”20on the basis of which Sarumaru is assumed to be a real person who lived sometime prior to the latter half of the eighth century.The Collected Poems of Senior Assistant Minister Sarumaru (Sarumaru-Dayū Shū)is a later compilation, and the poems in it are of dubious authenticity. Besides this poem none of his poems are included in any imperial anthologies. In fact, this poem is listed...

    • POEM 6 Middle Counselor Yakamochi
      (pp. 158-160)

      Chūnagon Ōtomo no Yakamochi (718–785), best known as the final editor of theMan’yō Shū(ca. 759), which includes many of his poems: over fortychōkaand close to four hundredtanka. He is one of the Thirty–Six Poetic Immortals.The Collected Poems of Yakamochi (Yakamochi Shū)is by a later compiler. With poems first included in theShūishū(ca. 1005–1011), Yakamochi has sixty-two poems included in imperial anthologies.24

      This poem is taken from theYakamochi Shūbut does not appear in theMan’yō Shū;in fact, the expression “magpie bridge” appears nowhere in the entire collection,...

    • POEM 7 Abe no Nakamaro
      (pp. 161-164)

      At the age of sixteen, Nakamaro (701–770) went with the priest Genbō and Kibi no Makibi to study in China.28He rose to high position in the service of the T’ang emperor Hsüan–tsung and became friends with such famous poets as Li Po and Wang Wei. In 753 he set out to return to Japan with Fujiwara no Kiyokawa, but they were shipwrecked off the coast of Annam in Southeast Asia. He returned to China, where he died at the age of seventy. He has one poem in theKokinshūand one in theShokuKokinshū.

      This poem is...

    • POEM 8 Master of the Law Kisen
      (pp. 165-167)

      Kisen Hōshi (mid-ninth century) is a legendary figure. He is mentioned in the Japanese preface of theKokinshū(and hence counted among the Six Poetic Immortals), but otherwise he is unknown. The preface states:

      The poetry of Priest Kisen of Mount Uji is vague, and the logic does not run smoothly from beginning to end. Reading his poems is like looking at the autumn moon only to have it obscured by the clouds of dawn. Since few of his poems are known, we cannot make comparisons and come to understand them.33

      In fact, this is the only poem of his...

    • POEM 9 Ono no Komachi
      (pp. 168-170)

      Active during the reign of Emperor Ninmyō (r. 833–850), Komachi is the only woman among the Six Poetic Immortals discussed by Tsurayuki in the Japanese preface to theKokinshū.The Collected Poems of Komachi (Komachi Shū)is a much later collection, and only the twenty-one poems attributed to her in theKokinshūandGosenshū(ca. 951) can be viewed as authentic. In the medieval period, a variety of legends grew up around her, her beauty, her cruelty to men, and her unhappy old age, which in turn provided material forplays and visual art, most notably theNana...

    • POEM 10 Semimaru
      (pp. 171-174)

      Absolutely nothing is known of Semimaru, if in fact he ever existed. Mid-Tokugawa-period documents in Satsuma claim he was the fourth leader of amōsō(“blind priest”) tradition based in Ōmi province.Mōsō,orbiwa hōshi,accompanied the chanting of sutras with the lutelike instrument calledbiwato placate local dieties. TheTales of Times Now Past Collection(Konjaku Monogatari Shū,ca. 1100) records Semimaru as a former servant of Prince Atsumi, a son of Emperor Uda, who, blinded, built a hut near Ōsaka Barrier and became a famousbiwaplayer. Kamo no Chōmei claims in hisMu’myō Shōthat...

    • POEM 11 Consultant Takamura
      (pp. 175-177)

      Sangi Ono no Takamura (802–852), though little of his poetry is extant, was considered the leading Chinese poet of his day, thought to rival Po Chü-i himself. He is best known for being exiled to Oki Island for refusing to join the a.d. 837 embassy to T’ang China; he was granted clemency after only a year. He was also known in his youth for his love of archery and horsemanship, which may explain his military image in the accompanyingkasen-e. He has six poems in theKokinshūand six more in later imperial anthologies. His Chinese verse is included...

    • POEM 12 Archbishop Henjō
      (pp. 178-180)

      Sōjō Henjō (816–890), born Yoshimine no Munesada, served Emperor Ninmyō, taking vows upon the latter’s death in 849. He is counted among both the Six and the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. He has thirty-five poems in theKokinshūand later anthologies. ACollected Poems of Henjō (Henjō Shū)is extant.

      In theKokinshū,the headnote to this poem reads: “Composed on seeing Gosechi dancers”; the author is also listed as “Yoshimine no Munesada,” indicating that this poem was composed sometime between 844, when the poet entered into Emperor Ninmyō’s service, and Ninmyō’s death five years later. The Gosechi dance celebrated...

    • POEM 13 Retired Emperor Yōzei
      (pp. 181-183)

      Yōzei In (868–949) reigned from 876 to 884, as the fifty-seventh sovereign. He ascended the throne at the age of nine but showed signs of mental instability, and was forced to abdicate after eight years by Regent Fujiwara no Mototsune (836–891). He was replaced by Emperor Kōkō (Poem 15), a son of Emperor Ninmyō (r. 833–850). After his abdication, Yōzei sponsored a number of poetry contests. He is represented in the imperial anthologies by this sole poem.

      In theGosenshū,the headnote to this poem reads: “Sent to the princess of the Tsuridono.” The Tsuridono was Kōkō’s...

    • POEM 14 The Riverbank Minister of the Left (Minamoto no Tōru)
      (pp. 184-186)

      Kawara Sadaijin—Minamoto no Tōru (822–895)—was the son of Emperor Saga (r. 809–823). His sobriquet comes from the grand mansion he built on the west bank(kawara)of the Kamo River, where he hosted gatherings of the most famous poets of his day, such as Tsurayuki (Poem 35), Mitsune (Poem 29), Egyō (Poem 47), and Motosuke (Poem 42). He is considered the very epitome of courtly elegance(fūryū)and may have served as a partial model for the hero of Murasaki Shikibu’sTale of Genji. He is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and has two poems...

    • POEM 15 Emperor Kōkō
      (pp. 187-189)

      Kōkō Tennō (830–887, r. 884–887), counted as the fifty-eighth sovereign, was the third son of Emperor Ninmyō (r. 833-850); he was placed on the throne by Regent Fujiwara no Mototsune at the age of fifty-five, replacing the deranged Emperor Yōzei (Poem 13). A collection of his poems, theNinna GyoShū,is extant, and he has fourteen poems in imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem in theKokinshūreads: “A poem sent together with young greens to someone when the Ninna Emperor [Kōkō] was still a prince.” Young greens(waka-na)were gathered and eaten as part of the...

    • POEM 16 Middle Counselor Yukihira
      (pp. 190-191)

      Chūnagon Yukihira—Ariwara no Yukihira (818–893)—is the older brother of Narihira (Poem 17). He is mentioned in the Chinese preface to theKokinshūfor his skill in Chinese verse, and four of his Japanese poems are included in the same anthology. While altogether he has eleven poems in imperial anthologies, only the four in theKokinshūand four in theGosenshūcan be considered authentic.

      Inaba no yamais a specific mountain in Inaba province, north of Kyoto on the Sea of Japan, where Yukihira went to serve as governor in 855. (Commentators such as Mabuchi mistakenly believed...

    • POEM 17 Lord Ariwara no Narihira
      (pp. 192-194)

      Ariwara no Narihira Ason (825–880), younger brother to Yukihira (Poem 16), is one of the Six and one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. He was generally understood to be the protagonist of the mid-tenth-centuryTales of Ise(in which this poem also appears), which seems to have formed itself around a collection of his poems. He has almost ninety poems in the various imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem in theKokinshūreads: “Composed on the topic of autumn leaves flowing down Tatsuta River, as painted on a screen belonging to the Second Ward Empress [Fujiwara no Kōshi]...

    • POEM 18 Lord Fujiwara no Toshiyuki
      (pp. 195-197)

      Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Ason (d. 901) participated in many poetry contests during the reigns of the four emperors he served, from Seiwa (r. 858–876) through Uda (r. 887–897). He is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and was also famous as a calligrapher. He has twenty-eight poems in the various imperial anthologies, and a collection of his poems, theToshiyuki Shū,is extant.

      This poem’s headnote in theKokinshūindicates that this poem was used in what is known as “the Empress’ Poetry Contest [held] during the Kanpyō Era (953)” (Kanpyō no ŌnToki Kisai no Miya no Utaawase)....

    • POEM 19 Ise
      (pp. 198-200)

      Also called Ise no Go or Ise no Miyasudokoro (ca. 875–ca. 938), she was the daughter of Fujiwara no Tsugukage (sometimes read “Tsugikage”), governor of Ise (whence her sobriquet). The storylike beginning section of her collected poems, theIse Shū,relates her love affairs with the brothers Fujiwara no Nakahira and Tokihira, as well as her pregnancy by Emperor Uda. She is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and has 22 poems in theKokinshūalone, with more than 170 poems in all the imperial anthologies combined.

      In theIse Shūthis poem is given with three others under...

    • POEM 20 Prince Motoyoshi
      (pp. 201-203)

      Motoyoshi Shinnō (890–943), eldest son of Emperor Yōzei (Poem 13), was famous as a lover. He appears several times in the mid-tenth-century collection of poetic anecdotes, theTales of Yamato (Yamato Monogatari). His poetry first appears in theGosenshū(compiled 951), and he has twenty poems in it and later imperial anthologies.

      This poem’s headnote in theGosenshūreads: “Sent to the Kyōgoku Lady of the Wardrobe after their affair had come out.” The lady in question was Fujiwara no Hōshi, daughter of Tokihira. Her father had planned to have her enter the reigning emperor’s service, but Retired Emperor...

    • POEM 21 Master of the Law Sosei
      (pp. 204-206)

      Sosei Hōshi, born Yoshimine no Harutoshi, was a son of Henjō (Poem 12). He is the fourth-best-represented poet in theKokinshūand has over sixty poems in the various imperial anthologies. He is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. His collected poems, theSosei Hōshi Shū,are extant.

      Although given as “occasion unknown”(dai shirazu),this poem appears in theKokinshūin a group of poems on the subject of “waiting love,” where it would be assumed that the speaker of the poem is a woman (since it was the men who visited the women’s houses rather than vice versa)....

    • POEM 22 Fun’ya no Yasuhide
      (pp. 207-209)

      Yasuhide’s dates are unknown, but he was active around the same time as Narihira (Poem 17) and Sosei (Poem 21). One of the Six Poetic Immortals, he is mentioned in both the Japanese and Chinese prefaces to theKokinshū. He is also counted among the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, though he has only five poems in theKokinshūand one in theGosenshū.

      This poem is a good example of the kind of witty verse written in the early Heian period under the influence of Chinese Six Dynasties “court-style” poetry. It is a kind ofri’aishi,or “reasoning poem,” that works...

    • POEM 23 Ōe no Chisato
      (pp. 210-212)

      Chisato’s dates are unknown; he flourished ca. 889–923. A nephew of Yukihira (Poem 16) and Narihira (Poem 17), he is best known for his collection of poetryKudai Waka,ordered by Emperor Uda in 894, where the poet composed 110 poems, each based on a line of Chinese poetry.61

      Historically this poem can be seen in relation to the previous poem by Yasuhide. Yasuhide’s was a typical product of Six Dynasties wit, more Chinese in conception than Japanese. Chisato’s poetry, by contrast, marks an important point in the assimilation and adaptation of Chinese poetry to native verse. The poem...

    • POEM 24 Kanke (Sugawara no Michizane)
      (pp. 213-216)

      “Kanke” means literally “the Sugawara family” but refers here to Sugawara no Michizane (845–903). The term derives from the titles of the two collections containing Michizane’s Chinese works: theKanke Bunsō (The Sugawara Family Literary Drafts)and theKanke Kōshū (The Later Sugawara Collection),the former of which contains pieces not only by Michizane but also by his father and grandfather.

      Michizane was a famous statesman and scholar. He was greatly promoted by Emperor Uda to act as a foil to the Fujiwara clan’s hegemony under Tokihira. In this both Michizane and Uda were ultimately unsuccessful, and Michizane died...

    • POEM 25 The Third Ward Minister of the Right (Minamoto no Sadakata)
      (pp. 217-219)

      Sanjō no Udaijin was born Fujiwara no Sadakata (873–932). His sobriquet comes from his residence in the capital’s Third Ward. He has one poem in theKokinshū,nine in theGosenshū,and nine in later imperial anthologies. He is the father of Asatada (Poem 44).

      This poem is a tour de force of pivot words: the place-nameafusaka(pronounced “Ōsaka” but a different place from the modern city of that name), taken to mean “Meeting-Slope”;sanekadzura,a kind of vine whose name includes the phrasesa ne,or “Come, sleep!”; and the verbkuru,which means both “to come”...

    • POEM 26 Lord Teishin (Fujiwara no Tadahira)
      (pp. 220-222)

      Teishinkō is Fujiwara no Tadahira (880–949). “Teishinkō” is his posthumous name; his sobriquet while alive was “the KoIchijō Chancellor.”² He was the fourth son of Mototsune and took control of both the Fujiwara clan and the country after the death of his eldest brother, Tokihira. It was his descendants who continued to monopolize political power: he was father to Morosuke, who was in turn the grandfather of Michinaga. Tadahira’s diary, theTeishinkō Ki,is extant. His poety was first selected for theGosenshū,in which he has seven poems; six more are included in later anthologies.

      In theShūishū,...

    • POEM 27 Middle Counselor Kanesuke
      (pp. 223-225)

      Chūnagon Fujiwara no Kanesuke (877–933), brother of Sadakata (Poem 25), was known as “the Counselor of the Levée” (Tsutsumi Chūnagon) after his mansion beside the dam of the Kamo River. His residence was a meeting place for literati such as Tsurayuki (Poem 35) and Mitsune (Poem 29), for whom he acted as patron. Not surprisingly, then, his poetry first appears in theKokinshū. He is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and has some fifty-seven poems in the various imperial anthologies. A personal poetry collection is extant as well.

      This poem is also collected in theKokin Roku-jō,where...

    • POEM 28 Lord Minamoto no Muneyuki
      (pp. 226-228)

      Minamoto no Muneyuki Ason (d. 939) was a grandson of Emperor Kōkō (Poem 15). He participated in famous poetry contests and appears in theTales of Yamato. His personal poetry collection contains many exchanges with Tsurayuki (Poem 35). He has six poems in theKokinshū,three in theGosenshū,and six in the remaining imperial anthologies.

      This poem appears in theKokinshūwith the headnote: “Composed as a winter poem.” In conception it is very similar to a poem in the “Prince Koresada Poetry Contest” (Koresada Shinnō no Ie no Uta-awase; 893), which involves an elegant debate on the issue...

    • POEM 29 Ōshikōchi no Mitsune
      (pp. 229-231)

      Mitsune (died ca. 925) was one of the compilers of theKokinshūand a friend of Tsurayuki (Poem 35), with whom he frequented the mansion of Kanesuke (Poem 27). One of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, he has almost two hundred poems in post-Kokinshūimperial anthologies. His personal poetry collection contains a large number of poems from screens(byōbu-uta)and poetry contests(uta-awase).

      At least five distinct interpretations of this poem can be found, all centering on the second line,woraba ya woramu. TheYoritaka-bon, Kamijō-bon,andShūe Shōbelieve this is simple word repetition(kasane-kotoba),meaning no more than “must...

    • POEM 30 Mibu no Tadamine
      (pp. 232-234)

      Mibu no Tadamine (b. ca. 850), another of theKokinshū’s compilers, is the father of Tadami (Poem 41). One of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, he has thirty-five poems in theKokinshūand almost fifty in the remaining imperial anthologies. A personal poetry collection, theTadamine Shū,and a poetic treatise, theTadamine Jittei,are extant, though the latter is of dubious authenticity.

      Interpretations of this poem divide into two camps. The context originally imagined for this poem seems to have been a disappointed lover returning home after trying unsuccessfully all night to have his chosen lady receive him. Hence the...

    • POEM 31 Sakanoue no Korenori
      (pp. 235-237)

      Korenori (dates uncertain) is a representative poet of theKokinshūperiod and one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. He has eight poems in theKokinshūand over thirty in later imperial anthologies. A personal poetry anthology is extant.

      This poem seems to treat a topic very similar to that of the immediately preceding poem by Tadamine. But whereas Tadamine’s is clearly a love poem, Korenori’s is seasonal: unlikeakatsuki,which can be used to refer to “dawn” in any season,asaborakerefers specifically to dawn in either autumn or winter. Commentaries such as theŌei Shōthought of Korenori’s poem...

    • POEM 32 Harumichi no Tsuraki
      (pp. 238-239)

      Tsuraki died in 920; little else is known of him. He graduated from the imperial university in 910 and died ten years later just as he was about to take up his post as governor of Iki province. Only five of his poems are extant: three in theKokinshūand two in theGosenshū.

      The expression “the weir that the wind has flung” is widely praised by the medieval commentators. Both this personification(gijinka)and the basic pattern of the poem (“as forx,it isy”) are typical of theKokinshūperiod. Given the relative obscurity of the poet,...

    • POEM 33 Ki no Tomonori
      (pp. 240-242)

      An older cousin of Tsurayuki (Poem 35), Tomonori was also one of the compilers of theKokinshūbut died before its completion (died ca. 905 or 907). He is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and a collection of his poetry is extant. He has forty-six poems in theKokinshū,and over twenty in the remaining imperial anthologies.

      In theKokinshūthe headnote to this poem reads: “Composed on the falling of the cherry blossoms.” One line of interpretation argues that it is not the flowers whose hearts are unquiet, but the hearts of those who watch them fall. The...

    • POEM 34 Fujiwara no Okikaze
      (pp. 243-245)

      Okikaze (dates uncertain) was an active participant in the poetry world around the time of theKokinshū. One of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, he has seventeen poems in theKokinshūand twenty-one in later imperial collections. A collection of his poems is also extant.

      This poem is specifically alluded to in Tsurayuki’s Japanese preface to theKokinshū,where he is enumerating occasions for poetry and says “the poet might … think of the pine trees of Takasago and Suminoe as having grown up with him [ai’oi].”19Takasago is in Harima province (modern Hyōgo prefecture) on the west bank of the...

    • POEM 35 Ki no Tsurayuki
      (pp. 246-248)

      Tsurayuki (ca. 868–945) was the chief editor of theKokinshūand the author of its polemical Japanese preface. He led the battle to have Japanese verse accepted as the equal of Chinese. Besides theKokinshū,his best-known work is theTosa Diary(Tosa Nikki,ca. 935), a fictional travel account based on his own journey back from serving as governor of Tosa province in Shikoku. He has 202 poems in theKokinshū,and more than 450 in all the imperial collections combined. A large personal poetry collection also survives.

      This poem is preceded by a lengthy headnote in the...

    • POEM 36 Kiyohara no Fukayabu
      (pp. 249-251)

      Fukayabu (dates uncertain) has seventeen poems in theKokinshū,and his personal poetry collection seems to have been used in compiling this first imperial anthology. He is the grandfather of Motosuke (Poem 42) and the great-grandfather of Sei Shōnagon (Poem 62).

      This poem presupposes a great deal of knowledge on the part of the reader—knowledge that was part of every poet’s cultural assumptions. The poem starts with the phrase “summer nights”(natsu no yo ha). One of the chief characteristics of summer nights, according to the poetic conventions of the time, was their brevity. Hence the first line of...

    • POEM 37 Fun’ya no Asayasu
      (pp. 252-254)

      Almost nothing is known of this poet (read in some Edo texts as “Tomoyasu,” dates unknown) except that he was a son of Yasuhide (Poem 22), one of the Six Poetic Immortals. Moreover, only three of his poems are extant: one in theKokinshūand this and one other in theGosenshū.

      Although the headnote in theGosenshūstates that this poem was written during the reign of Emperor Daigo (r. 897–930), it is found inThe Empress’ Poetry Contest of the Kanpyō Eraand in theShinsen Man’yō Shū(both circa 893) and hence is clearly a product...

    • POEM 38 Ukon
      (pp. 255-257)

      Ukon (dates uncertain) was the daughter of Lesser Captain of the Left Bodyguards(ukon’e no shōshō)Fujiwara no Suenawa (the infamous lover called “the Lesser Captain of Katano”). Her sobriquet comes from her father’s position. She was a lady-in-waiting to Emperor Daigo’s empress Onshi and is known to have had liaisons with Fujiwara no Atsutada, Morosuke, Asatada, and Minamoto no Shitagō. There is a set of five anecdotes about her (Episodes 81–85) in the mid-tenth-centuryTales of Yamato (Yamato Monogatari). She was an active participant in poetry contests. She has five poems in theGosenshū,three in theShūishū,...

    • POEM 39 Consultant Hitoshi
      (pp. 258-259)

      Sangi Minamoto no Hitoshi (880–951) held many provincial posts, but his career as a poet is not clear. He has only four anthologized poems, all collected in theGosenshū.

      The first two lines are a common preface(jo)to the verbshinobu(“to love secretly”), due to the sound repetitionshinohara shinobu. The idea of scarcity in “sparse reeds” and “low bamboo” is nicely reversed in the fourth line withamarite(“it overwhelms me”—literally, “it is too much”). The last line can be translated as “why is it / that I must love her so?” or “why is...

    • POEM 40 Taira no Kanemori
      (pp. 260-262)

      Kanemori (d. 990) was a descendant of Emperor Kōkō (Poem 15). He is a representative poet of theGosenshūperiod, the second imperial anthology, ordered in 950. Three of his poems, although labeled “anonymous,” are in theGosenshū;he is credited with thirty-eight in theShūishūand forty-six in the remaining imperial anthologies. He is counted as one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, and a collection of his poetry survives.

      This poem and the next, by Mibu no Tadmi (Poem 41) are presented together at the very beginning of the first book of love poems in theShūishūwith a...

    • POEM 41 Mibu no Tadami
      (pp. 263-265)

      Tadami (dates uncertain) was a son of Mibu no Tadamine (Poem 30) and is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. A personal poetry collection survives, and he has one poem in theGosenshū,fourteen in theShūishū,and twenty-two in later imperial anthologies.

      This poem was matched against that by Kanemori (Poem 40) in the Palace Poetry Contest of 960 and lost. As recorded inThe Collection of Sand and Pebbles(Shaseki Shū,composed 1279–1283) by priest Mujū, legend had it that Tadami was so distraught that he stopped eating, sickened, and died as a result. His personal poetry...

    • POEM 42 Kiyohara no Motosuke
      (pp. 266-268)

      Motosuke (908–990) was the grandson of Fukayabu (Poem 36) and the father of Sei Shōnagon (Poem 62). One of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, he was also one of the editors of the second imperial anthology, theGosenshū(ca. 951). A collection of his poetry is extant. He has forty-eight poems in theShūishūand fifty-eight in later imperial anthologies.

      This poem alludes to another famous verse recorded in theKokinshū20 (Court Poetry): 1093:

      The headnote to Motosuke’s poem in theGoShūishūreads: “To a woman whose feelings had changed, on behalf of someone else.” In other words, Motosuke...

    • POEM 43 Supernumerary Middle Counselor Atsutada
      (pp. 269-271)

      GonChūnagon Fujiwara no Atsutada (906–943) was the third son of the powerful minister Tokihira. He was renowned for his poetic ability and appears in episodes of theTales of Yamatowith other poets such as Ukon (Poem 38). He is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and has an extant personal poetry collection. He has ten poems in theGosenshūand twenty in later imperial anthologies.

      This poem appears in theShūishūas “topic unknown.” In the earlier draft of this anthology, theShūishō,however, the headnote reads: “Sent the next morning, after he had started visiting the woman.”...

    • POEM 44 Middle Counselor Asatada
      (pp. 272-274)

      Chūnagon Fujiwara no Asatada (910–966); (read “Tomotada” in many of the Edo-period editions) was the fifth son of Sadakata (Poem 25). One of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, he has four poems in theGosenshūand seventeen more in the remaining imperial anthologies.

      This poem comes from the same poetry competition of a.d. 960 as Poems 40 and 41. It is included in the first book of love poems in theShūishū,grouped among poems about “love before the first meeting”(imada ahazaru kohi). In this context the poem might be translated: “If there were no such thing as a...

    • POEM 45 Lord Kentoku (Fujiwara no Koremasa)
      (pp. 275-277)

      Kentokukō—Fujiwara no Koremasa (also read “Koretada”, 924–972)—was the eldest son of Morosuke and regent(sesshō)from 970. He was involved in the planning of the second imperial anthology, theGosenshū. He edited a collection of his own poetry into a poem-tale about a fictional character named Toyokage; it is now found in his larger personal poetry collection,The Collected Poems of the First Ward Regent (Ichijō Sesshō GyoShū). He has thirty-seven poems in imperial anthologies.

      This poem appears in theShūishūwith the headnote: “When a woman he had been seeing later became cold and would not...

    • POEM 46 Sone no Yoshitada
      (pp. 278-280)

      Virtually nothing is known about this poet. He was active in the latter half of the eleventh century and was a secretary(jō)in Tango province, from which came his sobriquets “Sotango” or “Sotan.” He has a personal poetry collection, theSotan Shū,but his verse was considered eccentric and was little valued until Teika’s day. Thus the majority of his eighty-nine poems in imperial anthologies appear in theShikashū(compiled 1151–1154) and theShinKokinshū(compiled 1205). TheYoshitada Hyakushuis one of the earliest examples of a hundred-poem sequence.

      There are a number of points of contention in...

    • POEM 47 Master of the Law Egyō
      (pp. 281-283)

      Egyō Hōshi (also sometimes read “Ekei”; dates unknown) was active in the latter half of the tenth century and is a representative poet of theShūishūperiod. He associated closely with such other poets as Shigeyuki (Poem 48), Yoshinobu (Poem 49), and Motosuke (Poem 42), who frequently congregated at the Kawara mansion of Priest Anpō. Anpō was a descendant of Minamoto no Tōru (Poem 14), who built the famous Kawara In on the western bank of the Kamo River. Egyō is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals(chūko sanjūrokkasen),and a collection of his poetry is extant. He...

    • POEM 48 Minamoto no Shigeyuki
      (pp. 284-286)

      Shigeyuki’s dates are uncertain; he seems to have died in 1001. An associate of Kanemori (Poem 40) and Sanekata (Poem 51), he is one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. A collection of his poetry survives, and he has sixty-seven poems in theShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem is described as “one composed when [Shigeyuki] submitted a hundred-poem sequence, during the time the Retired Emperor Reizei was still called the crown prince.” Reizei was crown prince from 950 to 967. Hundred–poem sequences(hyakushu)did not become popular until the late Heian period, a trend marked by the “Horikawa...

    • POEM 49 Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu
      (pp. 287-289)

      Yoshinobu (921–991) was one of the “Five Gentlemen of the Pear Chamber”(nashi-tsubo no gonin)who edited theGosenshū. He was grandfather to Ise no Tayū (Poem 61). He is also one of the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and a self-edited collection of his poetry is extant. He has 125 poems in theShūishūand later imperial anthologies. Since this poem does not appear in Yoshinobu’s own collection of poetry and appears in theKokin Rokujōas anonymous, it is unlikely that the poem is in fact by Yoshinobu.

      Disagreement centers on the linehiru ha kie—what does it...

    • POEM 50 Fujiwara no Yoshitaka
      (pp. 290-292)

      Yoshitaka (954–974) died at the age of twenty-one of smallpox. He was the third son of Koremasa (Poem 45) and father of the great calligrapher Yukinari. He is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, and a collection of his poetry is extant. There are twelve of his poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to the poem states that it was sent after returning home from a woman’s house. In other words, this is a “morning after” poem, sent after the man had spent the night with the woman for the first time. The...

    • POEM 51 Lord Fujiwara no Sanekata
      (pp. 293-295)

      Fujiwara no Sanekata Ason died in 994 at around the age of forty. He was a great-grandchild of Tadahira (Poem 26). He has sixty-seven poems in theShūishūand later imperial anthologies, and a personal poetry collection survives. He is counted among the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals.

      In theGoShūishūthe headnote states that this poem was the first sent to the woman when the poet was starting to woo her. Hence we must read it as a first declaration of love, in essence saying: “I love you deeply, but you probably don’t even know I exist.” This poem...

    • POEM 52 Lord Fujiwara no Michinobu
      (pp. 296-297)

      Fujiwara no Michinobu Ason (972–994) was adopted by Fujiwara no Kane’ie, husband of Michitsuna no Haha (Poem 53). He died at the age of twenty-three. A collection of his poetry is extant, and he has forty-eight poems in theShūishūand later imperial anthologies. He is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals.

      TheGoShūishūheadnote identifies this as a “morning after” poem(kinu-ginu no uta). Most commentaries are in agreement as to its basic meaning, but theMinazuki Shō(late Muromachi period) interprets the poem as written from the woman’s point of view. Ariyoshi speaks of the...

    • POEM 53 The Mother of Major Captain of the Right Michitsuna
      (pp. 298-300)

      Udaishō Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 937–995) was a secondary wife of Fujiwara no Kane’ie, by whom she had her son Michitsuna. A skilled poet, she was also reputed to be one of the three most beautiful women of her day. She is best known for her autobiographicalKagerō Nikki, The Gossamer Journal,which describes her marriage with Kane’ie. She is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and has thirty-six poems in theShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      In theShūishū,the headnote to this poem reads: “Once when the Buddhist Novice Regent (Nyūdō Sesshō) [Kane’ie] had come...

    • POEM 54 The Mother of the Supernumerary Grand Minister
      (pp. 301-303)

      Gidōsanshi no Haha, Takako (or Kishi) (d. 996), was a daughter of Takashina no Naritada. She was married to Fujiwara no Michitaka and was the mother of Sadako (or Teishi), the first empress of Emperor Ichijō and patron of Sei Shōnagon (Poem 62). Her title comes from her son Korechika, who in 1005 was given the privileges “equivalent to the Three Ministers” (Chancellor, Minister of the Left, and Minister of the Right), orgidōsanshi.The Great Mirror (Ōkagami)gives a succinct biography of her:

      Even the women in Naritada’s family are learned. Kishi, the mother of Michitaka’s daughters, is the...

    • POEM 55 Major Counselor Kintō
      (pp. 304-306)

      Dainagon Fujiwara no Kintō (966–1041) was the poetic arbiter elegantiarum of his day. He edited theWakan Rōei Shū(ca. 1013) and authored such poetic treatises as theWaka KuhonandShinsen Zuinō (The Essentials of Poetry, Newly Compiled). HisSanjūrokunin Senestablished the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, and hisKingyoku Shū (Collection of Gold and Jewels)is also an anthology of exemplary poems. HisShūi Shōbecame the basis for the third imperial anthology. He was the grandson of Tadahira (Poem 26) and the father of Sadayori (Poem 64). He has his own collection of poems and eighty-nine poems...

    • POEM 56 Izumi Shikibu
      (pp. 307-309)

      Shikibu’s dates are uncertain, but she appears to have been born sometime between 976 and 979. She was a daughter of Ōe no Masamune. Her mother was a daughter of Taira no Yasuhira. She married Tachibana no Michisada, a governor of Izumi province (from which comes the “Izumi” of her sobriquet) and had a daughter by him called KoShikibu (Poem 60), herself a respected poet. Later she had relationships with Prince Tametaka (d. 1002) and his half-brother Atsumichi (d. 1007). Her courtship with the latter is depicted inThe Diary of Izumi Shikibu (Izumi Shikibu Nikki).⁹ Later still, she served...

    • POEM 57 Murasaki Shikibu
      (pp. 310-312)

      Murasaki Shikibu’s dates are uncertain. The daughter of Fujiwara no Tametoki, a governor of Echigo, she was married to Fujiwara no Nobutaka in 998 and gave birth to a daughter, Daini no Sanmi (Poem 58). They had not been married three years when Nobutaka died. In 1005 Murasaki Shikibu became a lady-in-waiting to Empress Shōshi. She is the author ofThe Tale of Genji,as well as a diary(Murasaki Shikibu Nikki)and a collection of poems(Murasaki Shikibu Shū). She has sixty poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies and is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic...

    • POEM 58 Daini no Sanmi
      (pp. 313-315)

      Daini no Sanmi (dates uncertain) was the daughter of Murasaki Shikibu (Poem 57). She served Empress Shōshi, and in 1037 she married Takashina no Nari’akira, the Senior Assistant Governor-General of Dazaifu(Daini). She was the wet nurse of Emperor GoReizei (r. 1045–1068), and was promoted to the Third Rank(sanmi). A collection of her poems is extant and she has thirty-seven poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem reads: “Composed when a man who had grown distant said, ‘I am uneasy [that your feelings for me have changed].’” The whole first half of...

    • POEM 59 Akazome Emon
      (pp. 316-318)

      Emon (dates unknown) was the daugher of Akazome no Tokimochi. She served Fujiwara no Michinaga’s principal wife, Rinshi, as well as Ichijō’s Empress Shōshi (Rinshi’s daughter). She married the historian Ōe no Masahira. She is credited with the authorship of the first thirty books of the vernacular historyA Tale of Flowering Fortunes (Eiga Monogatari).16A collection of her poetry is also extant. She has ninety-three poems in theShūishūand later imperial anthologies and is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. She is described by her fellow lady-in-waiting, Murasaki Shikibu (Poem 57), as follows:

      The wife of...

    • POEM 60 Handmaid KoShikibu
      (pp. 319-321)

      KoShikibu no Naishi, the only child of Izumi Shikibu (Poem 56), died in 1025 while still in her late twenties. Like her mother, she too served Empress Shōshi. She has no personal poetry collection and has only four poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem is preceded in theKin’yōshūby a rather lengthy headnote:

      When Izumi Shikibu was in the province of Tango, having accompanied [her husband] Yasumasa, there was a poetry contest in the capital and Handmaid KoShikibu was chosen as one of the poets. Middle Counselor Sadayori came to her room in the palace...

    • POEM 61 Ise no Tayū
      (pp. 322-324)

      Ise no Tayū (also pronounced “Ise-dayū” and “Ise no Ōsuke”), dates uncertain, was a daughter of Ōnakatomi no Sukechika and granddaughter of Yoshinobu (Poem 49). She married Takashina no Narinobu and became the mother of many well-known poets. She served Empress Shōshi along with Izumi Shikibu (Poem 56) and Murasaki Shikibu (Poem 57). A collection of her poems is extant and she is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. She has fifty-one poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      In theShikashūthis poem’s headnote reads:

      During the time of Emperor Ichijō, someone presented eight-petalled cherry blossoms...

    • POEM 62 Sei Shōnagon
      (pp. 325-327)

      Sei Shōnagon (dates uncertain), a daughter of Kiyohara no Motosuke (Poem 42), served Empress Teishi until the latter’s death in the year 1000. She recorded the splendors of Teishi’s court, and the riches of her own wit, in herPillow Book (Makura no Sōshi),for which she is best remembered. Although she is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals, she has only four poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem and its accompanying anecdote appear originally inThe Pillow Book:

      One evening Yukinari, the Controller First Secretary, came to the Empress’s Office and stayed there...

    • POEM 63 Master of the Western Capital Michimasa
      (pp. 328-330)

      Sakyō no Daibu was Fujiwara no Michimasa (992–1054). The capital of Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) was divided into eastern and western sectors (literally, Right and Left), each of which was under the control of an administrative office headed by a “master,” ordaibu.24Michimasa was a son of Korechika (see also Poem 54); he spent the latter half of his life in elegant retirement after his family was supplanted by Michinaga. He has only six poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The occasion for this poem is recounted in theGoShūishū:

      He was secretly seeing somone who had...

    • POEM 64 Supernumerary Middle Counselor Sadayori
      (pp. 331-333)

      GonChūnagon Fujiwara no Sadayori (995–1045), son of Kintō (Poem 55), is the antagonist in KoShikibu no Naishi’s poem (Poem 60).28He has forty-five poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies and is counted one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. A collection of his poems survives.

      Most commentators, medieval and modern, follow the headnote to this poem—which declares that it was written when the poet was at Uji River—and take the poem as a description of an actual landscape before the poet’s eyes. However, as early as theŌei Shōwe see an insistence that...

    • POEM 65 Sagami
      (pp. 334-336)

      Sagami’s dates are uncertain; she was probably born sometime between 995 and 1003. She is thought to be a daughter of Minamoto no Yorimitsu. Her mother was a daughter of Yoshishige no Yasuaki. Her sobriquet comes from her husband, Ōe no Kin’yori, a governor of Sagami province. After separating from him she entered the service of the imperial princess Shūshi. She has a personal poetry collection, forty poems in theGoShūishū,and sixty-nine in the remaining imperial anthologies. She is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals.

      While the basic sense of this poem is clear, commentators have long...

    • POEM 66 Major Archbishop Gyōson
      (pp. 337-339)

      DaiSōjō Gyōson (1055–1135) was a son of Minamoto no Motohira. He entered the priesthood at the age of twelve and became renowned as ayamabushi,or mountain ascetic. He was also a prolific poet, and a collection of his poetry is extant. He has forty-eight poems in theKin’yōshūand later imperial collections.

      Scholars are still divided today over the correct interpretation of this poem. It is not the poem itself that is problematic, however, but its headnote, which in theKin’yōshūreads: “Composed when he saw cherry blossoms unexpectedly at Ōmine.” The debate is over the meaning of...

    • POEM 67 The Suō Handmaid
      (pp. 340-342)

      Suō no Naishi˙s personal name was Nakako (dates uncertain). Her sobriquet comes from her father, Taira no Munenaka, the governor of Suō province. She served emperors GoReizei, Shirakawa and Horikawa, and participated in various poetry contests. A collection of her poetry survives. She has thirty-five poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem reads:

      Around the Second Month, on a night when the moon was bright, several people were passing the night at the Nijō In, talking about this and that, when the Suō Handmaid, half-reclining, said softly, “Ah, I wish I had a pillow!”...

    • POEM 68 Retired Emperor Sanjō
      (pp. 343-345)

      Sanjō In (976–1017) reigned from 1011 to 1016. Prone to illness, he was forced to abdicate to make room for Michinaga’s grandson GoIchijō. He has no personal poetry collection and only eight poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem reads: “When he was not feeling well, and considering abdicating, he looked at the brightness of the moon [and composed the following].” The account inA Tale of Flowering Fortunes (Eiga Monogatari)is more detailed:

      Emperor Sanjō’s illness persisted. … Meanwhile, the end of the year approached. Most people were busy and excited, but...

    • POEM 69 Master of the Law Nōin
      (pp. 346-348)

      Nōin Hōshi was born in 988 as Tachibana no Nagayasu. Originally he studied at the imperial university, but he took vows at the age of twenty-six and traveled through many provinces composing poetry. He studied poetry under Fujiwara no Nagatō (also read “Nagayoshi”), which became a precedent for “learning from a master”(shishō)in the “way of poetry”(kadō). A collection of his poetry is extant, as well as a collection of poetry edited by him, theGengen Shū,and a poetic treatise, theNōin Uta-makura. He has sixty-five poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies, and he is...

    • POEM 70 Master of the Law Ryōzen
      (pp. 349-350)

      Ryōzen Hōshi (dates uncertain) was active during the reigns of GoSuzaku (r. 1036–1045) and GoReizei (r. 1045–1068) and participated in several poetry contests. He has thirty-one poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem is preceded by no explanation(dai shirazu)in theGoShūishū. The commentaries are in general agreement. It is the last two lines that have elicited the most comment, and even today there is disagreement whether the fourth line is a full stop(shi ku-gire)or whether “the same” modifies “evening”(rentaikei). The translation offered here preserves this ambiguity. TheKaikan Shō(1688)...

    • POEM 71 Major Counselor Tsunenobu
      (pp. 351-353)

      Dainagon Minamoto no Tsunenobu (1016–1097) was the father of Toshiyori (Poem 74) and grandfather of Shun’e (Poem 85). His poetry is first seen in the “Poetry Contest on Famous Place-Names at Princess Yūshi’s Residence” (Yūshi Naishinnō-ke Meisho Uta-awase;see Poem 72). He was a poetic rival of Fujiwara no Michitoshi and compiled a countercollection to the latter’sGoShūishūimperial anthology. A collection of his poetry survives, and he has eighty-six poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies. He is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals.

      The headnote to this poem states that it was composed on...

    • POEM 72 Kii of Princess Yūshi’s Household
      (pp. 354-356)

      Yūshi Naishinnō-ke no Kii (dates uncertain) was a daughter of Taira no Tsunekata and a Lady KoBen, who also served the Imperial Princess Yūshi (in whose salon the author of theSarashina Nikkialso participated). She took part in several poetry contests and has a collection of poetry extant, sometimes called theIchi-no-Miya no Kii Shū,following another of her sobriquets. She has thirty-one poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem was presented at the “Love Letter Competition”(kesō-bumi awase)held during the time of Retired Emperor Horikawa in 1102. It was pitted as a response to...

    • POEM 73 Supernumerary Middle Counselor Masafusa
      (pp. 357-359)

      GonChūnagon Ōe no Masafusa (sometimes read “Tadafusa,” 1041–1111) was a “confidant,” orkinshin,of Retired Emperor Horikawa and participated in such poetry contests as the Horikawa Hyakushu. He was famous as a poet in Chinese as well. He was the source of several books, including a collection of anecdotes,The Ōe Conversations (Gōdan Shō),41and a collection of his Japanese poetry, theGō no Sochi Shū. He has 119 poems in theGoShūishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem reads: “Composed on the sentiment(kokoro)of gazing at mountain cherries far away, when a group of...

    • POEM 74 Lord Minamoto no Toshiyori
      (pp. 360-362)

      Minamoto no Toshiyori Ason (1055–1129)—his given name is also read “Shunrai”—son of Tsunenobu (Poem 71) and father of Shun’e (Poem 85). The leading poet of his day, he arranged the Horikawa Hyakushu and edited the fifth imperial anthology, theKin’yōshū. He also left a poetic treatise, theToshiyori Zuinō,and a collection of his own poetry in ten books, theSanboku Kika Shū. He has over two hundred poems in theKin’yōshūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem reads:

      Composed on the sentiment(kokoro)of “love for a woman who will not meet one...

    • POEM 75 Fujiwara no Mototoshi
      (pp. 363-365)

      Mototoshi (1060–1142), together with Toshiyori (Poem 74), was a leading poet of the Insei period (1086–1185).44A collection of his poetry is extant, and he has 105 poems in theKin’yōshūand later imperial anthologies. He is one of the Late Classical Six Poetic Immortals.

      The headnote to this poem reads:

      When [Mototoshi’s son] Bishop Kōkaku requested to be made a Lecturer for the Vimalakīrti Ceremony, he was repeatedly overlooked, so [Mototoshi] complained to Former Chancellor [Tadamichi], the Buddhist Novice of Hosshōji. Although Tadamichi said, “‘The fields of Shimeji …’ [i.e., rely on me],” when his son was...

    • POEM 76 Former Prime Minister and Chancellor, the Hosshōji Buddhist Novice (Fujiwara no Tadamichi)
      (pp. 366-368)

      Hosshōji Nyūdō Saki no Kanpaku Daijōdaijin was Fujiwara no Tadamichi (1097–1164). Son of Tadazane (1078–1162), he succeeded his father as Kanpaku in 1121, became regent(sesshō)on the accession of Sutoku in 1123, and then again on the accession of Konoe in 1141. After the death of Konoe in 1155, Tadamichi supported the selection of Toba’s son Masahito (the future Emperor GoShirakawa) as emperor but was opposed by his own brother, Yorinaga (1120–1156), who supported Retired Emperor Sutoku’s reaccession. This conflict led to the Hōgen Disturbance of 1156, during which Yorinaga was killed.

      Tadamichi was the recipient...

    • POEM 77 Retired Emperor Sutoku
      (pp. 369-371)

      Sutoku In (often read “Shutoku” in early texts; 1119–1164) reigned 1123–1141 as the seventy-fifth sovereign. Eldest son of Emperor Toba, he succeeded his father at the age of five but was made to abdicate in favor of his younger brother, Konoe. When Konoe died, Toba placed another of his sons, GoShirakawa, on the throne rather than one of Sutoku’s, and this led to an armed conflict known as the Hōgen Disturbance of 1156. Sutoku’s side lost, and he was exiled to Sanuki province on the island of Shikoku, where he died in 1164. He sponsored many hundred-poem competitions...

    • POEM 78 Minamoto no Kanemasa
      (pp. 372-374)

      Kanemasa (dates uncertain) participated in many poetry contests during the time of Retired Emperor Horikawa. There is no collection of his poems, and he has only seven poems in theKin’yōshūand later imperial anthologies.

      Although this poem is grammatically irregular, there is surprisingly little debate over its basic meaning. Whilenezamenuwould usually mean “do not wake,” all commentators agree that the meaning is affirmative and perfective (“have they awakened him”), although their grammatical rationalizations vary.⁶ Far more debate has gone into the question of whether the verbkayofumeans that the plovers are coming from Awaji (Yūsai and...

    • POEM 79 Master of the Western Capital Akisuke
      (pp. 375-377)

      Akisuke is Sakyō no Daibu Fujiwara no Akisuke (1090–1155). The capital of Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) was divided into eastern and western sectors (literally, Right and Left), each of which was under the control of an administrative office headed by a “master,” ordaibu.⁹ Akisuke was the father of Kiyosuke (Poem 84) and Kenshō and founded the Rokujō school of poets who opposed the new styles championed by the Mikohidari, led by Teika’s father, Shunzei (Poem 83). Akisuke was commissioned by Emperor Sutoku (Poem 77) to compile the sixth imperial anthology, theShikashū. He has a personal collection of poems...

    • POEM 80 Horikawa of the Taikenmon In
      (pp. 378-380)

      Taikenmon In no Horikawa (dates uncertain) was a daughter of Minamoto no Akinaka. She served Taikenmon In, Emperor Toba’s consort and the mother of Emperor Sutoku (Poem 77). One of the Late Classical Six Poetic Immortals, she has a personal poetry collection and has sixty-six poems in theKin’yōshūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem in theSenzaishūreads: “When submitting a hundred-poem sequence, composed on the sentiment of love(kohi no kokoro).” Early commentaries (theYoritaka-bon, Chōkyō Shō, Komezawa-bon,andMinazuki Shō) insisted that this was a “morning after”(kinu-ginu)poem written after the lovers had...

    • POEM 81 The Later Tokudaiji Minister of the Left (Fujiwara no Sanesada)
      (pp. 381-382)

      GoTokudaiji Sadaijin Fujiwara no Sanesada (1139–1191) was a nephew of Shunzei (Poem 83) and first cousin to Teika (Poem 97). He was called “the Later” to distinguish him from his grandfather, Saneyoshi, who was known by the same sobriquet. A diary and a personal poetry collection, theRinka Shū,survive, and he has seventy-eight poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem was composed on a set topic(dai):“Hearing thehototogisuat dawn”(akatsuki ni hototogisu wo kiku). According to Ariyoshi, the “essential character”(hon’i)of this topic is “waiting up all night, from midnight to...

    • POEM 82 Master of the Law Dōin
      (pp. 383-385)

      Dōin Hōshi (1090–?1179), whose secular name was Fujiwara no Atsuyori, was a son of Kiyotaka. He took the tonsure in 1172. From the Eiryaku era (1160) on he was a participant in the major poetic events of his day and a member of the “Garden in the Poetic Woods” (Karin’en), a circle of some three dozen poets that gathered about Shun’e (Poem 85). None of Dōin’s poetic collections has survived, but he has forty-one poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem is based on a somewhat contrived contrast between the poet’s “life” and his “tears”: while...

    • POEM 83 Master of the Grand Empress’ Palace Shunzei
      (pp. 386-388)

      Kōtaikō-gū no Daibu Shunzei, Fujiwara no Toshinari (1114–1204), was the poetic arbiter of his day and the father of Teika (Poem 97). He edited the seventh imperial anthology, theSenzaishū. His personal poetry collection is entitled theChōshū Eisō. He has 452 poems in theShikashūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem reads: “Composed on ‘deer,’ when composing a hundred-poem sequence on ‘personal grievances’(jukkai).”Omohi-iruis a pivot word:omohi-iru,“to set one’s heart on, be possessed with an idea”;iru,“to enter” (the mountains). Medieval commentaries concerned themselves chiefly with what the poet has...

    • POEM 84 Lord Fujiwara no Kiyosuke
      (pp. 389-391)

      Fujiwara no Kiyosuke Ason (1104–1177) was the second son of Akisuke (Poem 79), with whom he frequently disagreed but from whom he eventually inherited the leadership of the Rokujō school of poetry. He compiled theShokuShikashūfor Emperor Nijō, but the emperor died before it was completed, preventing it from being officially made an imperial anthology. Kiyosuke is also known for his works on poetics, especially theŌgi Shōand theFukuro-zōshi. He has a personal poetry collection and is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. He has ninety-four poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies....

    • POEM 85 Master of the Law Shun’e
      (pp. 392-394)

      Shun’e Hōshi (b. 1113) was the son of Minamoto no Toshiyori (Poem 74). He lived near Shirakawa in a residence called “The Garden in the Poetic Woods” (Karin’en), where he gathered a wide range of poets and held poetry meetings and contests. Among his students was Kamo no Chōmei, who recorded many of Shun’e’s words in a work called theMumyō Shō.23Shun’e’s own personal poetry collection is called theRin’yō Shū. He is one of the Late Classical Six Poetic Immortals and has eighty-three poems in theShikashūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote of this poem says that...

    • POEM 86 Master of the Law Saigyō
      (pp. 395-397)

      Saigyō Hōshi (1118–1190), born Satō no Norikiyo, took vows at the age of twenty-three. He was a friend of Shunzei (Poem 83) and became famous for his poetic wanderings throughout Japan. He has several personal poetry anthologies; the best known is theSanka Shū.26He has 266 poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      In theSenzaishūthe topic of this poem is given as “love before the moon.” In Saigyō’sSanka Shūits topic is given as “the moon” in a section of thirty-seven love poems. Almost all commentaries agree that the poem is in the persona...

    • POEM 87 Master of the Law Jakuren
      (pp. 398-399)

      Jakuren Hōshi (d. 1202) was born Fujiwara no Sadanaga. A nephew of Shunzei (Poem 83), he was one of the poets of the Mikohidari house, along with Teika (Poem 97) and Ietaka (Poem 98). He was one of the editors of theShinKokinshū,as well, but died before its completion. He has a personal poetry collection and has 117 poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      There is little basic disagreement about this descriptive poem, whose pictorial diction Ariyoshi suggests is based on monochrome ink-painting. Interpretations fall into two camps, however, over the issue of whether the poem’s main...

    • POEM 88 The Steward of Kōkamon In
      (pp. 400-402)

      Kōkamon In no Bettō (dates unknown) was the daughter of Minamoto no Toshitaka and served Emperor Sutoku’s empress Seishi, who was later known as Kōkamon In. Lady Bettō, as she is sometimes called, has only nine poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      TheSenzaishūstates that this poem was composed for a poetry contest on the topic of “love meeting at travel lodgings”(tabi no yado ni afu kohi). As the length of the translation suggests, this poem is a tour de force of pivot words(kake-kotoba).Kari-nemeans both “cut root” and “temporary sleep,” as on a...

    • POEM 89 Princess Shokushi
      (pp. 403-405)

      Shokushi Naishinnō (also read “Shikishi”; d. 1201) was a daughter of Emperor GoShirakawa. She served as Kamo Priestess from 1159 to 1169. She studied poetry under Shunzei (Poem 83), and it was for her instruction that he produced hisKorai Fūtei Shō. She has a personal poetry collection and has 155 poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.30

      This poem is given in theShinKokinshūas composed on the topic “hidden love”(shinobu kohi)from a hundred-poem sequence. There is general agreement on the poem’s meaning except for the interpretations found in theKamijō-bonand theMinazuki Shō,both...

    • POEM 90 Inpumon In no Tayū
      (pp. 406-408)

      Dates uncertain, she lived sometime between 1131 and 1200. She was a daughter of Fujiwara no Nobunari and served Emperor GoShirakawa’s daughter, Princess Ryōshi, called Inpumon In. She was a member of the poetic circle that centered on “the Garden in the Poetic Forest” (Karin’en) of Shun’e (Poem 85) and participated in many of its poetry contests. She has a personal poetry collection and has sixty-three poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      The headnote to this poem indicates that it was composed on the topic of “love” for a poetry contest, probably one held at the Karin’en. The...

    • POEM 91 The GoKyōgoku Regent and Former Chancellor (Fujiwara no Yoshitsune)
      (pp. 409-411)

      GoKyōgoku Sesshō Saki no Daijō Daijin was Fujiwara no Yoshitsune (1169–1206). A son of Kanezane, his grandfather was Jien (Poem 95). He was a member of the Mikohidari poetic family, an editor of theShinKokinshū,and the author of its Japanese preface. Although he died at the early age of thirty-seven, a personal poetry collection, theAkishino Gessei Shū,is extant. He has 319 poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies, 78 of them in theShinKokinshūalone—the most of any poet after Saigyō (Poem 86) and Jien. He is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic...

    • POEM 92 Sanuki of Nijō In
      (pp. 412-414)

      Nijō In no Sanuki was a daughter of Minamoto no Yorimasa. She lived from around 1141 to about 1217 and served first Retired Emperor Nijō (whence her sobriquet) and later GoToba’s empress, Ninshi. Along with Shokushi (Poem 89), Sanuki was one of the leading female poets of her day and is counted among the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals. A collection of her early poetry is extant, and she has seventy-three poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      TheSenzaishūindicates that this poem was composed on the topic “love like a rock”(ishi ni yosuru kohi),and commentators...

    • POEM 93 The Kamakura Minister of the Right (Minamoto no Sanetomo)
      (pp. 415-417)

      Kamakura no Udaijin was Minamoto no Sanetomo (1192–1219). He was the second son of Yoritomo, the founder of the Kamakura shogunate, and became shogun himself on the death of his older brother. He was assassinated at the age of twenty-eight. He studied poetry under Teika and received Teika’sSuperior Poems of Our Times (Kindai Shūka)as a manual of instruction. He was particularly fond of poetry in theMan’yōstyle. His personal poetry collection is entitled theKinkai Waka Shū,and he has ninety-three poems in theShinChokusenshūand later imperial anthologies.

      This poem was classified by Teika as...

    • POEM 94 Consultant Masatsune
      (pp. 418-420)

      Sangi Fujiwara no Masatsune (1170–1221) founded the Asukai house of poets and calligraphers. He studied poetry with Shunzei (Poem 83) and was one of the editors of theShinKokinshū. His personal poetry collection is called theAsukai Shū,and he has 134 poems in theShinKokinshūand later imperial anthologies. He is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals.

      TheShinKokinshūindicates that this poem was composed “on the sentiment of ‘fulling cloth’ ”(tōi no kokoro),the practice of pounding fabric to bring out a glossy sheen. From theAsukai Shūwe know that the poem comes...

    • POEM 95 Former Major Archbishop Jien
      (pp. 421-423)

      Saki no DaiSōjō Jien (1155–1225) was a son of Tadamichi (Poem 76). He participated in many of the poetic events sponsored by GoToba and was a member of the poetic circle of his nephew Yoshitsune (Poem 91) and Teika. He has a personal poetry anthology, theShūgyoku Shū (Collection of Gathered Jewels),and is the best-represented poet in theShinKokinshūafter Saigyō (Poem 86). He is perhaps best known today for his historiographic work, theGukan Shō(The Future and the Past;1219–1220). He is one of the Late Classical Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals and has 267 poems in...

    • POEM 96 The Former Chancellor and Lay Novice (Fujiwara no Kintsune)
      (pp. 424-426)

      Nyūdō Saki no Daijō Daijin, born Fujiwara no Kintsune (1171–1244), was founder of the Sai’onji branch of the Fujiwara clan. He was married to a niece of Minamoto no Yoritomo and eventually became the grandfather of the shogun Yoritsune. Teika was married to his older sister and received his protection and patronage. Kintsune was active in court poetry circles and is the fourth best represented poet in theShinChokusenshū,which Teika edited. He has 114 poems in theShinKokinshūand later imperial anthologies.

      Medieval commentaries concerned themselves with establishing what they understood to be the implied contrast between the...

    • POEM 97 Supernumerary Middle Counselor Teika
      (pp. 427-429)

      GonChūnagon Fujiwara no Teika (also read “Sada’ie”; 1162–1241) was the son of Shunzei (Poem 83). He was one of the editors of theShinKokinshūand later edited theShinChokusenshūby himself. He collated and edited many of the classics of Japanese literature, such asThe Tale of Genji. His descendants exercised a near monopoly on Japanese court-style poetry for centuries after his death. His personal poetry collection is entitled theShūi Gusōand he has 465 poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies. He is the compiler of theOne Hundred Poets.

      This poem was written for a...

    • POEM 98 Ietaka of the Junior Second Rank
      (pp. 430-433)

      JuNi’i Fujiwara no Ietaka (also read “Karyū”; 1158–1237) had the sobriquet “Mibu Nihon.” He became son-in-law to Jakuren (Poem 87) and studied poetry with Shunzei (Poem 83). He was a member of GoToba’s poetic circle and one of the editors of theShinKokinshū. He has a personal poetry collection known both as theMini Shū(after his sobriquet) and theGyokugin Shū (Collection of Jewelled Songs). He has 282 poems in theSenzaishūand later imperial anthologies.

      There is no real disagreement among commentators over this poem. As early as theKeikō Shō,Ietaka’s verse was identified as an...

    • POEM 99 Retired Emperor GoToba
      (pp. 434-436)

      GoToba In (1180–1239; r. 1183–1198), the fourth son of Emperor Takakura, was counted as the eighty-second sovereign. He was placed on the throne at the age of four and abdicated at nineteen. A great patron of the arts, he was a dedicated poet who sponsored the compilation of theShinKokinshūand worked closely with its editors. He and Teika eventually fell out over poetic matters. Politically he rebelled against the Kamakura military government in what is known as the Jōkyū Rebellion of 1221. GoToba’s forces were defeated, and he was exiled to the island of Oki, where he...

    • POEM 100 Retired Emperor Juntoku
      (pp. 437-440)

      Juntoku In (1197–1242; r. 1210–1221) was the third son of GoToba (Poem 99) and was numbered as the eighty-fourth sovereign of Japan. He joined his father’s cause during the Jōkyū Rebellion of 1221 against the military power in Kamakura. He studied poetry under Teika and was a frequent participant in the poetry events sponsored by GoToba. After the defeat of the rebellion, he was exiled to Sado Island, where he lived for twenty years. He has a personal poetry collection and a poetic treatise, theYakumo MiShō. He has 159 poems in theShokuGosenshūand later imperial anthologies....

  8. APPENDIXES

    • APPENDIX A Imperial Anthologies and Exemplary Collections
      (pp. 443-444)
    • APPENDIX B One Hundred Poets: Selected Copies, Editions, and Commentaries
      (pp. 445-448)
  9. NOTES
    (pp. 449-474)
  10. CHARACTER GLOSSARY
    (pp. 475-486)
  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 487-498)
  12. PICTURE CREDITS
    (pp. 499-502)
  13. INDEX OF POETS AND FIRST LINES
    (pp. 503-510)
  14. SUBJECT INDEX
    (pp. 511-522)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 523-523)